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Grameen Shakti And The Solar Revolution

(category: Science, Word count: 423)
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Grameen Shakti is a renewable energy resources company based out of Bangladesh. They are a part of the Grameen family of companies, which has been working for decades to alleviate the burdens of poverty in developing countries. The Grameen Bank, one of their founding companies, has become world-renowned for their charitable work and for helping to establish groundbreaking programs focused on the needs of people.

In recent years, the Grameen Bank has financed and supported a number of projects aimed at removing social and financial barriers and creating opportunities for those less fortunate. Grameen Telecom is one such example. The central aim of this company is to provide collateral-free loans to rural villagers for use in establishing local communications networks. This model has become known as the Village Phone.

They have now committed significant resources to sustainable energy development. The cornerstone of this effort is the Photovoltaic Program. In Bangladesh, only 30% of the population is receiving energy from the electrical power grid. In this developing nation, the infrastructure to provide energy to every household simply doesn't exist. In an effort to address this problem, Grameen Shakti has financed the installation of thousands of solar energy systems in rural communities.

This has created immense opportunities for people in rural villages. Children now have the ability to pursue their studies long after the sun has gone down. Businesses now have the ability to operate beyond their traditional work hours, thus increasing productivity and sales. A world of opportunity has opened up for an entire generation of rural villagers. As a consequence, they are no longer rural villagers. They are now members of our global village.

One of the most amazing consequences of this program has been the level of technological engagement that has occurred among the youth in Bangladesh. For young people in rural communities, the future is bright. Due to the advancement in technological knowledge and understanding, the demand for skilled workers has increased at a phenomenal pace. To address this concern, Grameen Shakti has also established training programs that educate young people in the principles of electronics and engineering.

It is both exciting and encouraging to witness the immediate and tangible effects of an enlightened business model that measures its true profitability by its social impact. It is an idea that is completely foreign to the western capitalist mindset, and one that serves as a shining example of the power of an idea. Western corporations take heed; there are lessons to be learned in rural Bangladesh.

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Clean Sources Of Energy To Avoid Contributing To Global Warming

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Many people wonder what they can do to help dampen the effects of the climate crisis. One method of doing so incorporates the usage of 'clean' energy; that is, energy that does not contribute to the levels of greenhouse gas present in our atmosphere. There are several sources of clean energy, and although it may cost more, the benefit on the planet's ecosystem is well worth the extra money. Commonly known as 'green power', the Environmental Protection Agency has formed a partnership to help encourage the usage of these alternative sources of energy.

Wind energy is one option when it comes to renewable power. Large spinning turbines harvest the movement of the air, and the energy is transferred into an electricity generator for usage in any application. While it's not available everywhere, wind energy represents one of the fastest sectors of growth when it comes to alternative power sources, and it is consequently one of the most widely used alternative sources. As a matter of fact, since the year 2000, the number of wind turbines present in the United States has more than doubled!

Solar power is another significant source of renewable energy. Solar cells known as photovoltaics are placed on sun-catching areas such as the roof of a house. These cells turn light energy into electricity, and enough electric panels can provide power for an entire home, leaving you independent of the energy companies altogether.

Geothermal energy represents a source of energy that is not commonly discussed. Heat from underneath the earth's surface is harvested as steam, which helps to spin a turbine much in the way of wind power. The spinning motion is sent to an electricity generator, and the power can be used in any modern application.

Low impact hydropower represents another significant source of renewable energy. Incorporating the use of a turbine, hydropower is created in streams and rivers which produce enough of a force to properly spin the turbines. Many aspects of hydropower need to be approved to ensure that the turbines do not significantly effect wildlife that may be living in the area where the energy is being harvested. Most hydropower sources do not dam a river up; they operate with the river in free-flow as to minimize the effect on the environment.

While these sources may not be easy to come by, your conscience can be unburdened regarding the climate crisis by switching to one of these environmentally friendly sources of energy. Do your part in helping to change our planet for the better!

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An Untapped Source Of Eternal Energy What Is Solar Energy

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The most exact definition of Solar Energy is plainly - "the energy from the sun". It is a term used to classify the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun and intercepted by the Earth. It is the world's most permanent and reliable source of energy and the most copious.

The uses of solar energy on earth include solar heating for buildings, solar heat for manufacturing or industry and electricity production. So what is solar energy? How does it affect us?

