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Bluetooth-Technology Articles

How Bluetooth Works

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 470)
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Bluetooth devices will normally operate at 2.4 GHZ

in the license free, globally available ISM radio

band. The advantage to this band includes worldwide

availability and compatibility. A disadvantage to

this however, is that the devices must share this

band with other RF emitters. This includes

automobile security systems, other wireless devices,

and other noise sources, such as microwaves.

To overcome this challenge, Bluetooth employs a

fast frequency hopping scheme and therefore uses

shorter packets than other standards within the

ISM band. This scheme helps to make Bluetooth

communication more robust and more secure.

Frequency hopping

Frequency hopping is basically jumping from frequency

to frequency within the ISM radio band. After a

bluetooth device sends or receives a packet, it

and the device (or devices) it's communicating with

hop to another frequency before the next packet is

sent. This scheme offers three advantages:

1. Allows Bluetooth devices to use the

entirety of the available ISM band, while never

transmitting from a fixed frequency for more than a

short period of time. This helps insure that

Bluetooth conforms to the ISM restrictions on the

transmission quantity per frequency.

2. Ensures that any interference won't

last long. Any packet that doesn't arrive safely

to its destination can be resent to the next


3. Provides a base level of security as

it's very hard for an eavesdropping device to predict

which frequency the Bluetooth devices will use


The connected devices however, must agree upon the

frequency they will use next. The specification

in Bluetooth ensures this in two ways. First, it

defines a master and slave type relationship between

bluetooth devices. Next, it specifies an algorithm

that uses device specific information when

calculating the frequency hop sequences.

A Bluetooth device that operates in master mode can

communicate with up to seven devices that are set in

slave mode. To each of the slaves, the master

Bluetooth device will send its own unique address

and the value of its own internal clock. The

information sent is then used to calculate the

frequency hop sequences.

Because the master device and each of the slave

devices use the same algorithm with the same initial

input, the connected devices will always arrive

together at the next frequency that they have agreed


As a replacement for cable technology, it's no

wonder that Bluetooth devices are usually battery

powered, such as wireless mice and battery powered

cell phones. To conserve the power, most devices

operate in low power. This helps to give Bluetooth

devices a range of around 5 - 10 meters.

This range is far enough for wireless communication

but close enough to avoid drawing too much power

from the power source of the device.

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Key Learning Points Of Bluetooth

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 421)
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Bluetooth is easily the best in wireless handheld

technology. When it comes to learning, Bluetooth

can get quite complicated. To help you, you'll find

the key learning points of Bluetooth below:

1. Bluetooth is an energy efficient, low

overhead communication protocol that's ideal for

interdevice communications.

2. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth doesn't require

a line of sight.

3. Depending on the implementation, Bluetooth

can have a range of up to 100 meters.

4. The specification of Bluetooth consists of

a Foundation Profile Document and a Foundation Core


5. The protocol stack for Bluetooth consists

of core protocols, cable protocols, and even adapted


6. The transmitter operates around the 2.4

GHz frequency band.

7. The data channel will change frequency, or

hops, 1,600 times in a second, between the 79 allocated

channels in the ISM band.

8. Bluetooth utilizes a spread spectrum

frequency hopping RF characteristic to ensure that

independant networking operates when the other

devices are in range.

9. A piconet is formed when one or more

devices open up a channel of communication.

10. A piconet can have a master and up to

seven slaves.

11. Communication of the interdevice is

based on the concepts of channels.

12. All Bluetooth devices are capable of

transmitting voice.

13. The channel has a total capacity of

1 MB per second.

14. There are two types of channels with

Bluetooth - SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) and

ACL (Asynchronous Connectionless).

15. The SCO channels are time oriented, and

are therefore primarily used for transferring time

critical data such as voice.

16. ACL channels are normally used for

communicating data.

17. Data contained in a packet can be up to

2,745 bits in length.

18. In a single piconet, there can be up

to three SCO links containing 64,000 bits a second


19. To avoid collision and timing problems,

SCO links are reserved slots that are set up by

the master.

20. The masters can support up to three

SCO links with either one, two, or three slaves.

21. The slots that aren't reserved for SCO

links can be used as ACL links.

22. The LMP (Link Management Protocol)

will handle link level security, error corrections,

and the establishment of communications links.

23. The LMP packets will have priority

over user packets that originate and form the

L2CAP layer.

24. The L2CAP layer will ensure an

acceptable quality of service.

