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Bluetooth-Technology Articles


Bluetooth Technical Operations

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 427)
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Bluetooth is a high speed, low powered wireless link

technology that's designed to connect phones or other

portable equipment together with little to no work

required by the user. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth

doesn't require line of site positioning to work.

Current prototype circuits are contained on a board

that is 0.9 cm square, with a much smaller circuit

board being developed.

When one Bluetooth device comes in contact with

another, they will automatically exchange addresses

and details of capability. Then, they can establish

a 1 MB link with security that they will use as

required. The protocols involved with handle both

data and voice, with a very flexible topography.

The technology achieves its goal by embedding tiny,

non expensive short range tranceivers into the

devices available today. The radio operates on the

2.45 GHz frequency band, and supports up to 721

KBps, along with three voice channels.

Each devices offers a unique 48 bit address from

the IEEE 802 standard, with the connections being

point to point or multipoint. The max range is

10 meters, although it can be extended to 100

meters by increasing the power. The devices are

also protected from radio interference by changing

their frequencies, also known as frequency hopping.

What's important, is the fact that Bluetooth

devices won't drain battery life. The specification

targets power consumption of the device, limiting

the drain on the battery. The radio chip will

consume only 0.3mA in stand by mode, which is less

than 5% of the power that standard phones use.

Bluetooth will also guarantee security at the bit

level. The authentification is controlled by the

user via a 128 bit key. The radio signals can

be coded with anything up to 128 bit. With the

frequency hopping, Bluetooth is already very

hard to listen into.

The baseband protocol is a combination of both

circuit and packet switches. Slots can be reserved

for synchronous packets as well. Each packet

will be transmitted in a different hop frequency.

Normally, a packet covers a single slot although

it can be extended to cover up to five slots.

Bluetooth can also support data channels of up to

three simultaneous voice channels. Therefore,

it's possible to transfer the data while you talk

at the same time. Each individual voice channel

will support 64 KB.

From a technical standpoint, Bluetooth is very

different indeed. It's the best wireless method

in the world, surpassing even infrared. For

communication on the go, Bluetooth is indeed

very hard to compete with.

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Key Learning Points Of Bluetooth

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 421)
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Bluetooth is easily the best in wireless handheld

technology. When it comes to learning, Bluetooth

can get quite complicated. To help you, you'll find

the key learning points of Bluetooth below:

1. Bluetooth is an energy efficient, low

overhead communication protocol that's ideal for

interdevice communications.

2. Unlike infrared, Bluetooth doesn't require

a line of sight.

3. Depending on the implementation, Bluetooth

can have a range of up to 100 meters.

4. The specification of Bluetooth consists of

a Foundation Profile Document and a Foundation Core

Document.

5. The protocol stack for Bluetooth consists

of core protocols, cable protocols, and even adapted

protocols.

6. The transmitter operates around the 2.4

GHz frequency band.

7. The data channel will change frequency, or

hops, 1,600 times in a second, between the 79 allocated

channels in the ISM band.

8. Bluetooth utilizes a spread spectrum

frequency hopping RF characteristic to ensure that

independant networking operates when the other

devices are in range.

9. A piconet is formed when one or more

devices open up a channel of communication.

10. A piconet can have a master and up to

seven slaves.

11. Communication of the interdevice is

based on the concepts of channels.

12. All Bluetooth devices are capable of

transmitting voice.

13. The channel has a total capacity of

1 MB per second.

14. There are two types of channels with

Bluetooth - SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) and

ACL (Asynchronous Connectionless).

15. The SCO channels are time oriented, and

are therefore primarily used for transferring time

critical data such as voice.

16. ACL channels are normally used for

communicating data.

17. Data contained in a packet can be up to

2,745 bits in length.

18. In a single piconet, there can be up

to three SCO links containing 64,000 bits a second

each.

19. To avoid collision and timing problems,

SCO links are reserved slots that are set up by

the master.

20. The masters can support up to three

SCO links with either one, two, or three slaves.

21. The slots that aren't reserved for SCO

links can be used as ACL links.

22. The LMP (Link Management Protocol)

will handle link level security, error corrections,

and the establishment of communications links.