Solar energy is responsible for weather systems and ocean currents. It provides light, heat, and energy to all living things on Earth. It has many uses. It supplies electricity; it can be used to power cars.

Solar energy is also used as a power for satellites in space and in space shuttles. It could also power boats, generators during emergencies, toys, and even security systems.

The amount of solar energy that the earth receives is about 770 trillion kilowatts (kW), an amount 5,000 times bigger than the sum of all other energy, may it be terrestrial nuclear energy, geothermal energy or gravitational energy.

There are two types of solar energy. These are:

1. Thermal Energy

2. Electric Energy

What is the difference between the two types energy?

Thermal energy is kinetic energy. It is everywhere. It makes the earth hot and even heats up our homes. It helps us to dry our clothes. It is used as well to heat up water for household use or even pools. That is why thermal energy is called the heat energy because it is stored in the center of the earth as well.

Electric energy is widely known to us as the electricity. It is an essential part of nature and it is one of our most widely used forms of energy. This uses sunlight to power ordinary electrical equipment, such as household appliances, computers, and lighting.

Most applications of solar energy depend on systems including collectors, storage and controls. Storage is needed for a reason that solar energy is only available at daylight hours, but the demand for energy is needed both day and night. Controls are used to guarantee that the storage system works safely and efficiently.

The accessibility of solar energy is determined by three factors:

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Life Of Leonardo Da Vinci

(category: Science, Word count: 579)
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Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, cartographer, engineer, scientist and inventor in the 15th century. Yet, despite his genius, he referred to himself as "senza lettere" (the illiterate, the man without letters). For good reason: until late in life, he was unable to read, or write, Latin, the language used by virtually all other Renaissance intellectuals, the lingua franca, akin to English today. Nor was he acquainted with mathematics until he was 30.

Leonardo was born out of wedlock but was raised by his real father, a wealthy Florentine notary. He served at least ten years (1466-1476) as Garzone (apprentice) to Andrea del Verrocchio and painted details in Verrocchio's canvasses. Only in 1478, when he was 26, did he become independent.

He was not off to an auspicious start. He never executed his first commission (an altarpiece in the chapel of the Palazzo Vecchio della Signoria, Florence's town hall). His first large paintings were left unfinished ("The Adoration of the Magi" and "Saint Jerome", both 1481).

Most of the sketches and studies for Leonardo's works of art and engineering are found on his shopping lists, personal notes, and personal expenditure ledgers.

No one was allowed to enter Leonardo's den, where he kept, as Giorgio Vasari in "Lives of the Artists", describes: "a number of green and other kinds of lizards, crickets, serpents, butterflies, locusts, hats, and various strange creatures of this nature".

Leonardo's clients were often dissatisfied with his glacial pace, lack of professional discipline, and inability to conclude his assignments. He was frequently involved in litigation. The Cofraternity of the Immaculate Conception sued him when he failed to produce the Virgin on the Rocks, an altarpiece they commissioned from him in 1483. The court proceedings lasted 10 years. The head of Jesus in "The Last Supper" was left blank because Leonardo did not dare to paint a human model, nor did he trust his imagination sufficiently. Leonardo worked four years on the Mona Lisa but never completed it, either. He carried it with him wherever he went.

Leonardo's terra cota model for a colossal bronze sculpture of the father of his benefactor and employer, Ludovico Sforza, was used for target practice by invading French soldiers in 1499. The metal which was supposed to go into this work of art was molded into cannon balls.

Leonardo was a member of the commission which deliberated where to place Michelangelo's magnificent statue of David. His cartographic work was so ahead of its time, that the express highway from Florence to the sea - built in the 20th century - follows precisely the route of a canal he envisioned. His scientific investigations - in anatomy, hydraulics, mechanics, ornithology, botany - are considered valuable to this very day. Bill Gates owns some his notebooks containing scientific data and observations (known as the Codex Hammer).

But Leonardo's loyalties were fickle. He switched sides to the conquering French and in 1506 returned to Milan to work for its French governor, Charles D'Amboise. Later, he became court painter for King Louis XII of France who, at the time, resided in Milan. In 1516, he relocated to France, to serve King Francis I and there he died.

Leonardo summed up the lessons of his art in a series of missives to his students, probably in Milan. These were later (1542) collected by his close associate, Francesco Melzi, as "A Treatise on Painting" and published in print (1651, 1817).

