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How Jogging Will Help You Lose 10 Pounds

(category: Health-Fitness, Word count: 89)
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In February, you gained 2 pounds from gobbling down chocolates during Valentine's Day. No big deal, you think. Then June comes and surrounds you with all-you-can-eat ice cream sundaes. You gain 3.5 pounds, take a deep breath, and forget about your weight.

Next, in November, you celebrate a certain holiday with family, where you can't resist Mom's buttery mashed potatoes and Grandma's cherry pie. Oh no! The scale shows you've gained a total of 10 pounds this year. Your eyes widen

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Another Increase In Health Premiums

(category: Health-Fitness, Word count: 327)
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The health industry's main lobbying group, America's Health Insurance Plans, reports that medical premiums increased 8.8% between 2004 and 2005. The lobbying group claims this is good news since the actual premium rate of growth has continued to slow from a rate of more than 13% in 2002. The increase in health premiums is reportedly most likely due to the increased use of doctor and hospital services.

The accounting firm, PriceWaterhouseCoopers, reports that just 14% of the increase had to do with administration or marketing costs or higher insurance profits. According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, an average health care plan obtained through an employer in 2005 approached $11,000. The average annual cost for the worker was approximately $3,500 plus deductibles and co-pays.

Employers are currently shifting more and more of the health care costs to their employees. Studies show that employers decreased health care spending by 1.3%, while employees increased spending by 5.5%. "What we're aware of is that health care costs," says Judy Feder, PhD, dean of the Public Policy Institute at Georgetown University, "even when they slow down, are still outpacing peoples' income and ability to pay."

The trend of increasing costs of health care does not seem to be slowing down. With baby boomers now into their sixties, these costs will certainly continue to rise. Health care costs are taking a larger chunk out of everyone's budget.

Prescription drugs price increases are outpacing the growing medical premiums by almost two-fold. Controlling drug costs is one of the simplest ways to lower overall health care spending. Using generics as often as possible, utilizing less expensive over the counter medication, and shopping around for lower prices are three quick and easy ways to lower these costs. Even small savings, done over and over, will soon add up to a significant reduction in your expenses at the pharmacy.

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Schools Biggest Threat

(category: Health-Fitness, Word count: 883)
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What do W.R. Myers High School, Heritage High School, Columbine High School and Virginia Tech, have in common aside from being academic institutions? Do the names Todd Cameron Smith, Thomas Solomon Jr., Eric Harris, Dylan Klebold and Cho Seung-Hui sound familiar? What is the common factor among those persons mentioned earlier? Why is it important to talk about their situation? This is basically what this article is all about. The relationship among those questions posted initially will be shown as the answers are revealed one by one.

Schools are considered by most parents as their children's second home. This may be because most students actually spend more time in school than at home. These institutions are also known as places of learning and it is of great importance that the atmosphere and condition in these places are conducive for such undertaking. Also, most parents expect their children to be safe and secure in school. However, the situations in W.R. Myers High School, Heritage High School, Columbine High School and Virginia Tech during 4 fateful days were far from being conducive for learning. It was on 28 April 1999, 20 May 1999, 20 April 1999 and 16 April 2007 when several students were killed during school shootings at W.R. Myers High, Heritage high, Columbine High and Virginia Tech, respectively. These tragedies are just four of the several school shootings that have happened in the United States since 1966. Because of the increasing incidence of this type of crime, law enforcers, parents, teachers, and other concerned citizens are now taking action to come up with a solution for this problem.

Todd Cameron Smith killed one student and injured two others at W.R. Myers High School when he was just 14 years old. Thomas Solomon Jr. was a 15-year-old sophomore at Heritage High School when he brought a rifle and a handgun to school and randomly shot and injured six students. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold were both students at Columbine High School when they bombed their school cafeteria, killed 12 students and a teacher, and injured 24 others before committing suicide. Cho Seung-Hui was a 23-year-old senior at Virginia Tech when he killed 32 students and injured a lot more before also committing suicide. All five students are said to have experienced being bullied in their respective schools, thus, partly being the cause of those students' anxiety problems or depression. Also, their aggression towards others resulting to crimes committed may also be partly attributed to their depression and the experience of bullying.