23. The LMP packets will have priority

over user packets that originate and form the

L2CAP layer.

24. The L2CAP layer will ensure an

acceptable quality of service.

25. No more than one ACL link can exist

at the L2CAP layer.

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Choosing A Bluetooth Headset

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 416)
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Creating a good wireless headset for Bluetooth is

actually difficult to do. The regular wired headsets

are easy to design - with ranging styles.

Bluetooth headsets can never be as small or as light

as wired headsets, simply because it needs to include

the battery and extra functions. This extra size

will impact how the headset mounts on or around

your ears.

Comfort

There seems to be two main styles of headsets for

Bluetooth. Some are held into place with a loop

around the ear. These styles are normally more

comfortable, although they may be less secure. The

others are held in place by being jammed into

your ear - and usually prove to be less comfortable.

Factors to consider

Cost

The cost is an obvious issue, something that you

really need to think about.

Ergonomics

1. Check to see if the device is easy to

quickly and conveniently put on your ear then take

it off again.

2. Are the control buttons on the headset

easy to use?

3. The headset should be comfortable to

wear for long phone calls.

4. Can you use it with a pair of glasses?

5. Check to see if you can wear it with

either ear.

6. When you aren't wearing it, you'll

need to se how you would carry it with you.

7. The weight is important as well, as you

don't want something that has the risk of falling

off.

Ease of use.

1. The commands and controls should be

easy to remember.

2. The volume level should be easy to

adjust.

3. The unit should turn on quickly.

4. The manual should be very well written

and easy for you to understand.

5. There should be a support number for

you to call if you should experience any types of

problems.

Features

1. You'll need to know about the battery,

the talk time, type, and how to tell when it is

going dead or fully charged.

2. How many devices can the unit be paired

with?

3. Compatability is also important, as

well as the warranty period.

4. Check the sound quality for both

sending and receiving audio.

5. What type of range does the headset offer

you?

Other important capabilities include voice tags,

last number redial, tranfer calls, 3 way calling,

link to other phones, call reject, and mute. You'll

also want to note if it looks attractive, and if

it's too big or too small.

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10 Benefits Of Bluetooth

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 433)
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Below, are 10 benefits and reasons to use Bluetooth

technology.

1. Wireless

As you probably already know, there are many benefits

and advantages to using wireless devices. Along with

improving safety as a result of eliminating wires

you don't need, wireless also offers you plenty of

other advantages. When traveling with your laptop

or other wireless devices, you'll no longer have to

worry about bringing connection cables.

2. Bluetooth is actually inexpensive

The technology of Bluetooth is cheap for companies

to implement, which results in lower costs for the

company. These savings are then passed from the

company on to you.

3. Bluetooth is automatic

Bluetooth doesn't have you set up a connection or

push any buttons. When two or more devices enter

a range of up to 30 feet of each other, they will

automatically begin to communicate without you

having to do anything.

4. Standardized protocol

Bluetooth is standardized wireless, meaning that

a high level of compatibility among devices is

guaranteed. Bluetooth will connect devices to

each other, even if they aren't the same model.

5. Low interference

Bluetooth devices almost always avoid interference

from other wireless devices. Bluetooth uses a

technique known as frequency hopping, and also

low power wireless signals.

6. Low energy consumption

As a result of Bluetooth using low power signals,

the technology requires very little energy and will

use less battery or electrical power as a result.

This is an excellent benefit for mobile devices,

as Bluetooth won't drain the battery.

7. Sharing voice and data

The standard for Bluetooth will allow compatible

devices to share data and voice communications.

This is great for mobile phones and headsets, as

Bluetooth simplifies driving and talking on your

cell phone.

8. Instant PAN (Personal Area Network)

You can connect up to seven Bluetooth devices to

each other within a range of up to 30 feet, forming

a piconet or PAN. For a single room, you can

also set up multiple piconets.

9. Upgradeable

Upgradeable is the standard for Bluetooth. There

are newer versions of Bluetooth in the works,

which offer many new advantages and backward

compatible with older versions.