25. No more than one ACL link can exist

at the L2CAP layer.

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Bluetooth Versions

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 308)
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Version 1.1 and earlier

Since the technology of Bluetooth was introduced in

1998, several specification versions have been

released. Versions 1.0 and 1.0B had too many issues

and problems for manufacturers to develop devices

for Bluetooth. The main issue was the lack of

communication among the devices.

The core specification version 1.1 is the first

successful operating version of Bluetooth. Version

1.1 corrected a majority of the bugs and problems

found in earlier versions.

Version 1.2

Many of the newer Bluetooth devices, such as the

newer cell phones are being sold with the newer

Bluetooth version 1.2. This version offers backward

compatability with Bluetooth 1.1, faster transmission

speeds, received signal strength, and a host

controller interface (HCI) support for 3 wire UART.

Bluetooth version 2.0

It's true that there may be multiple communication

technologies, although they all share one common

trait - faster is better. Bluetooth specialists

realized this, and therefore worked on improving

the speeds of version 1.2. The newest version,

version 2.0 + EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) was

accounced in 2004 and became available in late


Version 2.0 delivers data transfer rates of up

to three times that of the original version of

Bluetooth. Version 2.0 also provides enhanced

connectivity. With Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR, you'll

be able to run more devices at the same time -

with more efficiency.

Computers and even computer related devices are

expected to be some of the first devices to

encorporate Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR, followed of

course by audio and imaging devices.

Version 2.0 is backward compatible with previous

versions, three times faster, and offers an

enhanced data rate of 2.1 MB a second. It also

offers broadcast and multicast support, along

with a further enhanced bit error rate

performance, making it the best Bluetooth has

ever seen.

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Bluetooth Definition

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 301)
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Bluetooth is a specification for the use of low

power radio communications to wireless phones,

computers, and other network wireless devices over

short distances. The name Bluetooth is actually

borrowed from Harald Bluetooth, a Denmark king

more than 1,000 years ago.

The technology of Bluetooth was primarily designed

to support simple wireless networking of devices

and peripherals, which includes cell phones, PDAs,

and wireless headsets. The wireless signals that

are transmitted by Bluetooth cover short distances

of up to 30 feet, generally communicating less

than 1 MPps (Mega Byte per second).

The networks of Bluetooth feature dynamic topology

called PAN or a piconet. The piconets contain a

minumum of two and a maximum of eight peer devices.

The devices will communicate using protocols that

are part of the specification.

Even though the Bluetooth standard will utilize

the same 2.4 GHz range as 802.11b and 802.11g,

the technology isn't suitable for a Wi-Fi

replacement. When compared to Wi-Fi, Bluetooth

is much slower, limited in range, and actually

supports less devices.

For short range devices, Bluetooth is rapidly

becoming the best. The technology is more popular

with cell phones, as Bluetooth headsets are the

way to go these days. To use Bluetooth, your

cell phone will need to have it enabled, or an

infared device somewhere on the phone.

Upcoming devices are utilizing Bluetooth as well,

such as PS3 and the Nintendo Revolution. The

wireless controllers will be Bluetooth enabled,

which will give players the cutting edge.

If you own a cell phone or other wireless device,

you should look into Bluetooth. The technology

is nothing short of spectacular, making it

something that will be around for years and

years to come. As technology gets bigger and

bigger, you can expect Bluetooth to advance

as well.

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Bluetooth Wireless Networking

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 291)
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Bluetooth technology offers three different types

of defined ranges, based on output ranges. Class

1 devices are the most powerful, as they can have

up to 100 mW of power, with a regular antenna

giving them a range of around 130 - 330 feet.

The class 2 devices are lower power, offering up

to 2.5 mW of power. A regular antenna will give

them a range of around 50 - 100 feet. Class 3

devices use even less power, up to 1 mW of power

to be exact. With a regular antenna, they will

have a range of around 16 - 33 feet.

Even though you may not realize it, Bluetooth

wireless technology has never been intended for

anything other than short distance types of

communication. With Bluetooth wireless, the short

range is actually a benefit.

For one, the short range will reduce the change of

interference between your devices and those that

belong to others who are nearby. Overall, this

is a basic type of security, designed to protect

you and your devices.

Secondly, the lower power used for short range

means a longer battery life. Most Bluetooth

devices will get their power from a battery,

meaning that anything you can do to lengthen the

battery life is very important.