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Basic Principles Of Theory Of Evolution

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Evolution theory teaches that survival is for the fittest living organism.

What is life? What is fit? And what does it mean to survive?

Well, there are many definitions of course. A useful definition, in scientific perspective, is the one that allow us to analyze myriads things with fewest principles. So here they are.

A living organism is a class of objects that share 3 traits.

1. Reproduce. Living organism can make copies.

2. Inherit. Living organism, in the process of reproducing, will inherit traits to the offspring.

3. Mutate. Living organism, in the process of inheriting, will make small mistakes.

That seems like a reasonable definition. If we look most living things around us, like dogs, cats, pigs, birds, fido, virus, etc., they all share those traits.

However, based on those definitions, God is not alive, while computer virus, religious doctrines, ideologies, and ideas are alive.

I don't think God will mind though. It's just a definition.

The practical aspect is that we can use evolution theory to explain the sort of humans, cats, dogs, germs, doctrines, ideologies, and ideas that are common nowadays.

Different living organism performs those 3 traits differently. Those living organism that reproduces a lot becomes plenty. Those that reproduced a lot, become common.

That's the basic of evolution theory.

For example, we see that peacocks tend to have long elaborated tails. From this, we can guess peacocks with long elaborate tail must have made more peachicks. Perhaps, peahen love peacocks with long elaborate tails. It's true.

Suppose it were true. Then peacocks with longer tails will mate with more peahens. Those happy couples will then produce more peachicks.

Male peachicks will inherit long tails. Female peachicks will inherit preferences for long tail. So, peahens like peacocks with long tail.

It looks like a circular argument. It is. The truth is we don't really know for sure, at least just from the reasoning, why peacocks have long tail.

However, we do know that traits that lead to gene pool survival through sexual selection tend to be positive feedback.

Those are traits that either enhance gene pool survival through regular means or signal capability to survive on the females. Samples of the former are Cheetah's speed and men's wealth. Samples of the latter are peacock's tail and sport cars.

The more peacocks have longer tail, the more peacocks in the future, will have even longer tails. The more peahens in the future will get turned on by long tail even more.

Now, most males are poor. Does that mean women like the poor? Does being poor serve gene pool survival?

The answer to the first question is no. The answer to the second is, well, sort of due to various unnatural sex laws against consensual sex. It's tricky.

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Animals And The Melting Arctic Ice Cap

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The arguments for global warming can sound a bit vacuous when discussing temperature changes of only one degree. The impact of the melting Arctic ice cap on animals is much more tangible.

Animals and The Melting Arctic Ice Cap

There is little dispute that the Arctic ice cap is melting. Since 1979, it has definitively shrunk by 20 percent. The issue amongst most people debating global warming is whether this is because of global warming or just a natural cycle of the planet.

From a common sense point of view, it is difficult to imagine global warming is having no impact on the ice caps. The rising temperature of the planet would seem to be a common sense cause of the melting ice. Alas, common sense rarely seems to be used in debates these days.

As the cap melts, the impact on animals in the area is readily apparent. The primary problem is the reduction of habitat. Polar bears are the most obvious animals suffering from this situation. The habitat of the polar bears is the ice flow areas around the edges of the caps. As the caps melt, the flows are disappearing and pulling back to the extent that there is no ice on the shores. The extent of the melting is such that a Russian ship was able to reach the North Pole in 2005 without the use of an ice breaker. This lost habitat is pushing the polar bears to the edge of extinction. Various estimates put the total population at 20,000 and dropping.

There are, however, positive developments for some species. Recent empirical evidence shows the various seal populations of the Arctic are exhibiting growing population numbers. The exact reason is unclear, but they are appearing more and more in southern regions of the cap, which leads to the conclusion that their habitat is actually expanding.

The receding caps are also opening up extensive new habitats for fish. The melting ice is full of nutrients and fish migration to the new opening seas is astounding. Pink salmon, in particular is being seen spawning in rivers far to the north of their usual spawning grounds.

In general, the impact of the melting Arctic ice caps is a mixed situation. The polar bears certainly don't see anything to be happy about.

