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Breast-Cancer Articles


Breast Cancer Its Causes

(category: Breast-Cancer, Word count: 323)
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Breast cancer is a malignant tumor developed from cells of the breast, and it is one of the most common cancers affecting females, at time has not been established what is the exact cause of this one, but last researches clearly pointing that there are several risks factors;

These are the most probably breast cancer risk factors;

-Last researches have established that in the age group above 50 years there is a high incidence; on the other hand, in the age group below 25 years the incidence is very low. It is very important to say that this disease is very aggressive in patient 25-50 years old.

-Menstrual cycle is other factor that should be considered; common in the ladies who have a longer menstrual life, i.e. the onset of menarche is earlier and cessation of menstruation is late.

-The women that smoke and drink alcohol increase the risk of developing breast cancer.

-Breast cancer is developed more frequently in spinsters and married woman that have not given birth to children, or if given birth then have not breast fed their offspring.

-The women that have had a breast cancer on one side have greater risk to develop cancer on the opposite side, and if there are antecedents of breast cancer in their families (mother, sisters and daughters), there are greatest risks too.

-Breast cancer is linked with obesity and higher intake of saturated fatty acids

-Breast cancer is linked too, with the continuous or sequential uses of combined oestrogen plus progestin hormone therapy (CHT)

-Women that have been using oral anti contraceptives for more than ten years are more vulnerable to the development of this disease.

On the other hand, women doing 4-5 hours of exercises per week reduce their risk of developing breast cancer.

In short, these facts derive from the statistical analysis; they should not be taken as causative or predisposing factors.

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New Test For Breast Cancer Making Individualized Treatment Decisions A Reality

(category: Breast-Cancer, Word count: 617)
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Widely hailed as the next frontier in medical advances, the promise of individualized medicine is becoming a reality thanks to progress in understanding the molecular basis of diseases such as breast cancer. Scientists can now develop treatments that are tailored to individual genetic profiles, as well as tests to predict how a patient will respond to existing therapies.

Today, some women with early-stage breast cancer and their physicians can make more informed treatment decisions with the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Assay. This service provides quantitative information about genes from a woman's individual tumor to generate a Recurrence Score between zero and 100, indicating whether she is at high, intermediate or low risk for her cancer returning after treatment.

Oncotype DX is intended for patients with node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer who are likely to be treated with hormonal therapy. Approximately half of the 230,000 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the United States each year fall into this category, and are frequently offered treatment with chemotherapy, a widely used treatment with considerable side effects. Clinical studies show that chemotherapy improved patient survival rates in only 4 out of 100 patients, yet thousands of women continue to elect this costly and toxic treatment with only limited information about whether they might respond to it.

A recent study demonstrated that women with high Recurrence Scores are more likely to benefit from chemotherapy, whereas women with lower scores derive only minimal benefit. Further, only 25% of women fell into the high-risk group, compared to 50% in the low-risk group, indicating that this common treatment is not appropriate for every patient.

Elizabeth Sloan of New York City is one of the many breast cancer patients not likely to respond to chemotherapy. An active mother with two young boys, Elizabeth was considering having another child when she was diagnosed at just 40 years old. She wanted to avoid chemotherapy, with its disruptive, short-term side effects and potentially serious long-term implications, but also wanted to be absolutely certain that it wouldn't help her.

Working with her doctor, Ruth Oratz, M.D., at NYU Medical Center, Elizabeth decided to have the Oncotype DX assay, and was delighted when her Recurrence Score turned out to be low-indicating that she may not benefit significantly from chemotherapy.

"No two women with breast cancer are exactly alike. Oncotype DX provides information that goes beyond standard measures, like age, tumor size and tumor grade, in determining the likelihood of disease recurrence," says Dr. Oratz. "Oncotype DX gave Elizabeth and me added confidence and peace of mind in selecting the most fitting treatment for her."

For Susan Bakken of Denver, Colorado, Oncotype DX provided a different kind of peace of mind. Susan's Recurrence Score indicated that she was at high risk of cancer recurrence, and would likely benefit significantly from chemotherapy-to both her surprise and her doctor's.