In 1998, the National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) conducted a survey on bullying among 15,686 6th to 10th grades students all over America. The survey showed that 30% of those students who participated have either experienced being a bully, had been victims of bullying or both. From the survey, it was further determined that nationwide, 3.2 million kids or teenagers were being bullied while 3.7 million others are bullies. Another study done by NICHD correlated the act of bullying and of being bullied with depressive and suicidal tendencies among those who have experienced it. The study indicated that "frequently, bullied kids are more depressed and suicidal." Figures also reflected that among those who took part in the survey and had experienced being bullied, 26% of girls and 16% of boys have moderate to severe depression while eight percent (8%) of girls and four percent (4%) of boys are suicidal. Though it is said that bullies have higher tendencies to commit crimes, the profile of most attackers in school shootings are mostly those of the victims of bullying. This is supported by a study also done by NICHD which stated that "those who have both experienced being bullied and being bullies may be more at-risk and more dangerous."

Various preventive measures have been promoted in response to the school shootings that have occurred over the past few years. Security within schools have been improved which included stricter screening of students who could possibly be carrying illegal firearms or weapons into campus. However, organizations such as Fight Crime: Invest In Kids and the US Secret Service suggest that getting to the root of the problem rather than just mere physical security will provide the best solution to address the serious situation. Considering that these school shootings somehow resulted from distress in school caused by bullying, efforts should also be directed to setting up programs that would prevent these types of negative or destructive behavior among students. Nowadays, there are already existing anti-bullying and anti-aggression programs such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program which is implemented in the US and in other countries. These programs aim to increase awareness about bullying among parents, teachers and students; create rules in school that prevent bullying; provide positive consequences for those who avoid; and negative consequences for those who engage in bullying.

Through these preventive measures and awareness programs, both government and non-governments organizations, as well as numerous concerned citizens, hope to avoid another Columbine or Virginia Tech incident. It is also a way of keeping the image of schools as institutions for learning with assurance of safety and security. Preventing the incidence of bullying not only answers problems with depression among the youth but also decreases the rise in youth crimes.

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Personal Hydration Systems Finding A Personal Hydration System Is Easy And Convenient

(category: Health-Fitness, Word count: 592)
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For all you athletes and adventure seekers that require personal hydration systems to keep hydrated during your sports event and favourite outdoor activity, hydrating yourself couldn't be any easier and convenient!

The days of clumsy water bottles and canteens are a thing of the past, and with technology taking us into the new millennium, this season in 2006 will be the year of the hydration packs and convenient waist pack systems.

Whether your sport may be cycling, climbing, hunting, or mountain trekking, there is one thing you must do at all times, and that's keeping your body full of necessary fluids so you don't experience any sudden dehydration. Prior to the hydration bag, you had to find a place to carry a water bottle, and I can't imagine anyone carrying a bulky canteen that you only see in old western and war movies!

The fact that many athletes bring with them some sort of backpack or waist pack, would only make sense that the next option would be a combination of pack and water system. The backpacks that contain a reservoir with a convenient flow tube for the easy stream of water is the best logical way to access fresh cool liquid without having to dig around for the bottle, and when you finally find it, the water's warm and tastes horrible.

Hydration Systems Quench Your Thirst With Convenience and Comfort!

The features and benefits in a hydration pack system are plentiful, and you can find the right hydration product that can fit anyone's activity level. Many of the bag manufacturers are listening to your athletic needs, and with athletes and outdoor enthusiasts providing the necessary feedback, hydration backpacks and waistpacks are being developed in many tailored models and unique styles.

Many of the bags are specially designed to contour the shape of your body, and they have extra padded straps for comfort, and additional sternum straps for the safety of your lower back as well.

The packs come in all sizes and functions, and depending on the level of your activity, you can easily find a pack system with the internal water bladder system that can carry from 30 to well over 100 ounces of water. The construction includes many details such as insulated hoses for prevention of freezing in the winter, and other uniquely designed components that allow your fresh water stay cool for hours during hot summer days!

Having a drinking system that can adapt to your sport or activity is important, and when you can enjoy every hour you spend outdoors, without having to worry where to find your next source of H2O is the reason these hydration pack systems were created in the first place. Runners can take advantage of the waist pack system, where you actually sip on your water through the extended valve tube, so while you're running you don't have to fumble for a water bottle, which can easily take your attention away from the path or road, and avoid any injury.

Whether you're taking your activity to the backcountry, or you decide to be part of a city biking excursion, having the right hydration gear will allow you to enjoy every minute without having to worry about finding quality drinking water. Having a source of necessary fluids is the key to keeping your body fully hydrated, and when your body's hydration level is at its peak, you will be pleased that you made the decision to obtain a quality drinking system.

