Cisco Ccna Exam Tutorial Igrp And Equal Cost Load Balancing
To pass the CCNA exam, you've got to know the role of the bandwidth command with IGRP and EIGRP and when to use it. In this tutorial, we'll configure IGRP over a frame relay hub-and-spoke network using the following networks:
R1 (the hub), R2, and R3 are running IGRP over the 126.96.36.199 /24 network. This is a T1 line.
R1 and R3 are also connected on a different subnet, 188.8.131.52 /24. The bandwidth of this connection is 512 KBPS.
R2 and R3 are also connected by an Ethernet segment, 172.23.0.0 /16.
We'll configure IGRP on R1, R2, and R3 with the router igrp 1 command. IGRP will run on all interfaces in the 184.108.40.206 and 172.23.0.0 network.
R1(config)#router igrp 1
The "1" in the router igrp command refers to the Autonomous System (AS). IGRP is a classful routing protocol, so wildcard masks are not used in the network statements.
R2(config-if)#router igrp 1
R3(config-if)#router igrp 1
Run show ip route on R1. R1 will see three equal-cost paths to the Ethernet network. IGRP supports load-sharing over up to four equal-cost paths by default, so all three paths appear in the routing table. R1 will also see a route to the loopback address on R2 and two routes to the loopback address on R3. (You can also run show ip route igrp in order to see only the IGRP routes.)
R1#show ip route igrp
I 172.23.0.0/16 [100/8576] via 220.127.116.11, 00:00:02, Serial0
[100/8576] via 18.104.22.168, 00:00:02, Serial1
[100/8576] via 22.214.171.124, 00:00:01, Serial0
Remember that the numbers in the brackets following the network number in the routes are the Administrative Distance and the IGRP metric, in that order.
Note that classful masks are in use. IGRP does not support variable-length subnet masks (VLSM).
There are two serial connections between R1 and R3. IGRP is assuming that both lines are T1 lines, running at 1544 KBPS. The 126.96.36.199 network is participating in equal-cost load sharing because of IGRP's bandwidth assumption - that all serial interfaces are connected to T1 lines.
To give IGRP a more accurate picture of the network's bandwidth, configure bandwidth 512 on R1 and R3's Serial1 interface (the interfaces on the 188.8.131.52 network).
R3(config)#interface serial 1
IGRP's assumption that all serial lines run at 1544 KBPS is overridden by the bandwidth 512 command. IGRP now believes this line runs at 512 KBPS.
To see the effect of this command, clear your routing table on R1.
R1#clear ip route *
R1#show ip route igrp
I 172.23.0.0/16 [100/8576] via 184.108.40.206, 00:00:24, Serial0/0
[100/8576] via 220.127.116.11, 00:00:17, Serial0/0
The routing table is cleared with clear ip route *. To see only the routes received in IGRP updates instead of the entire table, run show ip route igrp.
One of the paths to 172.23.0.0 is now gone - the route that went through the 18.104.22.168 network. Now that IGRP sees that link as slower than the others, equal-cost load balancing will not occur over the 22.214.171.124 network.
It's important to understand that the bandwidth command does not actually change the bandwidth of the connection; it changes IGRP's assumption of what the bandwidth is.
In the next part of this IGRP load-balancing tutorial, we'll take a look at how to configure unequal-cost load balancing.
Cisco Ccna Ccnp Tutorial Home Lab Assembly Case Study
Part of your CCNA / CCNP education is deciding what network topology to use when you're putting together your home lab. Some of you are starting with one or two routers or switches, while others are starting with more. A customer recently sent me a list of his Cisco routers and switches that he has available for a home lab and asked for my help in coming up with the best way to use them.
There is no "right" or "wrong" answer to this question; again, part of the learning process is configuring and reconfiguring the physical topology of your lab. Let's look at the routers and switches he has available, including the interfaces on each, and come up with one possible CCNA / CCNP home lab setup.
The equipment list:
Two 3620 routers. Each has 1 serial port and 2 ethernet ports.
One 3640 router. This has two ethernet cards, each with two ports, and two AUI ports.
Three 2503s, my personal favorite for home labs! These have 1 AUI port, 2 serial interfaces, and one BRI interface apiece.
One 2524 router. This has one serial port, 1 ethernet port, and one BRI interface.
One 4500 router. This has eight BRI ports, 2 ethernet ports, and more importantly, four serial ports.