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The Hoodia Scams Have Lasted Long Enough

(category: Science, Word count: 889)
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The big news about Hoodia supplements is that almost all Hoodia Gordonii products available today are ineffective - using fake hoodia. A well respected health author claims over 90% of the hoodia gordonii are known to be fake. This data seems to be backed up my major testing facilities who are claiming similar numbers.

So we did some research of our own and there's buzz on a newer Hoodia Gordonii product called Hoodia Prime. We used it on our test subject to see what she would say.

The results aren't what you might think they would be. But more on that in a minute.

When was the last time you stopped and thought about the companies that create the natural health supplements you take? Often times, it is easy to assume that the regulatory forces that ensure our food is safe, our water is clean, and our medications are effective will ensure that everything we put in our bodies is safe and sound. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. Industries such as the natural health industry can be harder to regulate and with products like Hoodia Gordonii, which is supposed to be produced almost entirely in South Africa, and the shortcuts and scams that exist are more widely spread than many purchasers realize.

So we tried Hoodia Prime. Our test subject took the suggested dosage. Nothing happened. We continued trying it, still nothing. It sure did seem like this was another hoodia Gordonii product that fell into the scam category.

But then by the end of day two, something happened. Our test subject said she was not hungry for dinner. A fluke? Perhaps. Read on.

The very next day she awoke and again was not at all hungry. This was definitely not the norm for this person, who typically ate a hearty dinner and would almost always eat a breakfast. She took her recommended dosage of two Hoodia Prime capsules in the morning with a glass of orange juice.

Again, throughout the day, no hunger whatsoever. She said she had to literally remind herself to eat, and when she did eat, it was a forced action, only because she knew she had to eat.

This Natures Biology Hoodia Prime was definitely working. But was it real Hoodia or some other ingredient that was causing the appetite suppression? Companies have been known to put other things in their capsules, and we were going to find out if this was the case here.

The lot # on our bottle had been part of a large lot that was independently tested at Alkemists Pharmaceuticals. This company tests the majority of the Hoodia on the market and has found more fakes than you'll find at a plastic surgeons office.

Theses were the three tests performed:

Analysis of Identity and Purity

Analysis of Chromatagraphy

Analysis of Macroscopy and Microscopy

Using these three tests, a company isn't going to fool anybody with any fake Hoodia. There are things they can do to get around each test, but you can't fool all three tests at once.

What we found by reviewing the tests conducted on Hoodia Prime is that it's the real deal. It passed all three rigorous tests without a hiccup, and was proved to be pure South African Hoodia Gordonii. In a world where 9 out of 10 Hoodia Gordonii products are scames, Hoodia Prime stood out and shined.

Not only did it pass the lab tests, but it passed our own test where our very own test subject used the product and verified its effectiveness. Natures Biology, the company that makes Hoodia Prime, also says it conducts its own lab tests at yet an additional lab facility.

So, our hats come off to the folks at Natures Biology for bringing a quality product like Hoodia Prime to the market. Bravo.

Having said that, if you are contemplating any other product other than Hoodia Prime, keep in mind that your Hoodia Gordonii supplement may be packed with things you don't know about. Since Hoodia took off as a weight loss option in recent years, manufacturer have been using it as a front to sell essentially useless products to buyers who don't know any better.

The main concern for many people, especially those who regularly take health supplements, is that they are getting what they paid for. The product needs to be the exact ingredients that are listed on the bottle - this is the very reason that there are laws in place requiring such labeling, to ensure those with allergies and special needs are able to accurately measure what they intake.

Yet, these safety protocols are worthless when manufacturers like those that make counterfeit Hoodia Gordonii lie on their labels and produce products that are full of fillers such as sawdust, random plants from other countries, and cheap ingredients that can by highly allergenic. Not only that, but often times these cheap ingredients will interact with existing medications that a consumer may be taking, causing an increased risk of liver, heart, or brain damage.

So tread carefully before you buy something. Pure Hoodia is certainly effective at appetite control, as proven via our test. But just remember, 9 out of 10 Hoodia Gordonii products are believed to be fake.

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The Physicist With A Hangover Thought Experiment Illustrating Microcosmic Research

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Thought Experiment Illustrating Microcosmic Research

(The physicist with a Hangover)

I

Assume that a certain physicist-experimenter has the task of determining the coordinates of a certain micro-particle on the X-axis at a determined instant, T1 with an arbitrary accuracy. Can this be accomplished?