"Based on the other tests I had, my doctor said he wouldn't have otherwise recommended chemotherapy. I was shocked to find out my result, but I was so glad I did because I believe this test basically saved my life," explained Susan.

Elizabeth Sloan is also grateful for the information she gained from Oncotype DX. "Not all cancers are the same, so why treat everyone the same way with something so toxic?" she said. "It's so remarkable that finally, doctors can distinguish one person's cancer from another-I'm just so thankful."

Oncotype DX is a simple test that can only be ordered by a physician. It is performed on a small amount of breast tumor tissue removed during a standard lumpectomy, mastectomy or biopsy, meaning no additional procedure is required.

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Adherence With Oral Meds An Issue In Breast Cancer Drugs Don T Work In Patients Who Don T Take Them

(category: Breast-Cancer, Word count: 557)
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In the battle against breast cancer, patients are increasingly prescribed oral medications, such as hormonal therapy, to limit the risk of disease recurrence. Research has indicated that patients should stay on these drugs for five years to gain maximum benefits.

But recently, the healthcare community has started to ask a question once limited to managing common colds, not cancer: Do breast cancer patients take their medications as prescribed?

According to the American Cancer Society, more than 200,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year in the U.S. Of those, approximately 100,000 have cancer types that are likely to respond to hormonal therapy. Taking the therapy as prescribed for the full five years can reduce their risk of recurrence.

Easier Said than Done

Based on findings from a recent symposium on medication adherence among breast cancer patients, candidates for hormonal therapy-some 500,000 women in the U.S.-may not be reaping the full benefits of their drug regimens. According to some research studies, non-compliance rates have reached as high as 40 percent.

The Symposium, called the Compliance Strategic Initiative (CSI), addressed issues that lead to medication non-compliance among breast cancer patients, and it identified possible solutions to these issues. Representatives from leading patient advocacy organizations and professional healthcare associations, as well as oncology experts and survivors from across the nation, gathered to share their perspectives. The CSI was led by a Steering Committee which included representatives from the American Cancer Society, CancerCare, the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP), and Y-ME National Breast Cancer Organization.

"Through research, we know that five years of adjuvant hormonal therapy in women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer prolongs survival and reduces recurrence," said D. Lawrence Wickerham, MD, associate chairman of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project. "And yet, studies also show that not all patients stay on hormonal therapy as prescribed. It is important that healthcare providers understand why women make that decision, so we can address the issue with the information, resources and support needed to help them through this part of their treatment."

Based on results of the meeting, participants gained a better understanding of the factors that contributed to non-compliance. Among those factors: patients often do not feel empowered to talk with their doctors about tough issues, such as side effects; doctors and other healthcare professionals aren't equipped with resources to assist patients in coping with or eliminating side effects; and after their acute phase of treatment, women may often feel they are left to manage therapy on their own. Physicians are under increasing pressures of time and performance and may not always have the skill set to listen well to their patients, or, simply not realize their patients may not be taking their medication. These factors combine to create communication gaps through which compliance issues can fall.

In conclusion, breast oncology advocates and experts who attended the symposium agreed that patient support mechanisms can and must be improved. Healthcare providers and patients each play pivotal roles. Through education and communication, they can begin to take the steps that will help some breast cancer patients reduce their risk of recurrence.

Two in five breast cancer patients don't take their medication properly.

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Alternative Breast Cancer Natural Herbal Treatment

(category: Breast-Cancer, Word count: 1356)
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In recent years, there's been an explosion of life-saving treatment in an alternative way with natural and herbal medicine advances against breast cancer, bringing new hope and excitement. Instead of only one or two options, today there's an overwhelming menu of treatment choices that fight the complex mix of cells in each individual cancer.

Let me ask you a question before you start reading this article:

If I could show you a natural cancer fighting strategy that when used alone or when coupled with conventional treatments could kill your cancer - would you be willing to spend 15 minutes reading and listenting to the audio of the patients. This potentially is a life changing report?

If you answered NO, then I wish you the best of luck with your doctor.

If you answered YES, then go ahead and read this report. Do not simply skim over it or skip around from section to section - but read it word for word. There is some cancer fighting information here. You won't want to miss a thing.