10. The technology stays

Bluetooth technology is a world wide, universal

wireless standard. With it being as popular as

it is, you can count on it being around for years

to come. As more and more devices start to use

Bluetooth technology, more manufacturers will be

eager to make their products compatible. A chain

reaction will occur, making Bluetooth the standard

for cutting edge wireless.

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Bluetooth Glossary

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 443)
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Below, you'll find a list of the most used terms in

Bluetooth technology. They can serve as a look up,

or to help you learn more about Bluetooth terms in

general.

2 in 1 handset

The situation where a subscriber's handset is acting

as a remote handset to a base unit that provides a

network connection.

3G

Third generation, referring to the next generation

of digital phone technology.

802.11 WLAN

A wireless LAN specification defined by the IEEE.

Access code

Each base band packet will start with an access code,

which can be one of 3 types - CAC, DAC, and IAC.

ACK

Acknowledge.

ACL

Asynchronous Connectionless Link. This is one of the

two types of data links that are defined for Bluetooth.

ACO

Authenticated Ciphering Offset.

Active mode

During the active mode, the unit will actively

participate on the channel. The master will schedule

the transmission based on traffic demands from the

different slaves.

AP

Access point.

Authentification

The process of verifying who is at the opposite end

of the link.

Authentification device

A device whose identity has been verified during the

lifetime of the current link based on the

authentification procedure.

Baseband

This describes the specification of the digital

signal processing aspect of the hardware - the

controller - which carries out the baseband

protocols.

BB

Abreviation of baseband.

BD

Bluetooth device.

BER

Bit Error Rate.

The above is more of an intro to the terms that are

used with Bluetooth. Bluetooth currently has hundreds

of devices, making it the best wireless solution in

the world. With more coming out every day, you can

bet that Bluetooth will be around for many years to

come.

If you are new to Bluetooth, the terms used can be

very helpful. There are hundreds of glossary terms

that apply to Bluetooth, many of which describe

shortcuts to common terms. You can learn a lot by

reading over the meanings, especially if you have

never used Bluetooth technology before.

Those of you who have experience with Bluetooth,

can look over the glossary of terms to brush up

on your knowledge or just check out what an unfamiliar

term actually means. Nothing is complicated with

the meanings, although they make take some getting

used to.

Once you have been around Bluetooth for a while,

you'll find yourself right at home with the terms

and meanings to the technology. All you need to do

is play around with it, and read books or manuals

whenever you get the chance. Before you know it,

you'll be a professional in the vast world of

Bluetooth wireless.

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The Bluetooth Solution

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 290)
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The technology of Bluetooth will take small area

networking to the next level by removing the need

for user intervention and help keep transmission

power very low to preserve battery power. Each

transmission signal to and from your cellular

phone will use just 1 mw of power, giving you

plenty of space on your battery to talk.

Bluetooth is a networking standard that will

work on two levels:

1. It will provide agreement at the

physical level, as Bluetooth is a radio frequency

standard.

2. It will provide agreement at the level

of protocol, where products will have to agree

on when bits are sent, how many are sent, and how

the parties in conversation can be sure the message

recieved is the same one that was sent.

The major draws to Bluetooth is the fact that

it's wireless, inexpensive, and automatic. There

are other ways to get around wires, including

infrared. Infrared uses light waves of a lower

frequency than the human eye can, and is normally

used in television remote controls.

The technology of Bluetooth is intended to get

around the problems that normally come with

infrared systems. The 1.0 older standard of

Bluetooth has a max transfer speed of 1 MB a

second, while the 2.0 Bluetooth standard can

manage up to 3.0 MB a second. To make things

better, 2.0 is compatible with 1.0 devices.

As a solution to wireless, Bluetooth will

eliminate the need for messy cords, keeping

everything nice and neat. It's perfect for those

who like to talk on cell phones, as you no

longer need to hold the phone next to your

ear - which is great for those who travel a

lot.

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Bluetooth Applications

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 312)
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With Bluetooth being very popular with wireless, it's

no wonder there are many applications available for

the technology. Below, you'll find the applications

for Bluetooth.

1. Wireless networking between laptops and desktop

computers, or desktops that are in a confined space

and little bandwidth is needed.

