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Is Dish Tv A Valuable Alternative

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Are features offered by Dish TV making its Satellite TV service a valuable alternative? With interactive tools, guides, and myriad options made available to every subscriber, the offerings made by Dish TV cannot be surpassed. Moreover, the affordability of Dish TV's services seems almost criminal when one considers all of the incredible options made available to them with Dish TV's amazing features! In fact, it is no surprise that Dish TV has been deemed the number one Satellite TV company in terms of customer service by J.D. Power and Associates.

First, Dish TV provides a Satellite TV installation screen that puts the subscriber in control of the installation process. A Dish TV subscriber can change satellite transponders, and detect the strength of their satellite signal with a satellite signal meter. Moreover, the satellite signal meter is accompanied by a special audio sound that lets the subscriber know when they have aligned their Satellite TV dish properly

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A Bird S Eye View Of Wolves

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Wolves are a widely studied species in Yellowstone. Since wolves were reintroduced to the park after an absence of almost 80 years, scientists spend a lot of time studying the animals' unique behavior.

"Our knowledge of wolves is vast due to decades of research around the world," said Tom Oliff, chief of natural resources. "The ability to oversee wolves in the wild has been challenging and the knowledge gained through direct observations of behavior is invaluable to understanding the species."

The best way to study wolf movement is from the air. The Raven's Eye View of Yellowstone is a component of the Aerial Eyes project that is supported by Yellowstone Park Foundation ( in cooperation with Canon U.S.A. The Eyes on Yellowstone program is made possible by Canon; it provides funding and digital technology to support an array of park resource management and education programs.

Using a Canon EOS 20D digital camera body with a 100-400EF lens (f 4.5-5.6) as a scientific tool, wolf biologists Doug Smith and Dan Stahler are changing the way quantitative and qualitative wolf data are gathered and studied.

The scientists have documented various behavior-from hunting prey, to raising pups, to interacting with various species throughout the park. The details, however, remain difficult to see with the naked eye, particularly when using the routine monitoring technique of aerial radio tracking from fixed-wing aircraft flying high overhead.

The digital equipment has helped revolutionize this research. High-resolution digital photographs that can be taken several hundred feet above ground and later enhanced have, in a short time, opened new windows to studying wolf ecology and behavior.

"This is a major breakthrough for wolf research, providing first-of-its-kind results," said Stahler. "Of particular value is the identification of individual wolves and the role each plays in the pack while engaged in different activities. Determining the presence and number of pups in a litter, or whether or not a certain member of the pack is still alive, can now be readily discernable through studying photographs taken with quality digital camera equipment."

Digital photography has changed science, and it has allowed Yellowstone scientists to gather data never obtained by any other wolf research project. The combination of digital imaging and enhanced lens quality are key scientific tools to help study and understand wolves.

A pack of wolves in Yellowstone is monitored by aircraft equipped with cameras.

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Life Of Leonardo Da Vinci

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Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, cartographer, engineer, scientist and inventor in the 15th century. Yet, despite his genius, he referred to himself as "senza lettere" (the illiterate, the man without letters). For good reason: until late in life, he was unable to read, or write, Latin, the language used by virtually all other Renaissance intellectuals, the lingua franca, akin to English today. Nor was he acquainted with mathematics until he was 30.

Leonardo was born out of wedlock but was raised by his real father, a wealthy Florentine notary. He served at least ten years (1466-1476) as Garzone (apprentice) to Andrea del Verrocchio and painted details in Verrocchio's canvasses. Only in 1478, when he was 26, did he become independent.

He was not off to an auspicious start. He never executed his first commission (an altarpiece in the chapel of the Palazzo Vecchio della Signoria, Florence's town hall). His first large paintings were left unfinished ("The Adoration of the Magi" and "Saint Jerome", both 1481).

Most of the sketches and studies for Leonardo's works of art and engineering are found on his shopping lists, personal notes, and personal expenditure ledgers.

No one was allowed to enter Leonardo's den, where he kept, as Giorgio Vasari in "Lives of the Artists", describes: "a number of green and other kinds of lizards, crickets, serpents, butterflies, locusts, hats, and various strange creatures of this nature".

Leonardo's clients were often dissatisfied with his glacial pace, lack of professional discipline, and inability to conclude his assignments. He was frequently involved in litigation. The Cofraternity of the Immaculate Conception sued him when he failed to produce the Virgin on the Rocks, an altarpiece they commissioned from him in 1483. The court proceedings lasted 10 years. The head of Jesus in "The Last Supper" was left blank because Leonardo did not dare to paint a human model, nor did he trust his imagination sufficiently. Leonardo worked four years on the Mona Lisa but never completed it, either. He carried it with him wherever he went.