Finding out that you or a loved one has breast cancer can be absolutely terrifying. However, once you understand the causes of breast cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one can have more than a fighting chance of beating breast cancer. Unfortunately, these strategies can't help everyone survive, but if the person using these strategies has enough time left so that they can start to work, quite often they reverse their cancer.

Now, because you chose to read this report in its entirety - this tells me two things about you.

1. You want an aggressive no-holds barred approach to skyrocket your chances of survival beyond the ordinary.

2. You realize conventional treatments may not do the trick alone, and can potentially batter your body, destroy your health and possibly ruin you financially.

A Breast Cancer Survivor says that "We fight cancer everyday...and we never give up."

We know you are fighting for your life. At Cancer Treatment Centers and our mission is to arm you with every choice and offer you every chance.

Aggressive research, innovative new therapies, and highly-trained, experienced cancer practitioner of conventional treatment work to provide each patient with a personalized treatment plan, based on his or her unique medical condition, needs and desires.

Breast Cancer Treatment

There is hope. Some about treatment options available to you.

Alternative Cancer Treatments

Alternative cancer treatments that counter the underlying causes of cancer, help relieve pain, reduce side effects and help the immune system to more effectively fight cancer.

Let me be in brief about the things

What this cancer exactly is?

Cancer cells are always being created in the body. It's an ongoing process that has gone on for eons. In fact, the immune system developed components whose job it is to seek out and destroy cancer cells.

Cancer is not a mysterious disease that suddenly attacks you out of the blue, something that you can't do anything about. It has definite causes that you can correct if your body has enough time, and if you take action to change the internal environment to one that creates health, not cancer, while at the same time attacking cancerous cells and tumors by exploiting their weaknesses.

How we came across this disease?

Cancer has been around as long as mankind, but only in the second half of the 20th century did the number of cancer cases explodes. Contributing to this explosion are the huge amounts of toxins and pollutants we are exposed to, high stress lifestyles that zap the immune system, poor quality junk food that's full of pesticides, irradiated and now genetically modified, pathogens, electromagnetic stress, lights and just about anything that wasn't around 200 years ago. All these weaken the immune system, and alter the internal environment in the body to an environment that promotes the growth of cancer.

Cancer tumors begin when more cancerous cells are being created than an overworked, depleted immune system can destroy.

Constant exposure to tens of thousands of manmade chemicals from birth onward, chlorinated and fluoridated water, electromagnetic radiation, pesticides and other toxins, leads to the creation of too many free radicals and excessive numbers of cancerous cells.

Alone this would be enough to raise cancer levels, but combined with an immune system weakened by a diet of refined and over processed food, mineral depleted soils, and too much exposure to artificial light at night, the immune system at some point no longer is able to keep cancer in check and it starts to grow in your body.

Did you know about this?

Research shows that the immune system needy 9 1/2 hours of sleep in total darkness to recharge completely. When was the last time you had enough sleep?

As a result of all this stress on our bodies and the overload of toxins, what you get is a malfunctioning immune system and a body that is not capable of destroying the excessive numbers of cancerous cells that develop. Some, sooner or later, survive and multiply. And then you have cancer.

Overcoming cancer is a process of reversing the conditions that allowed the cancer to develop, and going after and killing cancerous cells.

The exact causes don't have to be known, though certainly the more varied the approaches taken to correct those conditions, the more likely you are going to hit on what works best in a particular case. What needs to be done is to strongly and dramatically interrupt and reverse these cancer-causing conditions so that the body becomes healthier, and no longer capable of breeding cancer.

The more cancer there is, the more serious the condition - meaning much has to be done - fast. In your personal situation it may be too late, or it may not. No one knows where that cutoff point is as even advanced cases can turn around.

This report acts like a suggestor to you. The most important things you can do for your health is to eat five servings of fruits and vegetables a day. But much, much more potent.

One of the basics of fighting cancer is going on a fairly low carbohydrate diet, especially sugars and refined carbohydrates, because they digest extremely fast and flood the body. Your body must then produce a lot of insulin to get the sugar into cells fast, and this feeds the cancer cells just what they like to eat.

