Bluetooth Technical Operations
Bluetooth is a high speed, low powered wireless link
technology that's designed to connect phones or other
portable equipment together with little to no work
required by the user. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth
doesn't require line of site positioning to work.
Current prototype circuits are contained on a board
that is 0.9 cm square, with a much smaller circuit
board being developed.
When one Bluetooth device comes in contact with
another, they will automatically exchange addresses
and details of capability. Then, they can establish
a 1 MB link with security that they will use as
required. The protocols involved with handle both
data and voice, with a very flexible topography.
The technology achieves its goal by embedding tiny,
non expensive short range tranceivers into the
devices available today. The radio operates on the
2.45 GHz frequency band, and supports up to 721
KBps, along with three voice channels.
Each devices offers a unique 48 bit address from
the IEEE 802 standard, with the connections being
point to point or multipoint. The max range is
10 meters, although it can be extended to 100
meters by increasing the power. The devices are
also protected from radio interference by changing
their frequencies, also known as frequency hopping.
What's important, is the fact that Bluetooth
devices won't drain battery life. The specification
targets power consumption of the device, limiting
the drain on the battery. The radio chip will
consume only 0.3mA in stand by mode, which is less
than 5% of the power that standard phones use.
Bluetooth will also guarantee security at the bit
level. The authentification is controlled by the
user via a 128 bit key. The radio signals can
be coded with anything up to 128 bit. With the
frequency hopping, Bluetooth is already very
hard to listen into.
The baseband protocol is a combination of both
circuit and packet switches. Slots can be reserved
for synchronous packets as well. Each packet
will be transmitted in a different hop frequency.
Normally, a packet covers a single slot although
it can be extended to cover up to five slots.
Bluetooth can also support data channels of up to
three simultaneous voice channels. Therefore,
it's possible to transfer the data while you talk
at the same time. Each individual voice channel
will support 64 KB.
From a technical standpoint, Bluetooth is very
different indeed. It's the best wireless method
in the world, surpassing even infrared. For
communication on the go, Bluetooth is indeed
very hard to compete with.
Key Learning Points Of Bluetooth
Bluetooth is easily the best in wireless handheld
technology. When it comes to learning, Bluetooth
can get quite complicated. To help you, you'll find
the key learning points of Bluetooth below:
1. Bluetooth is an energy efficient, low
overhead communication protocol that's ideal for
2. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth doesn't require
a line of sight.
3. Depending on the implementation, Bluetooth
can have a range of up to 100 meters.
4. The specification of Bluetooth consists of
a Foundation Profile Document and a Foundation Core
5. The protocol stack for Bluetooth consists
of core protocols, cable protocols, and even adapted
6. The transmitter operates around the 2.4
GHz frequency band.
7. The data channel will change frequency, or
hops, 1,600 times in a second, between the 79 allocated
channels in the ISM band.
8. Bluetooth utilizes a spread spectrum
frequency hopping RF characteristic to ensure that
independant networking operates when the other
devices are in range.
9. A piconet is formed when one or more
devices open up a channel of communication.
10. A piconet can have a master and up to
11. Communication of the interdevice is
based on the concepts of channels.
12. All Bluetooth devices are capable of
13. The channel has a total capacity of
1 MB per second.
14. There are two types of channels with
Bluetooth - SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) and
ACL (Asynchronous Connectionless).
15. The SCO channels are time oriented, and
are therefore primarily used for transferring time
critical data such as voice.
16. ACL channels are normally used for
17. Data contained in a packet can be up to
2,745 bits in length.
18. In a single piconet, there can be up
to three SCO links containing 64,000 bits a second
19. To avoid collision and timing problems,
SCO links are reserved slots that are set up by
20. The masters can support up to three
SCO links with either one, two, or three slaves.
21. The slots that aren't reserved for SCO
links can be used as ACL links.
22. The LMP (Link Management Protocol)
will handle link level security, error corrections,
and the establishment of communications links.
