How Bluetooth Works
Bluetooth devices will normally operate at 2.4 GHZ
in the license free, globally available ISM radio
band. The advantage to this band includes worldwide
availability and compatibility. A disadvantage to
this however, is that the devices must share this
band with other RF emitters. This includes
automobile security systems, other wireless devices,
and other noise sources, such as microwaves.
To overcome this challenge, Bluetooth employs a
fast frequency hopping scheme and therefore uses
shorter packets than other standards within the
ISM band. This scheme helps to make Bluetooth
communication more robust and more secure.
Frequency hopping is basically jumping from frequency
to frequency within the ISM radio band. After a
bluetooth device sends or receives a packet, it
and the device (or devices) it's communicating with
hop to another frequency before the next packet is
sent. This scheme offers three advantages:
1. Allows Bluetooth devices to use the
entirety of the available ISM band, while never
transmitting from a fixed frequency for more than a
short period of time. This helps insure that
Bluetooth conforms to the ISM restrictions on the
transmission quantity per frequency.
2. Ensures that any interference won't
last long. Any packet that doesn't arrive safely
to its destination can be resent to the next
3. Provides a base level of security as
it's very hard for an eavesdropping device to predict
which frequency the Bluetooth devices will use
The connected devices however, must agree upon the
frequency they will use next. The specification
in Bluetooth ensures this in two ways. First, it
defines a master and slave type relationship between
bluetooth devices. Next, it specifies an algorithm
that uses device specific information when
calculating the frequency hop sequences.
A Bluetooth device that operates in master mode can
communicate with up to seven devices that are set in
slave mode. To each of the slaves, the master
Bluetooth device will send its own unique address
and the value of its own internal clock. The
information sent is then used to calculate the
frequency hop sequences.
Because the master device and each of the slave
devices use the same algorithm with the same initial
input, the connected devices will always arrive
together at the next frequency that they have agreed
As a replacement for cable technology, it's no
wonder that Bluetooth devices are usually battery
powered, such as wireless mice and battery powered
cell phones. To conserve the power, most devices
operate in low power. This helps to give Bluetooth
devices a range of around 5 - 10 meters.
This range is far enough for wireless communication
but close enough to avoid drawing too much power
from the power source of the device.
Key Learning Points Of Bluetooth
Bluetooth is easily the best in wireless handheld
technology. When it comes to learning, Bluetooth
can get quite complicated. To help you, you'll find
the key learning points of Bluetooth below:
1. Bluetooth is an energy efficient, low
overhead communication protocol that's ideal for
2. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth doesn't require
a line of sight.
3. Depending on the implementation, Bluetooth
can have a range of up to 100 meters.
4. The specification of Bluetooth consists of
a Foundation Profile Document and a Foundation Core
5. The protocol stack for Bluetooth consists
of core protocols, cable protocols, and even adapted
6. The transmitter operates around the 2.4
GHz frequency band.
7. The data channel will change frequency, or
hops, 1,600 times in a second, between the 79 allocated
channels in the ISM band.
8. Bluetooth utilizes a spread spectrum
frequency hopping RF characteristic to ensure that
independant networking operates when the other
devices are in range.
9. A piconet is formed when one or more
devices open up a channel of communication.
10. A piconet can have a master and up to
11. Communication of the interdevice is
based on the concepts of channels.
12. All Bluetooth devices are capable of
13. The channel has a total capacity of
1 MB per second.
14. There are two types of channels with
Bluetooth - SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) and
ACL (Asynchronous Connectionless).
15. The SCO channels are time oriented, and
are therefore primarily used for transferring time
critical data such as voice.
16. ACL channels are normally used for
17. Data contained in a packet can be up to
2,745 bits in length.
18. In a single piconet, there can be up
to three SCO links containing 64,000 bits a second
19. To avoid collision and timing problems,
SCO links are reserved slots that are set up by
20. The masters can support up to three
SCO links with either one, two, or three slaves.
21. The slots that aren't reserved for SCO
links can be used as ACL links.
22. The LMP (Link Management Protocol)
will handle link level security, error corrections,
and the establishment of communications links.
23. The LMP packets will have priority
over user packets that originate and form the
24. The L2CAP layer will ensure an
acceptable quality of service.