10 Strategies to focus on when fighting cancer...

1.Kill Them Naturally And Safely Without Harming Your Body

2.Increasing Oxygen Levels In Your Body And Cells Can Literally Kill Cancerous Cells

3.Normalizing pH Levels which Can Stop Cancer In Its Tracks

4.Getting Methylgyloxal Back Into Cells Puts The Brakes On Cancer Cell Growth

5.A Strong Immune System Seeks Out And Destroys Cancer Cells

6.Eliminating Candida And Fungal Infections Vital For Getting Rid Of Cancer

7.Reducing Toxic Overload Vital For Successfully Fighting Cancer

8.Free Radical Scavengers Protect Cells From Damage

9.Increasing Enzyme Levels Can Wipe Out Cancer

10.Raising The Vibratory Level In The Body Disrupts Cancer Growth

11.Resolving Issues And Reducing Stress May Be Vital For Success Against Cancer

A natural and herbal approach to cancer is based on making the body healthier. This alternative cancer strategy is to strengthen a depleted, worn out, under energized immune system that is not capable of killing cancer cells as fast as they are multiplying.

This is part of changing the body's internal environment so cancer cells can't survive and so you will experience greater health in every way. You accomplish this by supporting the body's fight against cancer, by changing the body's internal environment to one that does not support the growth of cancer, and by directly attacking cancer cells.

You will learn about safe and effective supplements that deal with each cancer weakness mentioned in the web site. Products that can defeat cancer as they get at the underlying causes of cancer. That work on any and every cancer. Let's get started with the last one first...

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Early Detection Of Breast Cancer Saves Lives

(category: Breast-Cancer, Word count: 293)
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Significant progress in mammography technology continues to help physicians diagnose breast cancer in its earlier stages. When coupled with new treatment options, early diagnosis through mammography screening can significantly improve a woman's chances of survival. That's good news because in the United States more than 200,000 new cases of invasive breast cancer are diagnosed each year.

Mammography screening is the single most effective method of early detection. That's why an annual mammogram is recommended for women over 40. A clinical breast examination by a health care professional should also be done on a regular basis. Additionally, women can take charge of their own breast health by understanding their personal risks of the disease, performing a breast self-exam every month and reporting any breast change promptly to their health care provider.

Unfortunately, studies have indicated that a significant number of women over 40 years of age fail to get a mammogram, and of those who do, many never follow up with a second mammogram. Women cite a number of reasons for their nonparticipation, including lack of finances and lack of time. It is important that women know that there are resources available to help address these issues. For example, throughout the year, low-cost or free mammography screening is available to many women who are over 40 and underinsured or uninsured. Additionally, many mammography centers offer extended hours and some even provide child care for moms having mammograms.

In an effort to encourage women to have an annual mammography screening, National Breast Cancer Awareness Month (NBCAM) sponsors recommend making every day National Mammography Day. Whether it means scheduling an appointment on a 40th birthday, or if it means reminding a friend to make an appointment, every step counts.

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Can You Reduce Your Risk Of Breast Cancer

(category: Breast-Cancer, Word count: 1210)
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The more you understand about any subject, the more interesting it becomes. As you read this article you'll find that the subject of cancer is certainly no exception.

We hear it all the time?lose weight for your health. Few people however, realize the extent to which this is critical to their physical well-being and ultimately their life expectancy.

In January 2003, the Journal of the American Medical Association featured a study finding that obesity appears to lessen life expectancy, especially among young adults. The researchers compared Body-Mass Index (BMI) to longevity and found a correlation between premature death and higher BMIs. For example, a 20-year-old white male, 5'10" weighing 288 pounds with a BMI of greater than 40 was estimated to lose 13 years of his life as a result of obesity.Jamie McManus, M.D., F.A.A.F.P. and author of "Your Personal Guide to Wellness" notes that while this study referenced extreme levels of obesity, there are still millions of overweight people in developed countries with a life expectancy rate that is three to five years less than their healthy-weight counterparts. She also estimates that there are 600,000 obesity related deaths each year in America.