He also has a 5200 access server, an ISDN simulator, one 2924 switch, and one 1924 switch.
Now, if you don't have this much equipment to work with, don't panic! Most CCNA / CCNP candidates don't; this is more of an exercise in looking at what you do have and using it to the utmost.
As I've mentioned in many of my CCNA / CCNP home lab articles, an access server is a great thing to have. All he needs is an octal cable to connect his AS to the other devices we choose to use, and he's all set. (If you need an access server sample configuration, there is one on my website in the Home Lab section.)
A frame relay switch is also great to have, and the 4500 will make a great FR switch. Having a frame relay cloud in your CCNA / CCNP home lab is a great way to get experience configuring and troubleshooting frame relay, an essential skill for CCNA success.
I would put both of the 3620s on the frame relay cloud via the Serial interface, as well as two of the 2503s. That gives you four routers that will be using frame relay to communicate, and that's the most we can have since the 4500 has four serial ports. The 4500 will need to be configured as a frame relay switch and connected to the other routers via a DTE/DCE cable. (Again, if you need a frame relay switch configuration, the one I use in my pods is on the website in the same place as the access server configuration.)
The two 2503s that are on the frame relay cloud should also be connected via their BRI interfaces. The home lab also includes an ISDN simulator, which is necessary to allow routers to communicate via their BRI interfaces. Just get a couple of straight-through cables to connect those two routers to the ISDN simulator and that segment is ready to go. (Remember that you can't connect Cisco routers directly via their BRI interfaces.)
All of the routers in this lab have at least one ethernet or AUI port, so we can connect them all to either one of the switches. The switches should be connected via at least two crossover cables to allow practice with trunking, root bridge election, and VLANs. Having two switches really does add quite a bit to a CCNA / CCNP home lab's capabilities. You can experiment with different subnets and vlans with as well. Don't be afraid to dive in - that's what a home lab is all about!
So now we've got four routers connected via frame relay, two via ISDN, and the others via ethernet segments. Two of the routers that are not using their serial interfaces should be connected directly via their serial ports. For this, you'll just need another DTE/DCE cable. Knowing how to bring up the line between two directly connected serial ports is an important CCNA skill, and so is troubleshooting it. You should be able to bring such a connection up with your eyes closed, and once you work with your own CCNA / CCNP home lab, you'll be able to!
Also, don't forget to add a loopback interface to each one of your routers. I like to use 126.96.36.199 for R1, 188.8.131.52 for R2, and so on. Advertising loopbacks is another great way to get practice with RIP, OSPF, EIGRP, IGRP, and static routing.
We've taken a pile of routers and switches and turned them into a fantastic CCNA / CCNP home lab. Whether you're working with two Cisco devices or ten, coming up with your own home lab topology is a great learning experience and the beginning of developing your analytical and troubleshooting skills.
Cisco Ccnp Certification Bcmsn Exam Tutorial Uplinkfast
You remember from your CCNA studies that when a port goes through the transition from blocking to forwarding, you're looking at a 50-second delay before that port can actually begin forwarding frames. Configuring a port with PortFast is one way to get around that, but again, you can only use it when a single host device is found off the port. What if the device connected to a port is another switch?
A switch can be connected to two other switches, giving that local switch a redundant path to the root bridge, and that's great - we always want a backup plan! However, STP will only allow one path to be available, but if the available path to the root switch goes down, there will be a 50-second delay due to the STP timers MaxAge and ForwardDelay before the currently blocked path will be available.
The delay is there to prevent switching loops, and we can't use PortFast to shorten the delay since these are switches, not host devices. What we can use is Uplinkfast.
The ports that SW3 could potentially use to reach the root switch are collectively referred to as an uplink group. The uplink group includes the ports in forwarding and blocking mode. If the forwarding port in the uplink group sees that the link has gone down, another port in the uplink group will be transitioned from blocking to forwarding immediately. Uplinkfast is pretty much PortFast for wiring closets. (Cisco recommends that Uplinkfast not be used on switches in the distribution and core layers.)
Some additional details regarding Uplinkfast:
The actual transition from blocking to forwarding mode takes about three seconds.
Uplinkfast cannot be configured on a root switch.
Uplinkfast is configured globally. You can't run Uplinkfast on some ports or on a per-VLAN basis - it's all or nothing.