25. No more than one ACL link can exist
at the L2CAP layer.
Version 1.1 and earlier
Since the technology of Bluetooth was introduced in
1998, several specification versions have been
released. Versions 1.0 and 1.0B had too many issues
and problems for manufacturers to develop devices
for Bluetooth. The main issue was the lack of
communication among the devices.
The core specification version 1.1 is the first
successful operating version of Bluetooth. Version
1.1 corrected a majority of the bugs and problems
found in earlier versions.
Many of the newer Bluetooth devices, such as the
newer cell phones are being sold with the newer
Bluetooth version 1.2. This version offers backward
compatability with Bluetooth 1.1, faster transmission
speeds, received signal strength, and a host
controller interface (HCI) support for 3 wire UART.
Bluetooth version 2.0
It's true that there may be multiple communication
technologies, although they all share one common
trait - faster is better. Bluetooth specialists
realized this, and therefore worked on improving
the speeds of version 1.2. The newest version,
version 2.0 + EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) was
accounced in 2004 and became available in late
Version 2.0 delivers data transfer rates of up
to three times that of the original version of
Bluetooth. Version 2.0 also provides enhanced
connectivity. With Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR, you'll
be able to run more devices at the same time -
with more efficiency.
Computers and even computer related devices are
expected to be some of the first devices to
encorporate Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR, followed of
course by audio and imaging devices.
Version 2.0 is backward compatible with previous
versions, three times faster, and offers an
enhanced data rate of 2.1 MB a second. It also
offers broadcast and multicast support, along
with a further enhanced bit error rate
performance, making it the best Bluetooth has
Bluetooth is a specification for the use of low
power radio communications to wireless phones,
computers, and other network wireless devices over
short distances. The name Bluetooth is actually
borrowed from Harald Bluetooth, a Denmark king
more than 1,000 years ago.
The technology of Bluetooth was primarily designed
to support simple wireless networking of devices
and peripherals, which includes cell phones, PDAs,
and wireless headsets. The wireless signals that
are transmitted by Bluetooth cover short distances
of up to 30 feet, generally communicating less
than 1 MPps (Mega Byte per second).
The networks of Bluetooth feature dynamic topology
called PAN or a piconet. The piconets contain a
minumum of two and a maximum of eight peer devices.
The devices will communicate using protocols that
are part of the specification.
Even though the Bluetooth standard will utilize
the same 2.4 GHz range as 802.11b and 802.11g,
the technology isn't suitable for a Wi-Fi
replacement. When compared to Wi-Fi, Bluetooth
is much slower, limited in range, and actually
supports less devices.
For short range devices, Bluetooth is rapidly
becoming the best. The technology is more popular
with cell phones, as Bluetooth headsets are the
way to go these days. To use Bluetooth, your
cell phone will need to have it enabled, or an
infared device somewhere on the phone.
Upcoming devices are utilizing Bluetooth as well,
such as PS3 and the Nintendo Revolution. The
wireless controllers will be Bluetooth enabled,
which will give players the cutting edge.
If you own a cell phone or other wireless device,
you should look into Bluetooth. The technology
is nothing short of spectacular, making it
something that will be around for years and
years to come. As technology gets bigger and
bigger, you can expect Bluetooth to advance
Bluetooth Wireless Networking
Bluetooth technology offers three different types
of defined ranges, based on output ranges. Class
1 devices are the most powerful, as they can have
up to 100 mW of power, with a regular antenna
giving them a range of around 130 - 330 feet.
The class 2 devices are lower power, offering up
to 2.5 mW of power. A regular antenna will give
them a range of around 50 - 100 feet. Class 3
devices use even less power, up to 1 mW of power
to be exact. With a regular antenna, they will
have a range of around 16 - 33 feet.
Even though you may not realize it, Bluetooth
wireless technology has never been intended for
anything other than short distance types of
communication. With Bluetooth wireless, the short
range is actually a benefit.
For one, the short range will reduce the change of
interference between your devices and those that
belong to others who are nearby. Overall, this
is a basic type of security, designed to protect
you and your devices.
Secondly, the lower power used for short range
means a longer battery life. Most Bluetooth
devices will get their power from a battery,
meaning that anything you can do to lengthen the
battery life is very important.