Just how does obesity shorten our lifespan? The answer to this question is complex, yet there is a clear link between obesity and the development of cancer. An extensive study conducted by the American Cancer Institute involving 750,000 people showed that obesity significantly increased the risk of cancer developing in the following organs: breast, colon, ovaries, uterus, pancreas, kidneys and gallbladder.

Michael Thun, MD, vice-president of epidemiology and surveillance research for the American Cancer Society (ACS) says one reason obesity may raise cancer risk is because fat cells produce a form of estrogen called estradiol that promotes rapid division of cells, increasing chances of a random genetic error while cells are replicating, which can lead to cancer. In addition, fat centered around the abdomen may increase insulin and insulin-like growth factors in the blood, which may increase cancer risk.

"Women who are obese after menopause have a 50% higher relative risk of breast cancer," notes Thun, "and obese men have a 40% higher relative risk of colon cancer?. Gallbladder and endometrial cancer risks are five times higher for obese individuals".There is evidence that cancer rates in developed countries are increasing at 5 to 15 times faster than developing countries. A major contributor to this alarming reality has proven to be diet. In populations where the diet consists mostly of fresh fruit and vegetables and whole grains ? in contrast to the typical Western diet of fatty meats, refined flours, oils and sugars ? the risk of cancer is much lower.

The interaction of diet and the development of cancer is an active field of research and Dr David Heber, M.D., Ph.D. and author of "What Color is Your Diet", says "It appears that diet has its most significant effects after the cancer has already formed, acting to inhibit or stimulate the growth of that cancer". At the risk of oversimplifying a complex set of interactions, the typical Western diet that leads to obesity may actually act to stimulate the growth of cancer cells.It is never too late to improve your health through healthful eating and adopting a more health-giving lifestyle. Here are simple steps to follow which can make an immediate improvement to your health and vitality.

The best time to learn about cancer is before you're in the thick of things. Wise readers will keep reading to earn some valuable cancer experience while it's still free.

1. Check your Body Mass Index (BMI) to determine if weight has become health risk. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 60% of Americans are overweight, defined as having a BMI (a ratio of height to weight) over 25. Of those, nearly half (27%) qualify as obese, with a body mass index of 30 or more. In 1980, just 15% of Americans were considered obese. You can check your BMI at the website below.

2. Match your diet to your body's requirements. If you eat and drink more calories than your body requires you will put on weight. Learn to control calories and portion sizes, make recipes leaner, and eat infrequently from fast food restaurants. Also learn how to snack with healthful choices.

3. Color your diet with a large variety of colorful, cancer-fighting fruit and vegetables. There are seven different color ranges of both fruit and vegetables and by choosing between 5 to 9 daily serves from a wide range of fruit and vegetables, we are extending our consumption of cancer (and other disease) fighting nutrients.

4. Eat lean protein with every meal. Protein provides a powerful signal to the brain providing a longer sense of fullness. The right source of protein is essential to controlling your hunger with fewer calories and necessary to maintain your lean muscle mass. Choices of protein should be flavored soy shakes with fruit; the white meat of chicken and turkey, seafood such as shrimps, prawns scallops and lobster and ocean fish or vegetarians may prefer soy based meat substitutes.

5. Rev up your metabolism with activity. If you want to enjoy a lifetime of well-being, exercise is a key ingredient. Colleen Doyle, MS, RD, director of nutrition and physical activity for the American Cancer Society (ACS), says adults should do something for 30 minutes each day that takes as much effort as a brisk walk. Children should be active for an hour each day. We are more likely to develop habits around things we enjoy, so seek activities which you enjoy doing. It is also helpful to build physical activity into your daily routine: use the stairs instead of the escalator or lift at work, park your car in the parking bay furthest from the super marketing and don't use the remote control to change TV channels.

6. Get support to ensure you develop a healthful eating plan and reach your goal weight. Whilst a small percentage of people possess the discipline to lose weight, many obese people have developed strong thoughts and habits concerning the food they eat. In order to establish new habits, most people respond well to some form of consistent encouragement and coaching. A study, "Effects of Internet Behavioral Counseling on Weight Loss in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes" shows that participants who had the support of weight loss coaching lost more weight than those who didn't. The study concluded that the support of a weight loss coach can significantly improve weight loss results.