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Lasik A Cure For Blurry Vision

(category: Health-Fitness, Word count: 337)
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Presbyopia is an eye disorder that normally sets in between the ages of 40-50. A lot many theories have been suggested to delineate its proper cause. However, the most convincing theory is that the eye lens loses its elasticity over time, and this in turn results in the loss of accommodation power of the lens. Consequently, the lens is unable to focus on nearby objects, and hence the patient's near vision is rather blurry. Presbyopia affects everyone at a certain age and it is not routinely curable.

The loss of accommodation power can be compensated for through LASIK surgery by producing what's called "monovision". Normally, people possess binocular vision. That is, both eyes work together equally while viewing an object. On the other hand, in case of monovision, one eye is corrected for near vision and the other is corrected for distant vision. LASIK surgeons make use of this technique to counter presbyopia.

LASIK can be a viable option for producing monovision. However, there is a caveat. Monovision is not appropriate for everyone. Furthermore, monovision may also interfere with depth perception. That is, the patient may not be able to perceive the accurate distance of any object, since accurate 3D perception requires input from both eyes. Therefore, it is recommended that the patient first uses contact lenses to produce monovision, in order to ensure that he or she can adapt to the change. Apart from surgery, a patient may use prescription glasses (bifocal or progressive) to compensate for the loss of power of accommodation.

Intraocular lens implant is another viable alternative to counter presbyopia. In essence, the natural lens is replaced with a new lens to achieve accurate refraction. Another interesting aspect is that presbyopia may not have a major affect on people with myopia. In general, a myopic does not have trouble reading without glasses. Thus a myopic often possesses perfect reading vision, without any visual aid, even in the old age and even after presbyopia sets in.

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Some Preliminaries For Getting Flu Shot 2005

(category: Health-Fitness, Word count: 356)
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Well the time is here to get your flu shot 2005. So without wasting any time you should first get going to your doctor's clinic and make yourself free from symptoms and trouble of coming flu season. The flu is sited already, and must do get your shot before there a shortage of flu short 2005.

Well you should do some preliminary things before you take your flu short 2005. Not each one will be able to take the flu short 2005 and it might be possible that you are one of them. You should first make this clear before you go to get your flu short 2005.

If you took the flu short previously but was not beneficial then you should not go for it again, in particular if you had severe reaction last time. Even if you are allergic to eggs or have a history of Guillain - Barre syndrome then it would be better to not take the flu short 2005. Nevertheless, if you have been sick recently and are still sick at the time of taking flu short 2005, better not take the flu short 2005 as it wont make any better. First, you should find the solution for your current sickness and then go for the flu short 2005.

Obviously, the flu short 2005 will be more effective that flu short 2004 because of added strains that are being immunized. Year to year the flu short gets better. The scientists have different methods with which they can envisage which strains are going to be more prevailing that year and this year the ones that they prefer are included in the flu short 2005.

Taking flu short 2005 is a way making you and your family safe and healthy from the flu. We listen about flu all the time but we do not often appreciate the dangers that the flu causes. There are ample those who trust the flu short 2005 is the only standing between you and the flu this year. So please better go get your flu short 2005 as soon as possible.

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Get Ripped Abs By Doing Basic Strenght Training

(category: Health-Fitness, Word count: 678)
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The best way to get hard ripped abs is by doing some strenght training. Increasing your cores strenght has many benefits and strenght training is the most important in this case.

Strength training is not running on a treadmill, riding a stationary bike, or using an elliptical machine. Although those types of aerobic machines use "resistance" to increase your workout intensity,

it's not the same as strength training. Strength training is structured according to different goals throughout the season, just as training is structured around key races.

Strength training is a fancy way of describing the process of building muscle power by lifting free weights or working out against resistance, by using equipment like Nautilus or Universal machines

or by working against large elastic bands. While "aerobics" was the exercise catchword of the 1970's and 80's, strength training is the trend of the 1990's, hailed as a critically important

complement to aerobics in a total fitness program.

Strength training is linked to high bone mineral density in adults of all ages and both sexes. Osteoporosis is a type of skeletal deterioration, characterized by decreasing bone density that weakens

the bone structure (Graves and Franklin 2001). Strength training is performing a lift for several repetitions, 10-20 generally is recommended for children. There is such a high level of concentration

for weightlifting that the chance of injury outweighs any potential benefit.