The wireless networking offered by Bluetooth is
actually among the best, even though it uses
short range communication. Bluetooth is used
with wireless controllers, the internet, and
even wireless headsets.
For the best in short range technology, Bluetooth
is extremely hard to beat. If you've never tried
Bluetooth before, now is the time. It's the best
with wireless networking, especially for those
who enjoy hands free talking on their cell phone.
Introduction To Bluetooth
Bluetooth was designed to allow low bandwidth wireless
connections to become easy to use so even those who
are new to wireless can use them. Version 1.1 of
Bluetooth describes a low power, short range wireless
networking technology that uses radio waves to send
data at rates up to 720 kilobits a second.
The specification for Bluetooth provides for different
classes of radio that allow transmission ranges of
up to 100 meters by boosting the radio power. The
technology of Bluetooth isn't limited to line of
sight transmission since it uses directional waves
that are capable of transmitting through many
Bluetooth is an industry standard communication of
wireless, meaning that it enables the connection
of other devices as well, such as cell phones,
computers, digital cameras, and other types of
electronic devices. The specification of Bluetooth
defines a radio system and a "stack" of protocol
layers and profiles. The highest layer is the
application layer, while the lowest layer is the
The wireless technology of Bluetooth is positioned
to revolutionize the personal connectivity market
by providing freedom from inconvenient fixed type
The specification for Bluetooth eliminates the need
for cables by providing a small form factor, low
cost wireless solution that will link computers,
cell phones, and other electronics. Bluetooth
also allows users to connect many ranges of devices
quickly and easily and expands communications
capabilities as well.
The size of the Bluetooth radio is amazing, as a
Bluetooth radio can be built into one or two very
small microchips then integrated into any electronic
device where wireless operations would be an
Bluetooth also offers a robust link, which ensures
that normal operating circumstances are not
interrupted by interference from other signals
that are operating in the same frequency band.
Also known for its worldwide operation, Bluetooth
radio operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band, which
is license free and available to any type of
radio system in the world. No matter where you
are in the world, you count on Bluetooth to work.
Security is also important. Offering advanced
security mechanisms, Bluetooth ensures a high level
of security. Therefore, authentification will
prevent unauthorized acess to important data and
make it very difficult to listen in.
Bluetooth also boasts power optimization. The radio
is power friendly and the software for Bluetooth
is very configurable, limiting the power consumption
of equipment. The radio itself only consumes a
small amount of power from a cellular phone.
Below, you'll find a list of the most used terms in
Bluetooth technology. They can serve as a look up,
or to help you learn more about Bluetooth terms in
2 in 1 handset
The situation where a subscriber's handset is acting
as a remote handset to a base unit that provides a
Third generation, referring to the next generation
of digital phone technology.
A wireless LAN specification defined by the IEEE.
Each base band packet will start with an access code,
which can be one of 3 types - CAC, DAC, and IAC.
Asynchronous Connectionless Link. This is one of the
two types of data links that are defined for Bluetooth.
Authenticated Ciphering Offset.
During the active mode, the unit will actively
participate on the channel. The master will schedule
the transmission based on traffic demands from the
The process of verifying who is at the opposite end
of the link.
A device whose identity has been verified during the
lifetime of the current link based on the
This describes the specification of the digital
signal processing aspect of the hardware - the
controller - which carries out the baseband
Abreviation of baseband.
Bit Error Rate.
The above is more of an intro to the terms that are
used with Bluetooth. Bluetooth currently has hundreds
of devices, making it the best wireless solution in
the world. With more coming out every day, you can
bet that Bluetooth will be around for many years to
If you are new to Bluetooth, the terms used can be
very helpful. There are hundreds of glossary terms
that apply to Bluetooth, many of which describe
shortcuts to common terms. You can learn a lot by
reading over the meanings, especially if you have
never used Bluetooth technology before.
Those of you who have experience with Bluetooth,
can look over the glossary of terms to brush up
on your knowledge or just check out what an unfamiliar
term actually means. Nothing is complicated with
the meanings, although they make take some getting
Once you have been around Bluetooth for a while,
you'll find yourself right at home with the terms
and meanings to the technology. All you need to do
is play around with it, and read books or manuals
whenever you get the chance. Before you know it,
you'll be a professional in the vast world of
Bluetooth Technical Operations
Bluetooth is a high speed, low powered wireless link
technology that's designed to connect phones or other
portable equipment together with little to no work
required by the user. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth
doesn't require line of site positioning to work.