Generally speaking, in the act of measuring in the microcosm, there are determined limitations expressed by Heisenberg's uncertainty, or indeterminacy principle. These limitations touch some combinations of parameters of micro-particles which cannot be simultaneously measured with arbitrary accuracy. But in this case, it is only one act of measuring a simple parameter on only one axis. So even the most rigorous physicist will say, it is possible with no limitations. This job is quite feasible.

So, our experimenter starts the matter. If in the assigned instant T1 he pushes a red button starting the measuring experiment, he will determine the coordinate of micro-particle X1 with arbitrary exactitude. What will it be? It is important to underscore, that there will not be a blurry spatial cloud of probability values, not the abstract mathematical matrix, not transformation of any mysterious function ?, but a concrete point on an abscissa axis. It is a precise measurement result localized in time and along one spatial axis of coordinates.

However, this situation is complicated by fact that the experimenter has begun his work having a strong hangover after yesterday's major junket. It was difficult for him to hit the red start button, so he missed and did not start the experiment. The act of measuring was not taking place.

There are no problems. It is possible to make the measurement a little later. Assume that our physicist has decided to postpone the act of measuring till the moment of time T2 = T1 + t, where t = 1 minute. As the first act of measuring had not taken place, the situation basically did not change. Limitations have not been set. A new admissible measurement was made with arbitrary accuracy. If all is correct, the experimenter will get the precise coordinate of micro particle X2. It too will be a point on the abscissa axis, but in another place. Some have already guessed that our physicist has missed the red start button again. Again, measurement did not take place. He repeats the experiment and again misses at point X3.

So, we shall interpret the situation. Our experimenter has had a series of opportunities for fulfillment of the act of measuring in instants T1, T2, T3 ... T(n) ... with an inter-spaced t. In any of these, he can get the precise coordinate of a micro particle on the abscissa axis X1, X2, X3 ... X (n) .... Using the fact that in thought experiments, it is possible to allow some amusing things, we shall force a time interval t tending to zero. In total, we shall get an infinite series of points on an axis whose spacing will approach zero. The points actually merge into one curve.

What is this curve? It is the diagram of precise coordinates of a micro particle along an abscissa axis within some time interval. Thus, at any instant within this space, there will be a point on a curve, having a precise coordinate on an abscissa axis. To say it in another way, each point on this curve can be found if the experimenter at the appropriate moment will start the act of measuring. Evidently, rigid determinism here takes place; there are no loop-holes for randomness and probabilities.

But this is not all. We shall assume that our physicist was so clumsy that he has touched the apparatus and has unintentionally changed the shoulder of the measuring instrument from an X-axis to the Y-axis. Now all measurements will be valid for an axis of ordinates. In total, the concrete curve with potentially measurable coordinates of a micro particle will again be obtained. All axes in our case are equal, so as a result of the same mental trick, we can get the precise coordinate curve along the Z-axis.

So, we have determined three curves along three axes. They can be integrated into one spatial curve which can safely be named "trajectory". If the experimenter performs only one act of measuring on any of the three axes at any moment within the given inter-space, he establishes a point on this curve (and nowhere else!). On the other hand, each point on this spatial curve can be found if we measure in the appropriate instant any of three axes of coordinates that we choose. There is a complete unique correspondence which does not allow for different interpretations.

As a result of this thought experiment, we come to the conclusion that the curve of locomotion of a micro particle really exists, has a precise local in space and time and can be easily found with arbitrary accuracy at any point on any chosen axis. This is quite a deterministic routine.

II

Problems will arise when we set a task to receive, say, precise coordinates of two or more points at once. Here the key limitation characterizing the nature of our relationships with the microcosm already comes into operation. We have termed it "a problem of the second measurement". Physicists of the twentieth century have described it with the help of the uncertainty, or indeterminacy, principle of Heisenberg.

There are events in the human experience of the macrocosm; there are events in the microcosm. And there is a process of transfer, of presentation of events of a microcosm in our macrocosm. It is important to underscore that the above-mentioned problem does not touch on events in the human macrocosm and microcosm. It touches only the process of translation. Here on border of two worlds, there are key difficulties about which we have already written in the article "Ring Determinism and Probability".