The wireless networking offered by Bluetooth is

actually among the best, even though it uses

short range communication. Bluetooth is used

with wireless controllers, the internet, and

even wireless headsets.

For the best in short range technology, Bluetooth

is extremely hard to beat. If you've never tried

Bluetooth before, now is the time. It's the best

with wireless networking, especially for those

who enjoy hands free talking on their cell phone.

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Introduction To Bluetooth

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 423)
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Bluetooth was designed to allow low bandwidth wireless

connections to become easy to use so even those who

are new to wireless can use them. Version 1.1 of

Bluetooth describes a low power, short range wireless

networking technology that uses radio waves to send

data at rates up to 720 kilobits a second.

The specification for Bluetooth provides for different

classes of radio that allow transmission ranges of

up to 100 meters by boosting the radio power. The

technology of Bluetooth isn't limited to line of

sight transmission since it uses directional waves

that are capable of transmitting through many


Bluetooth is an industry standard communication of

wireless, meaning that it enables the connection

of other devices as well, such as cell phones,

computers, digital cameras, and other types of

electronic devices. The specification of Bluetooth

defines a radio system and a "stack" of protocol

layers and profiles. The highest layer is the

application layer, while the lowest layer is the


The wireless technology of Bluetooth is positioned

to revolutionize the personal connectivity market

by providing freedom from inconvenient fixed type


The specification for Bluetooth eliminates the need

for cables by providing a small form factor, low

cost wireless solution that will link computers,

cell phones, and other electronics. Bluetooth

also allows users to connect many ranges of devices

quickly and easily and expands communications

capabilities as well.

The size of the Bluetooth radio is amazing, as a

Bluetooth radio can be built into one or two very

small microchips then integrated into any electronic

device where wireless operations would be an


Bluetooth also offers a robust link, which ensures

that normal operating circumstances are not

interrupted by interference from other signals

that are operating in the same frequency band.

Also known for its worldwide operation, Bluetooth

radio operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band, which

is license free and available to any type of

radio system in the world. No matter where you

are in the world, you count on Bluetooth to work.

Security is also important. Offering advanced

security mechanisms, Bluetooth ensures a high level

of security. Therefore, authentification will

prevent unauthorized acess to important data and

make it very difficult to listen in.

Bluetooth also boasts power optimization. The radio

is power friendly and the software for Bluetooth

is very configurable, limiting the power consumption

of equipment. The radio itself only consumes a

small amount of power from a cellular phone.

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Bluetooth Glossary

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 443)
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Below, you'll find a list of the most used terms in

Bluetooth technology. They can serve as a look up,

or to help you learn more about Bluetooth terms in


2 in 1 handset

The situation where a subscriber's handset is acting

as a remote handset to a base unit that provides a

network connection.


Third generation, referring to the next generation

of digital phone technology.

802.11 WLAN

A wireless LAN specification defined by the IEEE.

Access code

Each base band packet will start with an access code,

which can be one of 3 types - CAC, DAC, and IAC.




Asynchronous Connectionless Link. This is one of the

two types of data links that are defined for Bluetooth.


Authenticated Ciphering Offset.

Active mode

During the active mode, the unit will actively

participate on the channel. The master will schedule

the transmission based on traffic demands from the

different slaves.


Access point.


The process of verifying who is at the opposite end

of the link.

Authentification device

A device whose identity has been verified during the

lifetime of the current link based on the

authentification procedure.


This describes the specification of the digital

signal processing aspect of the hardware - the

controller - which carries out the baseband



Abreviation of baseband.


Bluetooth device.


Bit Error Rate.

The above is more of an intro to the terms that are

used with Bluetooth. Bluetooth currently has hundreds

of devices, making it the best wireless solution in

the world. With more coming out every day, you can

bet that Bluetooth will be around for many years to


If you are new to Bluetooth, the terms used can be

very helpful. There are hundreds of glossary terms

that apply to Bluetooth, many of which describe

shortcuts to common terms. You can learn a lot by

reading over the meanings, especially if you have

never used Bluetooth technology before.

Those of you who have experience with Bluetooth,

can look over the glossary of terms to brush up

on your knowledge or just check out what an unfamiliar

term actually means. Nothing is complicated with

the meanings, although they make take some getting

used to.

Once you have been around Bluetooth for a while,

you'll find yourself right at home with the terms

and meanings to the technology. All you need to do

is play around with it, and read books or manuals

whenever you get the chance. Before you know it,

you'll be a professional in the vast world of

Bluetooth wireless.