23. The LMP packets will have priority
over user packets that originate and form the
24. The L2CAP layer will ensure an
acceptable quality of service.
25. No more than one ACL link can exist
at the L2CAP layer.
Choosing A Bluetooth Headset
Creating a good wireless headset for Bluetooth is
actually difficult to do. The regular wired headsets
are easy to design - with ranging styles.
Bluetooth headsets can never be as small or as light
as wired headsets, simply because it needs to include
the battery and extra functions. This extra size
will impact how the headset mounts on or around
There seems to be two main styles of headsets for
Bluetooth. Some are held into place with a loop
around the ear. These styles are normally more
comfortable, although they may be less secure. The
others are held in place by being jammed into
your ear - and usually prove to be less comfortable.
Factors to consider
The cost is an obvious issue, something that you
really need to think about.
1. Check to see if the device is easy to
quickly and conveniently put on your ear then take
it off again.
2. Are the control buttons on the headset
easy to use?
3. The headset should be comfortable to
wear for long phone calls.
4. Can you use it with a pair of glasses?
5. Check to see if you can wear it with
6. When you aren't wearing it, you'll
need to se how you would carry it with you.
7. The weight is important as well, as you
don't want something that has the risk of falling
Ease of use.
1. The commands and controls should be
easy to remember.
2. The volume level should be easy to
3. The unit should turn on quickly.
4. The manual should be very well written
and easy for you to understand.
5. There should be a support number for
you to call if you should experience any types of
1. You'll need to know about the battery,
the talk time, type, and how to tell when it is
going dead or fully charged.
2. How many devices can the unit be paired
3. Compatability is also important, as
well as the warranty period.
4. Check the sound quality for both
sending and receiving audio.
5. What type of range does the headset offer
Other important capabilities include voice tags,
last number redial, tranfer calls, 3 way calling,
link to other phones, call reject, and mute. You'll
also want to note if it looks attractive, and if
it's too big or too small.
10 Benefits Of Bluetooth
Below, are 10 benefits and reasons to use Bluetooth
As you probably already know, there are many benefits
and advantages to using wireless devices. Along with
improving safety as a result of eliminating wires
you don't need, wireless also offers you plenty of
other advantages. When traveling with your laptop
or other wireless devices, you'll no longer have to
worry about bringing connection cables.
2. Bluetooth is actually inexpensive
The technology of Bluetooth is cheap for companies
to implement, which results in lower costs for the
company. These savings are then passed from the
company on to you.
3. Bluetooth is automatic
Bluetooth doesn't have you set up a connection or
push any buttons. When two or more devices enter
a range of up to 30 feet of each other, they will
automatically begin to communicate without you
having to do anything.
4. Standardized protocol
Bluetooth is standardized wireless, meaning that
a high level of compatibility among devices is
guaranteed. Bluetooth will connect devices to
each other, even if they aren't the same model.
5. Low interference
Bluetooth devices almost always avoid interference
from other wireless devices. Bluetooth uses a
technique known as frequency hopping, and also
low power wireless signals.
6. Low energy consumption
As a result of Bluetooth using low power signals,
the technology requires very little energy and will
use less battery or electrical power as a result.
This is an excellent benefit for mobile devices,
as Bluetooth won't drain the battery.
7. Sharing voice and data
The standard for Bluetooth will allow compatible
devices to share data and voice communications.
This is great for mobile phones and headsets, as
Bluetooth simplifies driving and talking on your
8. Instant PAN (Personal Area Network)
You can connect up to seven Bluetooth devices to
each other within a range of up to 30 feet, forming
a piconet or PAN. For a single room, you can
also set up multiple piconets.
Upgradeable is the standard for Bluetooth. There
are newer versions of Bluetooth in the works,
which offer many new advantages and backward
compatible with older versions.