Being overweight or obese has been identified next to smoking, as the most preventable major risk to developing cancer. Even small weight losses have been shown to have beneficial health effects. So it's never to late to start and you can never be too young or too old to be concerned about your health and do something about achieving a more healthy weight.

Now might be a good time to write down the main points covered above. The act of putting it down on paper will help you remember what's important about cancer.

In the meantime you can find out more by visiting the web site listed below.

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A 10 Year Drive To Put The Brakes On Breast Cancer

(category: Breast-Cancer, Word count: 356)
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Breast cancer is a highly treatable disease that now has a survival rate of 85 percent. Yet more than 212,000 women are still diagnosed with the condition each year.

Since early diagnosis is an important key to successful treatment, doctors say it's important that all women over the age of 18 do a Breast Self-Exam (BSE) every month, two or three days after their menstrual cycle. In addition, women between 20 and 39 should have a clinical breast exam at least every three years and women 40 and older should have a mammogram every year.

For the past 10 years, BMW of North America has worked with The Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation-the largest fund-raiser for breast cancer research in America-to help spread the message of early detection and to help ensure that breast cancer research continues. The groups' Ultimate Drive program has raised millions to help fund the efforts.

The initiative, fully underwritten by BMW, consists of two fleets of specifically badged BMWs making a cross-country trek, stopping in communities along the way to hold daylong events. People will be invited to test-drive the cars-at no cost to the participants-to raise money for breast cancer research, education and screening treatment programs.

The car company donates $1 directly to the Komen Foundation for each mile driven, along with whatever other proceeds are received from the program. Upon completion of every drive, each participant adds his or her own name to the Signature Vehicle-this year, a BMW 3-Series.

This year's goal is to raise over $1 million, bringing the program's 10-year total up to over $10 million. To help celebrate the initiative's 10th anniversary, the 240-stop cross-country trek has been expanded to include Alaska.

People can test-drive the cars to help fight breast cancer. They can also:

(*) Regularly conduct BSEs, have clinical exams and mammograms

(*) Stop smoking and stressing

(*) Get more exercise

(*) Cut or reduce their alcohol consumption

(*) Watch their diet. Try to eat plenty of olive oil, fruits, vegetables, grains, fresh fish and poultry.

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Lower Your Risk For Breast Cancer Heart Disease

(category: Breast-Cancer, Word count: 739)
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Many postmenopausal women are looking for alternatives to hormone therapy, especially in light of the recent Women's Health Initiative research findings concerning the risks of combined estrogen and progestin therapy. Of particular interest are phytoestrogens, which have been gaining popularity due to their "natural" status, alleged health claims, and availability in a wide range of foods and supplements.

What are Phytoestrogens?

Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring plant compounds that have some similarities to estradiol, the most potent naturally occurring estrogen. However, phytoestrogens tend to have weaker effects than most estrogens, are not stored in the body, and can be easily broken down and eliminated.

Observational studies have found a lower prevalence of breast cancer, heart disease and hip fracture rates among people living in places like Southeast Asia, where diets are typically high in phytoestrogens. In North America, knowledge of these reported health effects has stimulated great interest in the health benefits of phytoestrogens. According to the Food and Drug Administration, the sale of soy foods, a major source of phytoestrogens, has increased dramatically in the past decade.

Dietary Sources of Phytoestrogens

Phytoestrogens consist of more than 20 compounds and can be found in more than 300 plants, such as herbs, grains and fruits. The three main classes of dietary phytoestrogens are isoflavones, lignans and coumestans:

1. Isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, glycitein and equol) are primarily found in soy beans and soy products, chickpeas and other legumes.

2. Lignans (enterolactone and enterodiol) are found in seeds (primarily flaxseed), cereal bran, legumes, and alcohol (beer and bourbon).

3. Coumestans (coumestrol) can be found in alfalfa and clover. Most food sources containing these compounds typically include more than one class of phytoestrogens.

The Skeletal Effects of Phytoestrogens

Much of the evidence concerning the potential role of phytoestrogens in bone health is based on animal studies. In fact, soybean protein, soy isoflavones, genistein, daidzein and coumestrol have all been shown to have a protective effect on bone in animals who had their ovaries surgically removed.