Current prototype circuits are contained on a board
that is 0.9 cm square, with a much smaller circuit
board being developed.
When one Bluetooth device comes in contact with
another, they will automatically exchange addresses
and details of capability. Then, they can establish
a 1 MB link with security that they will use as
required. The protocols involved with handle both
data and voice, with a very flexible topography.
The technology achieves its goal by embedding tiny,
non expensive short range tranceivers into the
devices available today. The radio operates on the
2.45 GHz frequency band, and supports up to 721
KBps, along with three voice channels.
Each devices offers a unique 48 bit address from
the IEEE 802 standard, with the connections being
point to point or multipoint. The max range is
10 meters, although it can be extended to 100
meters by increasing the power. The devices are
also protected from radio interference by changing
their frequencies, also known as frequency hopping.
What's important, is the fact that Bluetooth
devices won't drain battery life. The specification
targets power consumption of the device, limiting
the drain on the battery. The radio chip will
consume only 0.3mA in stand by mode, which is less
than 5% of the power that standard phones use.
Bluetooth will also guarantee security at the bit
level. The authentification is controlled by the
user via a 128 bit key. The radio signals can
be coded with anything up to 128 bit. With the
frequency hopping, Bluetooth is already very
hard to listen into.
The baseband protocol is a combination of both
circuit and packet switches. Slots can be reserved
for synchronous packets as well. Each packet
will be transmitted in a different hop frequency.
Normally, a packet covers a single slot although
it can be extended to cover up to five slots.
Bluetooth can also support data channels of up to
three simultaneous voice channels. Therefore,
it's possible to transfer the data while you talk
at the same time. Each individual voice channel
will support 64 KB.
From a technical standpoint, Bluetooth is very
different indeed. It's the best wireless method
in the world, surpassing even infrared. For
communication on the go, Bluetooth is indeed
very hard to compete with.
10 Benefits Of Bluetooth
Below, are 10 benefits and reasons to use Bluetooth
As you probably already know, there are many benefits
and advantages to using wireless devices. Along with
improving safety as a result of eliminating wires
you don't need, wireless also offers you plenty of
other advantages. When traveling with your laptop
or other wireless devices, you'll no longer have to
worry about bringing connection cables.
2. Bluetooth is actually inexpensive
The technology of Bluetooth is cheap for companies
to implement, which results in lower costs for the
company. These savings are then passed from the
company on to you.
3. Bluetooth is automatic
Bluetooth doesn't have you set up a connection or
push any buttons. When two or more devices enter
a range of up to 30 feet of each other, they will
automatically begin to communicate without you
having to do anything.
4. Standardized protocol
Bluetooth is standardized wireless, meaning that
a high level of compatibility among devices is
guaranteed. Bluetooth will connect devices to
each other, even if they aren't the same model.
5. Low interference
Bluetooth devices almost always avoid interference
from other wireless devices. Bluetooth uses a
technique known as frequency hopping, and also
low power wireless signals.
6. Low energy consumption
As a result of Bluetooth using low power signals,
the technology requires very little energy and will
use less battery or electrical power as a result.
This is an excellent benefit for mobile devices,
as Bluetooth won't drain the battery.
7. Sharing voice and data
The standard for Bluetooth will allow compatible
devices to share data and voice communications.
This is great for mobile phones and headsets, as
Bluetooth simplifies driving and talking on your
8. Instant PAN (Personal Area Network)
You can connect up to seven Bluetooth devices to
each other within a range of up to 30 feet, forming
a piconet or PAN. For a single room, you can
also set up multiple piconets.
Upgradeable is the standard for Bluetooth. There
are newer versions of Bluetooth in the works,
which offer many new advantages and backward
compatible with older versions.
10. The technology stays
Bluetooth technology is a world wide, universal
wireless standard. With it being as popular as
it is, you can count on it being around for years
to come. As more and more devices start to use
Bluetooth technology, more manufacturers will be
eager to make their products compatible. A chain
reaction will occur, making Bluetooth the standard
for cutting edge wireless.
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