10. The technology stays
Bluetooth technology is a world wide, universal
wireless standard. With it being as popular as
it is, you can count on it being around for years
to come. As more and more devices start to use
Bluetooth technology, more manufacturers will be
eager to make their products compatible. A chain
reaction will occur, making Bluetooth the standard
for cutting edge wireless.
Below, you'll find a list of the most used terms in
Bluetooth technology. They can serve as a look up,
or to help you learn more about Bluetooth terms in
2 in 1 handset
The situation where a subscriber's handset is acting
as a remote handset to a base unit that provides a
Third generation, referring to the next generation
of digital phone technology.
A wireless LAN specification defined by the IEEE.
Each base band packet will start with an access code,
which can be one of 3 types - CAC, DAC, and IAC.
Asynchronous Connectionless Link. This is one of the
two types of data links that are defined for Bluetooth.
Authenticated Ciphering Offset.
During the active mode, the unit will actively
participate on the channel. The master will schedule
the transmission based on traffic demands from the
The process of verifying who is at the opposite end
of the link.
A device whose identity has been verified during the
lifetime of the current link based on the
This describes the specification of the digital
signal processing aspect of the hardware - the
controller - which carries out the baseband
Abreviation of baseband.
Bit Error Rate.
The above is more of an intro to the terms that are
used with Bluetooth. Bluetooth currently has hundreds
of devices, making it the best wireless solution in
the world. With more coming out every day, you can
bet that Bluetooth will be around for many years to
If you are new to Bluetooth, the terms used can be
very helpful. There are hundreds of glossary terms
that apply to Bluetooth, many of which describe
shortcuts to common terms. You can learn a lot by
reading over the meanings, especially if you have
never used Bluetooth technology before.
Those of you who have experience with Bluetooth,
can look over the glossary of terms to brush up
on your knowledge or just check out what an unfamiliar
term actually means. Nothing is complicated with
the meanings, although they make take some getting
Once you have been around Bluetooth for a while,
you'll find yourself right at home with the terms
and meanings to the technology. All you need to do
is play around with it, and read books or manuals
whenever you get the chance. Before you know it,
you'll be a professional in the vast world of
The Bluetooth Solution
The technology of Bluetooth will take small area
networking to the next level by removing the need
for user intervention and help keep transmission
power very low to preserve battery power. Each
transmission signal to and from your cellular
phone will use just 1 mw of power, giving you
plenty of space on your battery to talk.
Bluetooth is a networking standard that will
work on two levels:
1. It will provide agreement at the
physical level, as Bluetooth is a radio frequency
2. It will provide agreement at the level
of protocol, where products will have to agree
on when bits are sent, how many are sent, and how
the parties in conversation can be sure the message
recieved is the same one that was sent.
The major draws to Bluetooth is the fact that
it's wireless, inexpensive, and automatic. There
are other ways to get around wires, including
infrared. Infrared uses light waves of a lower
frequency than the human eye can, and is normally
used in television remote controls.
The technology of Bluetooth is intended to get
around the problems that normally come with
infrared systems. The 1.0 older standard of
Bluetooth has a max transfer speed of 1 MB a
second, while the 2.0 Bluetooth standard can
manage up to 3.0 MB a second. To make things
better, 2.0 is compatible with 1.0 devices.
As a solution to wireless, Bluetooth will
eliminate the need for messy cords, keeping
everything nice and neat. It's perfect for those
who like to talk on cell phones, as you no
longer need to hold the phone next to your
ear - which is great for those who travel a
With Bluetooth being very popular with wireless, it's
no wonder there are many applications available for
the technology. Below, you'll find the applications
1. Wireless networking between laptops and desktop
computers, or desktops that are in a confined space
and little bandwidth is needed.
2. Peripherals such as mice, keyboards, and printers.
3. Cell phones with Bluetooth technology have been
sold in large numbers, as they are able to connect to
computers, PDAs (Personal Data Assistant), and various
other devices. The standard also includes the
support for more powerful and longer range devices.