It can be primitively described how difficult it is to transfer more than one precise (with the arbitrary accuracy) measuring value from a microcosm to a human macrocosm. How will it be with other necessary values? Now that a defect in our habitual deterministic exploratory methodology is detected, that inevitably opens the gates for indefiniteness and randomness. It is necessary in the capacity compensation to resort to the usage of indirect descriptively - computational procedures: blurry spatial clouds of probability values, the abstract templates and artful transformations of mysterious function ?.

It is important to underscore once more, that all these indirect procedures have no direct association to actual events and processes in the microcosm. These are only computing - descriptive procedures simply convenient for physicists, permitting somehow, to tackle a problem of presentation of events in one pattern to another. In the above-stated Thought experiment, it has been demonstrated, that the curve of motion of the micro particle (trajectory) really exists. Also, each point can be found experimentally with arbitrary accuracy. However, it is not possible for us to map this curve on a diagram with arbitrary accuracy (though roughly it can be made in a bubble chamber or an expansion (cloud) chamber).

Positivists (physicists and philosophers) in this situation draw an amusing conclusion;, that the trajectory does not exist in the microcosm, that the micro particle is not a point object precisely localized in space, but represents a probability cloud, blurring space and time, and other nonsense.

Materialists, physicists and philosophers, should answer this ugliness in a strictly scientific way with a differentiated approach: separation of recent descriptively-computational models of reality from physical reality in itself. Eventually, it will allow its removal from modern microcosmic physics, already confused by the domination of the superficial descriptively-computational methodology, and achieve successes in a deeper understanding of the essence of relevant physical processes.

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Great Astronomical Observatories Of The World

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The great observatories of the world are responsible for many of the prolific astronomical observations of the twentieth century. Telescopic photograpy, radio dish data collection, and infrared imaging are among the many different techniques observatories have been able to employ to learn about the heavens.

The Palomar Observatory may be the most famous of all. With five telescopes operated by Cal-Tech's graduate and post-doctoral students, the 200-inch Hale telescope is the most famous of all Palomar's telescopes. Built in 1949, it was intended to overcome the onset of the southern California smog problem. Other noteworthy telescopes operated at Cal-Tech include a telescope to search for supernovae, a comet hunter, a trio of sky cameras looking for planetary and other celestial phenomena, an interferometer capable of detecting the slightest wobble in the orbits of a planet, and a sixty inch telescope responsible for spotting the first brown dwarf circling a companion star.

Cal Tech is also directly involved in the operation of the Keck and Lick Observatories. The Keck Observatory, located on top of Hawaii's dormant Mauna Kea volcano contains the world's largest optical and infrared telescopes. Its twin Keck telescopes stand eight stories high and weigh 300 tons each. Lick Observatory is located on 4200 foot Mount Hamilton east of San Jose, California. It contains nine research telescopes with the largest being the Shane 3-meter Reflector. This telescope is used to observe everything from our local solar system to faraway galaxies.

The Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles is known for its12-inch Zeiss Refracting telescope. This telescope's fame is largely due to the fact that it has been used to allow public viewing of the universe since 1935. More than five million people have looked through its lenses since under the guidance of experienced Telescope Demonstrators. The Griffith Observatory was also known for its laserium light shows in previous years although they have been discontinued at present.

The Hayden Planetarium in Boston is more than just a planetarium. It is also a museum. Along with its Gilliland Observatory, laser-light shows and a rotating star simulator are among some of the different multi-media astronomical experiences available to the public.

The Greenwich Observatory in Cambridge, England was established in 1675 by King Charles II in order partially to fix longitude readings. It currently fixes the origin of the worldwide time reference point of Greenwich Mean Time. An observatory in Portland Maine is being restored as a famous architectural monument. Another observatory of note is the University of Chicago's Yerkes Observatory with its five telescopes.

All of these observatories have added to the vast array of knowledge now known about the universe. Their importance to the history of astronomy, as well as their continuing usefulness, can not be overemphasized.

1) Palomar observed: For more than 50 years, science above and beyond; Scott LaFee; San Diego Union Tribune; November 2, 2005

2) CalTech Astronomy Website;

3) UC Observatories Website

4) Yerkes Observatory Website;

5) Griffith Observatory Website;

6) Observatory view worth preserving; by John Alphonse.

7) Hayden Planetarium Website.

8) The Astronomical Society of Edinburgh: A Guide to Edinburgh's Popular Observatory

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