Leonardo's terra cota model for a colossal bronze sculpture of the father of his benefactor and employer, Ludovico Sforza, was used for target practice by invading French soldiers in 1499. The metal which was supposed to go into this work of art was molded into cannon balls.

Leonardo was a member of the commission which deliberated where to place Michelangelo's magnificent statue of David. His cartographic work was so ahead of its time, that the express highway from Florence to the sea - built in the 20th century - follows precisely the route of a canal he envisioned. His scientific investigations - in anatomy, hydraulics, mechanics, ornithology, botany - are considered valuable to this very day. Bill Gates owns some his notebooks containing scientific data and observations (known as the Codex Hammer).

But Leonardo's loyalties were fickle. He switched sides to the conquering French and in 1506 returned to Milan to work for its French governor, Charles D'Amboise. Later, he became court painter for King Louis XII of France who, at the time, resided in Milan. In 1516, he relocated to France, to serve King Francis I and there he died.

Leonardo summed up the lessons of his art in a series of missives to his students, probably in Milan. These were later (1542) collected by his close associate, Francesco Melzi, as "A Treatise on Painting" and published in print (1651, 1817).

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Increasing Applications Of Micro Bubbles

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There have been a lot of research studies on micro bubbles in recent years.

Micro bubbles are miniature gas bubbles of less than 50 microns diameter in water. The micro bubbles, which mostly contain oxygen or air, can remain suspended in the water for an extended period. Gradually, the gas within the micro bubbles dissolves into the water and the bubbles disappear. These bubbles are generated by various types of aerators now available in the market.

These micro bubbles, being of extremely small size, are characterized by having electrical charges. They attract suspended floating particles very effectively. This particular property has been used in sludge treatment by using the micro bubbles to capture and float organic matters, thus decreasing the time required for the sludge treatment.

Micro bubbles have also been introduced by the Japanese to market safe and good tasting oysters. Micro bubbles of concentrated oxygen containing about 2% ozone can be used to inactivate norovirus in shellfish and oysters. This norovirus is one of the major pathogens causing food poisoning in winter. This is a much more cost effective method compared to cultivating the oysters in sterile seawater and using chlorine-based germicide.

Another emergent usage of micro bubbles is in the areas of cancer treatment. Scientists are in the process of developing a method of diagnosing cancer lesions by injecting micro bubbles into the blood stream. During the ultrasonic scan for cancer lesions, the micro bubbles contract and expand rapidly due to the pressures produced by the ultrasonic beam. Groups of the micro bubbles at cancerous tumours will show up very visibly on ultrasonic scans to indicate the presence of cancerous cells.

Due to their large surface area volume ratio, micro bubbles can penetrate deeply into a surface for effective cleaning. This cleaning effect of micro bubbles is used in cleaning the inside of vegetables such as cabbage and radish sprout, as well as maintenance of freshness with vegetables in one particular vegetable processing center in Japan.

On a more personal level, the micro bubbles can penetrate deeply into skin for a good scrub without the need for any shampoo or soap. This skin treatment has been introduced within some spas in Japan as well as shops specializing in bathing pets. Needless to say, the baths are especially helpful for pets which have skin allergies to pet shampoos.

Suwa companies are also developing a small handy micro bubble generator which can be used at home. With all the product development going on, very soon, you may be able to purchase a micro bubble generator at your electronics store and relax in a micro bubble bath at home.

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What Is The Element Molybdenum Used For

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Molybdenum is from the Greek word molybdos meaning "lead like." It is directly mined and is a byproduct of copper mining. It was used very infrequently up until the 19th century when Schneider and Co decided to use Molybdenum as an alloying agent in steel. Today there are many uses of molybdenum.

Molybdenum is still used as an alloy agent in steel. All high strength steel contains from .25% to 8% molybdenum which contributes to the hardenability of the steel. It also improves the strength of steel under high temperatures and improves resistance to corrosion.

Steel with molybdenum is used in architectural applications near the ocean; and in environments where road salts are used and there is heavy industrial pollution. The Petrons Towers in Kuala Lumpur are a great example of the use of molybdenum stainless steel.

Nuclear energy applications also use molybdenum as do many aircraft parts and missile parts. It's a catalyst in petroleum refining; in fact it is one of the most valuable. It is also used as a filament material in electrical applications and on electrodes for glass furnaces that are electrically heated. It is a good lubricant that will work in temperatures much higher than oil without decomposing.

Its uses are actually more in-depth than one might think. You'll find it commonly used within the power industry, chemical processing industry, water industry, and wastewater industry. It is also used in construction, building, and architecture; which one might have guessed considering its association to steel. And you will find it in the food industry which seems a bit unusual.

Molybdenum is used to harden and strengthen cast iron. It accomplishes this by changing the pearlite temperature. The use of molybdenum eliminates the need for special heat treatments.