4. The transfer of files, images and MP3, between
5. Certain MP3 players and digital cameras to
transfer files to and from computers.
6. Bluetooth technology headsets for smart phones
and cell phones.
7. Data logging equipment that transmits data to
a computer via Bluetooth technology.
8. Sony Playstation 3 and Nintendo Revolution will
both use Bluetooth technology for their wireless
For Bluetooth, there are literally hundreds of
different applications and devices available for you
to use or purchase. As you may already know,
Bluetooth is the most popular wireless technology
in the world. It's very reliable, very dependable,
and very hard to crack into.
There are many other applications for Bluetooth in
development now, many of which plan to take the
wireless age to the next level. Video game systems
are using Bluetooth technology as well, for their
wireless controllers. This is great news for gaming
fans, as Bluetooth offers the best in wireless
If your curious about applications for Bluetooth
that are still in development, you can search on
the internet. You can find all sorts of information,
especially when it comes to Bluetooth. As the
future arrives, you can expect Bluetooth to bring
bigger and better things.
Bluetooth And Infared
With new electrical devices being produced every day,
the problem of connecting things is becoming more
and more complex in nature. The system that comprises
computers and other electronics makes use of varieties
of wires, cables, etc.
These parts will communicate through light beams,
lasers, radio signals, and infrared. The problem
however, is the devices and technology is often the
connection between each component. Therefore, most
electronic systems aren't used to their full extent
due to the problems and imperfections.
To help simplify things, a solution was created -
the solution of Bluetooth. Bluetooth is wireless
and automatic, offering users a variety of features
that have simplified the art of connection. Bluetooth
has revolutionized the standard methods of connecting
things to enabling almost anything to be connected
to a single system.
Aside from Bluetooth, there are other ways of
connecting wireless devices. One example of such
is the IR or infrared. Infrared allows low frequency
light waves to transmit signals to another component.
This technology is easy to create and the cost of
putting the IR device into a system is rather low.
Infrared technology is a one to one process. Due
to the limitation, you may only send signals from one
device to another, similar to a television set and
remote control. You can only transmit signals
between the two although not with a seperate system.
Aside from the fact that these two natures of
infrared are obstacles to acquiring results, these
same qualities have worked in advantage to the
connection. Infrared devices need to be lined up
directly, meaning too little interference can occur
between the transmitters and receivers.
The technology behind Bluetooth works by transmitting
signals through low frequency radio signals. The
path of communication is working on 2.45 GHz, which
is the same frequency band used in ISM devices.
Bluetooth Wireless Networking
Bluetooth technology offers three different types
of defined ranges, based on output ranges. Class
1 devices are the most powerful, as they can have
up to 100 mW of power, with a regular antenna
giving them a range of around 130 - 330 feet.
The class 2 devices are lower power, offering up
to 2.5 mW of power. A regular antenna will give
them a range of around 50 - 100 feet. Class 3
devices use even less power, up to 1 mW of power
to be exact. With a regular antenna, they will
have a range of around 16 - 33 feet.
Even though you may not realize it, Bluetooth
wireless technology has never been intended for
anything other than short distance types of
communication. With Bluetooth wireless, the short
range is actually a benefit.
For one, the short range will reduce the change of
interference between your devices and those that
belong to others who are nearby. Overall, this
is a basic type of security, designed to protect
you and your devices.
Secondly, the lower power used for short range
means a longer battery life. Most Bluetooth
devices will get their power from a battery,
meaning that anything you can do to lengthen the
battery life is very important.
The wireless networking offered by Bluetooth is
actually among the best, even though it uses
short range communication. Bluetooth is used
with wireless controllers, the internet, and
even wireless headsets.
For the best in short range technology, Bluetooth
is extremely hard to beat. If you've never tried
Bluetooth before, now is the time. It's the best
with wireless networking, especially for those
who enjoy hands free talking on their cell phone.
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