In humans, however, the evidence is conflicting. Compared to Caucasian populations, documented hip fracture rates are lower in countries such as Hong Kong, China and Japan where dietary phytoestrogen intakes are high. Yet reports suggest that Japanese women have a greater risk of sustaining a vertebral fracture than Caucasian women.

Several studies have explored the effects of soy isoflavones on bone health, but results have been mixed, ranging from a modest impact to no effect. Most of these studies have serious limitations, including their short duration and small sample size, making it difficult to fully evaluate the impact of these compounds on bone health.

Ipriflavone Supplements

Ipriflavone, a synthetic isoflavone, has shown some promise in its ability to conserve bone in postmenopausal women. Ipriflavone has also been shown to have a protective effect on bone density in pre-menopausal women taking gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a treatment for endometriosis that triggers bone loss.

However, a definitive three-year study of more than 400 postmenopausal women concluded that ipriflavone did not prevent bone loss. Additionally, the compound was linked to lymphocytopenia (a reduction in lymphocytes) in a significant number of study participants. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that helps the body fight infection.

Risks and Benefits Are Unclear

Some studies suggest that, unlike estrogen, phytoestrogens do not appear to target breast or uterine tissue. This suggests that they may act more like SERMS (selective estrogen receptor modulators such as raloxifene and tamoxifen) than actual estrogens. However, in other studies high isoflavone levels have been linked to an increased risk of breast cancer.

Clearly, additional research is needed to further evaluate the effects of phytoestrogens before judgments regarding their safety and usefulness can be made.

Key Points

Based on information available at this time, it is reasonable to make the following conclusions concerning phytoestrogens and bone health in postmenopausal women:

1. Moderate amounts of foods containing phytoestrogens can be safely included in the diet but do not expect it to help build bone. Keep to the basic rule - eat the least processed forms.

2. Due to a lack of evidence and concerns about safety, supplementation with synthetic isoflavones (ipriflavone) is in question.

3. Postmenopausal women are encouraged to view evidence concerning phytoestrogens and bone health as conflicting and incomplete. For women who are estrogen dominant increasing their phytoestrogen intake may not improve their bone position.

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Reduce Breast Cancer By 45

(category: Breast-Cancer, Word count: 356)
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A US study of 13,000 patients showed Tamoxifen reduced the rate of expected cancers from one in 130 to one in 236 - a cut of about 45%. The American researchers ended their trial early when they said the drug's benefits became overwhelmingly obvious.

Other studies found that tamoxifen AND chemotherapy improved survival improved survival rates by about 40-50% compared to taking one treatment or the other.

Should women taking tamoxifen avoid pregnancy?

Yes. Tamoxifen may make premenopausal women more fertile, but doctors advise women on tamoxifen to avoid pregnancy because animal studies have suggested that the use of tamoxifen in pregnancy can cause fetal harm. Women who have questions about fertility, birth control, or pregnancy should discuss their concerns with their doctor.

Does tamoxifen cause a woman to begin menopause?

Tamoxifen does not cause a woman to begin menopause, although it can cause some symptoms that are similar to those that may occur during menopause. In most premenopausal women taking tamoxifen, the ovaries continue to act normally and produce estrogen in the same or slightly increased amounts.

Do the benefits of tamoxifen in treating breast cancer outweigh its risks?

The benefits of tamoxifen as a treatment for breast cancer are firmly established and far outweigh the potential risks. Patients who are concerned about the risks and benefits of tamoxifen or any other medications are encouraged to discuss these concerns with their doctor.

Tamoxifen ( ta-MOX-i-fen) is a medicine that blocks the effects of the estrogen hormone in the body. It is used to treat breast cancer in women or men. It may also be used to treat other kinds of cancer, as determined by your doctor.

Tamoxifen also may be used to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in women who have a high risk of developing breast cancer. Women at high risk for developing breast cancer are at least 35 years of age and have a combination of risk factors that make their chance of developing breast cancer 1.67% or more over the next 5 years. Your doctor will help to determine your risk of developing breast cancer.

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