Molybdenum is also used in nickel based alloys, which includes jet engines. It strengthens the nickel alloy and extends the service temperature. This combination is considered a super alloy. Over 1/3 of a jet engine's weight is made up of this super alloy.

Molybdenum is a silvery white metal that is very hard. However it is more ductile and softer than tungsten. It has a very high melting point. In fact the only other two metals that have a higher melting point are tantalum and tungsten. Its prime use is in the hardenability and tempering of metals such as steel. It is not a product most of us will ever have direct involvement with but we will likely encounter it in a more subtle manner.

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Cassini Confirms Enceladus Plume Responsible For E Ring Of Saturn

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The Cassini-Huygens exploration of Saturn, a seven-year joint venture of NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency, is realizing more surprising discoveries. In addition to discovering that Cassini is geologically active in contrast to its nearby neighbor Mimas, Cassini has now proven that it is Enceladus indeed that is responsible for the E ring of Saturn. The E ring of Saturn is Saturn's broadest, faintest ring.

Enceladus is a small moon 314 miles across that so bright it reflects nearly one hundred percent of its heat. For this reason, it is a very cold moon, with a temperature of near minus 330 degrees Fahrenheit. Its orbit is influenced under the large gravitational pull of Saturn as well as the gravitational influence of large nearby moons Tethys and Dione. Previous voyages by Voyager as well as Cassini have shown it to be a moon having sharp geological contrasts over its surface for a moon of such small size.

It has long been speculated that Enceladus has somehow been responsible for the E ring of Saturn. An ice particle stream propelled by water vapor was first detected through the use of the High Rate Detector (HRD) of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) on Cassini's approach of 286 miles in July. However it was not confirmed until November 26, 2005 when Cassini made the closest approach of any of Saturn's moons yet. This orbit of 109 miles used infrared detection to confirm the ejection of ice particles in a plume from the south pole.

This plume of ice particles confirms a theory proposed that Enceladus is a source of the fine ice particles responsible for making up one of Saturn's rings, the E ring. The E ring is composed of ice particles near the 3 micron range. The average size of particles emitted by Enceladus is in the 10 micron range. However, this theory is still consistent because the largest particles are believed to be too large to escape the moon's gravity. The medium-sized particles probably leave the atmosphere but are pulled back before fully escaping. Only the finest, tiniest particles of the plume make it out to form the E ring.

Enceladus is very similar to a comet in the way it ejects ice particles. The difference lies in the fact that in a comet the ice is warmed by sunlight. The source of Enceladus's heat is largely unknown. Some sort of internal mechanism, possibly a tidal force or a radioactive mechanism, is creating an enormous amount of heat for such a small moon. This is the wonderful unsolved mystery behind Enceladus, and the ultimate reason for the existence of Saturn's E ring.

1)Enceladus Erupting - A Nasa Report - 12-7-05

2)Enceladus Plume - Jet Propulsion Laboratory - 12-6-05

3)Possible Source of E Ring - Bill Arnett - 2-17-05

4)Saturn: Moons: Enceladus - Nasa: Solar Systems Exploration - 10-6-03

5)Enceladus's Tiger Stripes are Really Cubs - Nasa Release

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Ranting And Raving About Renewable Energy

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Renewable energy is not a new concept. While it may appear to be a rather fashionable topic of conversation in certain circles, renewable energy initiatives have been with us since the dawn of man. There is some debate about the accepted definition of renewable energy, but it can be loosely defined as a form of energy that is essentially inexhaustible. Furthermore, the resource is continually replenished by various natural processes identifiable in the natural world.

One key distinction to make when discussing the concept of renewable energy is that of sustainability. One could make the argument that, in the long term, fossil fuels are a renewable energy resource. While the logic stands on its own, this is a failed notion. The central difference between fossil fuels and other forms of renewable energy is that fossil fuels are being depleted at a rate faster than they can be replenished. For this reason, fossil fuels cannot be considered truly renewable. They are simply not sustainable, due to the accelerated rate of consumption.

Some of the more popular renewable energy resources include sunshine, water, and wind. Solar energy refers to the energy that is collected from sunlight. This form of energy is captured using a photovoltaic array, more commonly known as a solar panel. The solar radiation is captured by the photovoltaic array and converted to direct current (DC) electricity. From there, the direct current electricity must be converted to alternating current (AC) for use in most applications. The converted electricity is then stored in a battery for use at a later date.

There are also various forms of energy that exist in water. One of the most commonly acknowledged is that of hydroelectric energy, but there are a number of others including tidal power and ocean thermal energy conversion. Hydroelectric energy generally employs the use of a dam, wherein the energy of the water flow is captured and used to power a turbine. The turbine then generates a supplementary form of electricity. Tidal power attempts to make use of the natural energy potential of tidal activity in the oceans and seas. In simple terms, the high tide is captured and fed through a turbine to generate electricity. Ocean thermal energy conversion attempts to exploit the variances in water temperature, from the warmer surface water to the cooler deep water, resulting in a cyclic heat engine.