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Bluetooth Technical Operations

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 427)
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Bluetooth is a high speed, low powered wireless link

technology that's designed to connect phones or other

portable equipment together with little to no work

required by the user. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth

doesn't require line of site positioning to work.

Current prototype circuits are contained on a board

that is 0.9 cm square, with a much smaller circuit

board being developed.

When one Bluetooth device comes in contact with

another, they will automatically exchange addresses

and details of capability. Then, they can establish

a 1 MB link with security that they will use as

required. The protocols involved with handle both

data and voice, with a very flexible topography.

The technology achieves its goal by embedding tiny,

non expensive short range tranceivers into the

devices available today. The radio operates on the

2.45 GHz frequency band, and supports up to 721

KBps, along with three voice channels.

Each devices offers a unique 48 bit address from

the IEEE 802 standard, with the connections being

point to point or multipoint. The max range is

10 meters, although it can be extended to 100

meters by increasing the power. The devices are

also protected from radio interference by changing

their frequencies, also known as frequency hopping.

What's important, is the fact that Bluetooth

devices won't drain battery life. The specification

targets power consumption of the device, limiting

the drain on the battery. The radio chip will

consume only 0.3mA in stand by mode, which is less

than 5% of the power that standard phones use.

Bluetooth will also guarantee security at the bit

level. The authentification is controlled by the

user via a 128 bit key. The radio signals can

be coded with anything up to 128 bit. With the

frequency hopping, Bluetooth is already very

hard to listen into.

The baseband protocol is a combination of both

circuit and packet switches. Slots can be reserved

for synchronous packets as well. Each packet

will be transmitted in a different hop frequency.

Normally, a packet covers a single slot although

it can be extended to cover up to five slots.

Bluetooth can also support data channels of up to

three simultaneous voice channels. Therefore,

it's possible to transfer the data while you talk

at the same time. Each individual voice channel

will support 64 KB.

From a technical standpoint, Bluetooth is very

different indeed. It's the best wireless method

in the world, surpassing even infrared. For

communication on the go, Bluetooth is indeed

very hard to compete with.

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10 Benefits Of Bluetooth

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 433)
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Below, are 10 benefits and reasons to use Bluetooth


1. Wireless

As you probably already know, there are many benefits

and advantages to using wireless devices. Along with

improving safety as a result of eliminating wires

you don't need, wireless also offers you plenty of

other advantages. When traveling with your laptop

or other wireless devices, you'll no longer have to

worry about bringing connection cables.

2. Bluetooth is actually inexpensive

The technology of Bluetooth is cheap for companies

to implement, which results in lower costs for the

company. These savings are then passed from the

company on to you.

3. Bluetooth is automatic

Bluetooth doesn't have you set up a connection or

push any buttons. When two or more devices enter

a range of up to 30 feet of each other, they will

automatically begin to communicate without you

having to do anything.

4. Standardized protocol

Bluetooth is standardized wireless, meaning that

a high level of compatibility among devices is

guaranteed. Bluetooth will connect devices to

each other, even if they aren't the same model.

5. Low interference

Bluetooth devices almost always avoid interference

from other wireless devices. Bluetooth uses a

technique known as frequency hopping, and also

low power wireless signals.

6. Low energy consumption

As a result of Bluetooth using low power signals,

the technology requires very little energy and will

use less battery or electrical power as a result.

This is an excellent benefit for mobile devices,

as Bluetooth won't drain the battery.

7. Sharing voice and data

The standard for Bluetooth will allow compatible

devices to share data and voice communications.

This is great for mobile phones and headsets, as

Bluetooth simplifies driving and talking on your

cell phone.

8. Instant PAN (Personal Area Network)

You can connect up to seven Bluetooth devices to

each other within a range of up to 30 feet, forming

a piconet or PAN. For a single room, you can

also set up multiple piconets.

9. Upgradeable

Upgradeable is the standard for Bluetooth. There

are newer versions of Bluetooth in the works,

which offer many new advantages and backward

compatible with older versions.

10. The technology stays

Bluetooth technology is a world wide, universal

wireless standard. With it being as popular as

it is, you can count on it being around for years

to come. As more and more devices start to use

Bluetooth technology, more manufacturers will be

eager to make their products compatible. A chain

reaction will occur, making Bluetooth the standard

for cutting edge wireless.

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