2. Peripherals such as mice, keyboards, and printers.

3. Cell phones with Bluetooth technology have been

sold in large numbers, as they are able to connect to

computers, PDAs (Personal Data Assistant), and various

other devices. The standard also includes the

support for more powerful and longer range devices.

4. The transfer of files, images and MP3, between

mobile phones.

5. Certain MP3 players and digital cameras to

transfer files to and from computers.

6. Bluetooth technology headsets for smart phones

and cell phones.

7. Data logging equipment that transmits data to

a computer via Bluetooth technology.

8. Sony Playstation 3 and Nintendo Revolution will

both use Bluetooth technology for their wireless

controllers.

For Bluetooth, there are literally hundreds of

different applications and devices available for you

to use or purchase. As you may already know,

Bluetooth is the most popular wireless technology

in the world. It's very reliable, very dependable,

and very hard to crack into.

There are many other applications for Bluetooth in

development now, many of which plan to take the

wireless age to the next level. Video game systems

are using Bluetooth technology as well, for their

wireless controllers. This is great news for gaming

fans, as Bluetooth offers the best in wireless

data transmission.

If your curious about applications for Bluetooth

that are still in development, you can search on

the internet. You can find all sorts of information,

especially when it comes to Bluetooth. As the

future arrives, you can expect Bluetooth to bring

bigger and better things.

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Bluetooth And Infared

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 310)
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With new electrical devices being produced every day,

the problem of connecting things is becoming more

and more complex in nature. The system that comprises

computers and other electronics makes use of varieties

of wires, cables, etc.

These parts will communicate through light beams,

lasers, radio signals, and infrared. The problem

however, is the devices and technology is often the

connection between each component. Therefore, most

electronic systems aren't used to their full extent

due to the problems and imperfections.

To help simplify things, a solution was created -

the solution of Bluetooth. Bluetooth is wireless

and automatic, offering users a variety of features

that have simplified the art of connection. Bluetooth

has revolutionized the standard methods of connecting

things to enabling almost anything to be connected

to a single system.

Aside from Bluetooth, there are other ways of

connecting wireless devices. One example of such

is the IR or infrared. Infrared allows low frequency

light waves to transmit signals to another component.

This technology is easy to create and the cost of

putting the IR device into a system is rather low.

Infrared technology is a one to one process. Due

to the limitation, you may only send signals from one

device to another, similar to a television set and

remote control. You can only transmit signals

between the two although not with a seperate system.

Aside from the fact that these two natures of

infrared are obstacles to acquiring results, these

same qualities have worked in advantage to the

connection. Infrared devices need to be lined up

directly, meaning too little interference can occur

between the transmitters and receivers.

The technology behind Bluetooth works by transmitting

signals through low frequency radio signals. The

path of communication is working on 2.45 GHz, which

is the same frequency band used in ISM devices.

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Bluetooth Wireless Networking

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 291)
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Bluetooth technology offers three different types

of defined ranges, based on output ranges. Class

1 devices are the most powerful, as they can have

up to 100 mW of power, with a regular antenna

giving them a range of around 130 - 330 feet.

The class 2 devices are lower power, offering up

to 2.5 mW of power. A regular antenna will give

them a range of around 50 - 100 feet. Class 3

devices use even less power, up to 1 mW of power

to be exact. With a regular antenna, they will

have a range of around 16 - 33 feet.

Even though you may not realize it, Bluetooth

wireless technology has never been intended for

anything other than short distance types of

communication. With Bluetooth wireless, the short

range is actually a benefit.

For one, the short range will reduce the change of

interference between your devices and those that

belong to others who are nearby. Overall, this

is a basic type of security, designed to protect

you and your devices.

Secondly, the lower power used for short range

means a longer battery life. Most Bluetooth

devices will get their power from a battery,

meaning that anything you can do to lengthen the

battery life is very important.

The wireless networking offered by Bluetooth is

actually among the best, even though it uses

short range communication. Bluetooth is used

with wireless controllers, the internet, and

even wireless headsets.

For the best in short range technology, Bluetooth

is extremely hard to beat. If you've never tried

Bluetooth before, now is the time. It's the best

with wireless networking, especially for those

who enjoy hands free talking on their cell phone.

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