Wind power is one of the oldest accepted forms of renewable energy. It has been used for centuries as a source of power, dating back to the creation of the sailboat. The innate potential of wind power was realized a number of years later in the form of a wind mill. In this instance, the kinetic energy of wind is used to drive a turbine which, in turn, generates electricity. Wind energy possesses immense potential for sustainable energy generation, and a number of large-scale development projects are currently underway throughout the world.

One of the greatest challenges facing humanity is to discover a way to reduce our reliance on unsustainable resources, like fossil fuels. Most, if not all, modern industrial societies rely far too greatly on fossil fuels and increasingly, this is becoming an undeniable reality. Wars of conquest are being waged to secure what is left of the world's oil reserves. If only the resources of the powerful nations were channeled into developing sustainable energy alternatives, as opposed to driving a war machine bent on dominating the oil markets. Our modern way of life is going to undergo some difficult times in the very near future, if this reality continues to be ignored. Ask yourself what you can do to make a difference. You might be surprised at what you can accomplish.

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Producing Energy From Geothermal Resources

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Geothermal energy is a platform tapping the inherent energy found within the Earth. Her is an overview of how the process works from a practical perspective.

Producing Energy From Geothermal Resources

There are several types of energy used in the world that are considered eco-friendly. These energy types include solar, which harnesses the power of the sun, and hydroelectric, which uses the power of water to generate electricity. One often neglected ecologically sound energy source that should be grouped with the others is geothermal energy. Geothermal energy involves using the Earth's own heat to create energy and warmth to be used by people.

Geothermal energy is so named because it derives from the Greek words for "earth heat", "geo" and "therme". Extreme amounts of heat are generated in the Earth's core, which reaches temperatures of up to 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The Earth's core then transfers heat to the mantle, a crust of rock surrounding the core. This rock liquefies due to the intense heat becoming magma (molten rock). In this magma layer, water collects in columns or reserves. This trapped water, which can be heated to temperatures of about 700 degrees Fahrenheit, is known as a geothermal reservoir. When engineers want to use geothermal energy, they "tap" in to this geothermal water and use the resulting hot water and steam for various purposes.

Geothermal energy plants work by using the steam resulting from tapping into the geothermal water reservoirs to power turbines. These turbines spin producing electricity which can then be used to power industries or even residential areas. The first geothermically engineered power plant was built in Italy in 1904.

These days, roughly 7000 megawatts of electricity is produced by geothermal power plants per year. Geothermal power plants are located in 21 countries throughout the world. In the United States alone, enough geothermal power is generated per year to be the equivalent to the burning of 60 million barrels of oil, to wit, geothermal energy is a major source of power.

Geothermal energy has been used by cultures throughout history for thousands of years. The process used to harness geothermal energy has always been relatively simple compared to that of other energy processes, and the components used are familiar to everyone. The concept of using super hot water from the Earth's magma layers may seem high tech, but once you have tapped into this resource, it is easy to maintain and use as a continual power source.

The best analogy for geothermal energy production is another alternative energy source. It works in the same way as hydropower. Water is used to spin turbines which produce electricity. In the case of geothermal energy, however, the water comes from the internal chambers of the Earth in, most often, the form of steam.

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Smarter Ways To Teach Math

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Schools across the country have found new ways to make math add up for students-and the country's most recent "report card" is showing the results of that hard work.

According to the U.S. Department of Education, a study called the Nation's Report Card, which provides state-by-state educational data, shows across-the-board gains in mathematics. In fact, overall fourth-grade and eighth-grade math scores rose to all-time highs, according to the study. The news comes as many Americans have focussed on ways to help their children improve their math scores in an effort to help ensure that their children have more successful academic and financial futures.

To help, many schools have used new types of technology to teach kids math. For instance, an interactive computer program called Accelerated Math, by Renaissance Learning, Inc., helps educators personalize their lessons to each student in a classroom. The technology prints personalized math practice sheets for students, corrects their work and then reports their results. Detailed reports and record keeping functions give educators a daily snapshot of each student's progress and mastery.

The process makes it easier for teachers to gauge each student's individual strengths and weaknesses and to help kids meet state and federal test requirements.

Accelerated Math content is designed to work with existing math textbooks and is aligned to state standards. Teachers can learn more about how to use Accelerated Math by working with a specialist from the company.

The specialists advise on ways to use classroom-proven routines and best practices associated with the software, as well as ways to get the most time-saving benefits from the technology. For instance, teachers using the software need to grade fewer papers and develop fewer lesson plans, freeing them up to pay more attention to their students.

It's thought such technology can help schools remain competitive in the global academic arena.

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