Strength training is a great way to spice things up and add a completely different challenge to your body. The nice thing about strength training is that it offers so many ways to set up your workouts.

there's always something new to try and you never run out of new exercises, different types of resistance, new routines and a variety of ways to work your body. Strength training is any exercise you do

against some kind of resistance. This resistance can be machines, free weights, tubing or your own body weight. It is essential for optimal health, fitness, and function; this is especially true in the

over-50 audience. The challenge is in making strength training safe, sensible, and effective, given the specific needs of this market segment.

Strength training is the practice of using free weights, weight machines, and rubber resistance bands to build muscles. With resistance the muscles have to work extra hard to move. Strength training

is done FIRST (following the warm-up) on days when you do both strength and cardio training. This will optimize the hormonal response that maximizes your body's ability to build and develop muscle.

Strength training is primarily an anaerobic activity, although some proponents have adapted it to provide the benefits of aerobic exercise through circuit training.

Strength training differs from bodybuilding, weightlifting, power lifting and strongman, which are sports rather than forms of exercise.

Strength training is a great way to improve strength, endurance, and muscle tone. But remember to start slowly, use proper form, avoid heavy weights, and increase workouts gradually to prevent injury.

Strength training is important for cardiac health because heart disease risk is lower when the body is leaner. One study found that cardiac patients gained not only strength and flexibility but also

aerobic capacity when they did strength training three times a week as part of their rehabilitation program. Strength training is critical for combating frailty and disability, for increasing strength

and mobility, for staying active and self-sufficient. Research has consistently shown the fitness and health benefits of strength training for older adults.

Strength training is physical activity intended to increase muscle strength and mass. Adults who engage in strength training are less likely to experience loss of muscle mass ( 1 ), functional

decline ( 2 ), and fall-related injuries than adults who do not strength train ( 3 ). Strength training is not just for male bodybuilders and competitive athletes. It is for everyone and yields many

benefits to the human body, internally and externally.

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Identifying The Types Of Sleeping Disorder

(category: Health-Fitness, Word count: 518)
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Sleep is one of the most essential ways to maintain a sound and normal health and lifestyle. Sleeping helps in keeping the body fit and healthy. However, sleep is not always normal for most people worldwide. In the United States alone, more than 50 million people suffer from different types of sleeping disorders every year. Although the number of sufferers continues to grow each year, medical experts and scientists do not really fully comprehend this type of physiological condition.

A normal amount of sleep varies according to a person's needs, that also depend on a number of factors such as age. Babies are the ones who require the longest hours for sleeping, averaging from 16 to 18 hours of sleep. Adults, on the other hand, need seven to eight hours of sleep a day. According to the most recent sleep studies, adults who are over 60 years of age are the ones who are diagnosed to have sleeping disorders.

Today, there are nearly 70 types of sleeping disorders that are generally defined into three categories:

1. Disturbed sleep

2. Excessive sleep

3. Lack of sleep

Most sleep disorders are easily treated by means of various medical treatments if conditions are diagnosed correspondingly. Once a diagnosis is given by a doctor, the condition may be categorized either of the three types mentioned above.

1. Disturbed sleep

A disturbed sleeping condition is related to obstructive sleep apnea, which is known as an interrupted mode of breathing while an individual sleeps. This condition, which mostly triggers adults, may occur due to respiratory or neurological disorders. An individual diagnosed with this condition experiences loud snoring, thus, appearing that he or she is gasping for air. Apart from complications at the nasal passages, the obstructive sleep apnea may also occur due to obesity, alcoholism, and enlarged tonsils.

In sleep apnea, the sleeping cycle is disturbed or interrupted because the person needs to wake up at least 100 times each night to abate the muscles and resume breathing. As the amount of oxygen in the brain decreases, morning problems like headache may eventually occur. People who suffer from this sleep disorder are also susceptible to stroke and heart disease.

2. Excessive sleep

Narcolepsy is the most common condition under the excessive sleep disorder. In this condition, a person tends to have uncontrollable sleep patterns. The duration of abrupt sleep ranges from minutes to hours. Sleep attacks anytime, anywhere, thus, affecting an individual's everyday activities, for he or she can fall asleep even while working.

Generally regarded as an inherited sleeping disorder, narcolepsy is also accounted to neurological and brain diseases. People who suffer from this sleeping disorder tend to tire easily and have hallucinations.