The original root port will become the root port again when it detects that its link to the root switch has come back up. This does not take place immediately. The switch uses the following formula to determine how long to wait before transitioning back to the forwarding state:
( 2 x FwdDelay) + 5 seconds
Uplinkfast will take immediate action to ensure that the switch upon which it is configured cannot become the root switch. First, the switch priority will be set to 49,152, which means that if all other switches are still at their default priority, they'd all have to go down before this switch can possibly become the root switch. Additionally, the STP Port Cost will be increased by 3000, making it highly unlikely that this switch will be used to reach the root switch by any downstream switches.
And you just know there's got to be at least one option with this command, right? Let's run IOS Help and see.
SW2(config)#spanning-tree uplinkfast ?
max-update-rate Rate at which station address updates are sent
When there is a direct link failure, dummy multicast frames are sent to the MAC destination 0100.0ccd.cdcd. The max-update-rate value determines how many of these frames will be sent in a 100-millisecond time period.
Mastering the details of UplinkFast, BackboneFast, BPDU Guard, and Loop Guard are vital to your success on the CCNP exams, and one or more of these features are in use on almost every network in the world. Learn these features for success in both the exam room and the real world!
Passing The Cisco Ccna Exam An Illustrated Guide To Router Modes
When you're getting started on your CCNA studies, learning the different router modes is key to passing your Intro and ICND exams. But keeping those modes straight can be very difficult. (At least it was for me!) Let's take a look at the various router modes you'll need to know about to pass your CCNA, and use IOS Help to illustrate the different uses of each mode.
The first mode you'll see on a router (if the person before you logged off as they should have) is user exec mode. This is also the default mode a user is placed into when using Telnet to connect to a router. The prompt will look like this:
You can't write or add to a configuration in this mode, but you can run quite a few show commands. This is a good mode to have users in who need to see the configuration, but shouldn't be allowed to change it.
To get to the next level, type enable at the user exec prompt:
Notice that the prompt changed. This mode has two names, the official one being privileged exec mode. It's more commonly referred to as enable mode, since "enable" is what you type to get into this mode.
This mode gives you more options for show and other commands, but you still can't configure anything. To configure global commands, use "configure terminal", or "conf t", to enter global configuration mode.
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
The prompt has changed again, and now global configuration commands such as hostname and no ip domain-lookup can be entered.
From here, you've got a lot of options, but we'll look at three you need to know for your CCNA exams. To apply configuration commands to an interface, enter interface configuration mode, as shown here:
You must be in global config mode to get into interface config mode you cannot go from enable mode straight to interface configuration mode.
% Invalid input detected at '^' marker.
Interface configuration mode allows you to apply an IP address to the interface, as well as many other commands related to frame relay, ISDN, and dynamic routing protocols.
For the CCNA, you need to know about two other configuration modes. To configure console commands (such as password protection), enter line configuration mode as shown here:
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
R1(config)#line console 0
The prompt "(config-line)" indicates that you're in line configuration mode. Your console line is not the only line you'll be configuring for the CCNA, though your vty lines are used for incoming telnet connections and must be configured in a similar fashion.
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
R1(config)#line console 0
R1(config-line)#line vty 0 4
Notice that you do not have to exit one interface mode to go to another one. Let's say that you've configured your vty lines and now want to put an IP address on your Ethernet interface. You don't have to go out with ctrl-z and then start again you can go straight to interface config mode from line config mode. Just make sure you see the prompt change!
R1(config-line)#line vty 0 4
R1(config-if)#ip address 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.0
When you're preparing for CCNA exam success, there's a lot to absorb. Just take it one piece at a time, get some hands-on experience to go with your theory, and before you know it you're moving around in the different Cisco router configuration modes without giving it a second thought. Keep studying and your CCNA exam success is assured!
Cisco Ccnp Bsci Tutorial The Bgp Attribute Next Hop
When you're studying for the BSCI exam on the way to earning your CCNP certification, you've got to master the use of BGP attributes. These attributes allow you to manipulate the path or paths that BGP will use to reach a given destination when multiple paths to that destination exist.
In this free BGP tutorial, we're going to take a look at the NEXT_HOP attribute. You may be thinking "hey, how complicated can this attribute be?" It's not very complicated at all, but this being Cisco, there's got to be at least one unusual detail about it, right?
The NEXT_HOP attribute is simple enough - this attribute indicates the next-hop IP address that should be taken to reach a destination. In the following example, R1 is a hub router and R2 and R3 are spokes. All three routers are in BGP AS 100, with R1 having a peer relationship with both R2 and R3. There is no BGP peering between R2 and R3.