Insomnia is a common sleeping disorder that is defined as the inability to fall asleep. This condition is experienced by most individuals at some point in their lives. As insomnia significantly affects a person's life, this condition generally results to stress, unbalanced diet, and emotional issues as sufferers worry and obsess about not getting enough amount of sleep.

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Using Probability In Medical Diagnosis A Headache Example

(category: Health-Fitness, Word count: 904)
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Experienced clinicians begin the process of making a diagnosis upon first laying eyes on a patient, and probability is one of the main tools they use in this process. A glimpse "behind the scenes" from the point of view of a diagnosing physician might help to explain an otherwise mysterious process.

The diagnostic process can begin even before laying eyes on the patient. As an exercise (and to prove a point) I ask medical students who are with me in the office to diagnose the patient we haven't seen yet who is still in the waiting room. Of course, they look at me like I'm crazy. But I tell them that we already know a lot about the patient and can make some educated guesses. For example, we might already know that the patient is a 34-year-old woman referred by a family doctor because of headaches.

So what have other women in their thirties referred to me for headaches ended up having as their diagnosis? In my neurology practice, as well as in those of most other headache specialists, about a third (33%) have migraine, another third have medication-overuse headaches (in which the treatment has become the problem instead of its solution), and the remaining third fall into an "everything else" category that includes tension-type headaches, arthritis of the neck or jaw-joints, sinus disease, tumors, etc. So before seeing the patient I'm already able to identify the two most likely diagnoses and assign an initial probability for each.

These starting-point likelihoods are called "anchor" probabilities. During the subsequent history, examination and supplemental testing (if necessary) the anchor probabilities will undergo a series of upward and downward adjustments according to what the patient has to say and what does or does not turn up on her physical examination and testing. The physician individualizes the questions asked and items examined so that the outcome of each query forces one diagnosis to be more likely and another to be less likely. Thus, diagnosis is a dynamic and sequential process.

We invite the woman into the examining room and listen to her story. In the headache example given, one key piece of data is how many days per month she takes an as-needed medication - for example, aspirin, acetaminophen or a prescription drug. If she takes as-needed medicine more days than not and has been doing so for a matter of months, then the initial 33% anchor probability of medication-overuse headaches gets adjusted upward and the initial anchor probability of uncomplicated migraine moves downward. This, of course, is just a single distinguishing feature, and cannot be relied upon to tell the whole story. The physician gathers many such data points to refine the diagnosis.

The physical examination provides another source of facts to distinguish among still-viable possibilities. If my patient has migraine or medication-overuse headaches, she might have tender muscles in her scalp and neck but should not have a blind spot in her visual fields, slurring of her speech or clumsiness on just one side of her body. These findings, if present, would cause the probabilities of migraine and medication overuse headaches to be revised downward. By contrast, the probability of a brain disease - like a tumor, for example - that started with a low anchor probability would get revised upwards.

If a blood test or a scan is ordered, it is again with the idea that the test has been individualized to discriminate between competing diagnoses and re-adjust their relative probabilities.

There is an important principal in medical diagnosis called Bayes' theorem. In a nutshell, Bayes' theorem states that the probability of a diagnosis after a new fact is added depends on what its probability was before the new fact was added. Another way of saying this is that the same "yes" answer on history-gathering, reflex result on physical exam or dark spot on an MRI scan has different implications in different people. The meaning of each depends on its context. Yet another implication of Bayes' theorem is that one can't skip past the history and examination by ordering a test in isolation and expect it to make an accurate diagnosis. A test is an answer to a question. If there was no question, how could the test be an answer?

Let's say that at a particular point in time we have completed the diagnostic process for a patient. Then what? By the end of the diagnostic process the doctor might have a diagnosis that is nearly 100% likely, but in other cases, the working diagnosis (number one choice) might still be just 70% or 80% probable, with a number two choice less likely, but still on the radar screen. It might make some patients uncomfortable to realize that the diagnostic process does not lead to 100% certainty in every case, but a doctor wouldn't be doing a patient any favors by pushing the analysis past the outcome that the available information leads to.

When a diagnosis is not 100% likely at the time of initial evaluation, the patient's course of symptoms over time provides yet another form of data that can lead to revision of diagnostic probabilities. Fortunately, in cases involving uncertainty, even just narrowing down the list of diagnoses to a small number of concrete alternatives allows the doctor and patient to discuss reasonable options and make sensible choices.

(C) 2005 by Gary Cordingley

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