R3 is advertising the network 220.127.116.11 /24 via BGP, and the value of the next-hop attribute on R1 is the IP address on R3 that is used in the peer relationship, 18.104.22.168.
The issue with the next-hop attribute comes in when the route is advertised to BGP peers. If R3 were in a separate AS from R1 and R2, R1 would then advertise the route to R2 with the next-hop attribute set to 22.214.171.124. When a BGP speaker advertises a route to iBGP peers that was originally learned from an eBGP peer, the next-hop value is retained.
Here, all three routers are in AS 100. What will the next-hop attribute be set to when R1 advertises the route to its iBGP neighbor R2?
R2#show ip bgp
There will be no next-hop attribute for the route on R2, because the route will not appear on R2. By default, a BGP speaker will not advertise a route to iBGP neighbors if the route was first learned from another iBGP neighbor.
Luckily for us, there are several ways around this rule. The most common is the use of route reflectors, and we'll look at RRs in a future free BGP tutorial.
Cisco Ccna Certification The Importance Of Hands On Practice
CCNA and CCNP candidates hear it all the time: "you have to get some hands-on experience to pass the exams".
Candidates tend to think that's just so they can solve the simulator problems, but that's only the more obvious reason.
First, I want to make it clear that I'm not bashing learning from books you have to learn theory before you can really know what's going on in the first place. The key is that to truly understand routing and switching processes, you've got to have that hands-on experience.
So if the simulator questions are the more obvious reason to get hands-on experience, what are the less obvious reasons?
Glad you asked!
You see what happens when things don't go according to the script. One of the biggest problems with learning your skills on software programs such as "router simulators" is that with simulators, things go pretty much as planned.
I have news for you: that doesn't always happen in the real world. While Cisco routers and switches are highly reliable devices, every once in a while you're going to get an unexpected result from a command. Maybe it didn't work after you typed it in maybe it has an effect on your prior configuration that you didn't expect. Maybe you don't know what happened - you just typed in that command and the router went nuts!
Sooner or later, that's going to happen to you in the real world. And as I tell my students, it's actually a good thing to have happen to you in a lab.
You don't learn to troubleshoot or fine-tune a configuration when everything works perfectly. You don't learn much at all when things go perfectly. And you're practicing to learn!
I often say that great chefs don't learn to cook on cooking simulators they learn in the kitchen, and they burn a lot of meals on the way to greatness. You need to screw up some configs on the way to greatness, and you can't do that on a computer program. You have to be on the real thing.
You build confidence by working with real Cisco routers and switches. Would you want the Super Bowl to be the first football game you ever really played in? Of course not. Then why would you take router configuration exams and be nervous about having to create a VLAN, or troubleshoot an OSPF configuration?
You cannot walk into the testing room a nervous wreck. You must have the attitude that you are already a CCNA or CCNP, and you're just there to make it official. I can tell you from firsthand experience with many students that the way you develop than confidence is to work with the real deal.
You can't buy that confidence, and you can't simulate your way to it. You've got to work with real Cisco routers and switches. By working with the real equipment, you develop the real skills and real confidence you need to pass the CCNA and CCNP exams.
Passing The Ccna And Ccnp Home Lab Shopping On Ebay
Whether you're just getting ideas for your Cisco home lab or adding to your existing lab, ebay is a great place to get ideas for your lab as well as pick up some great bargains.
Of course, the internet being what it is, there are always going to be a few people looking to take your money while shipping you inferior merchandise, or worse, no merchandise at all. While these "dealers" are in the minority, you still need to be careful when purchasing Cisco equipment on ebay. In this article, I'll give you several tips on browsing ebay ads for home lab ideas, and a few things to look out for when purchasing equipment on ebay.
For those of you just starting your Cisco certification pursuit, the idea of purchasing a home lab kit - a set of routers, switches, and perhaps some cables and study guides - seems like a good idea. Instead of putting your lab together one piece at a time, these kits allow you to get a head start on your studies.
One thing to watch out for in these kits is outdated equipment, or the inclusion of outdated study guides. Often, vendors will use these kits as a way to get rid of unwanted inventory.
The Cisco 1900 family of switches falls into this category. A recent search on ebay for "ccna lab" showed seven different CCNA lab kits that contained 1900 switches. The problem here is that the current CCNA exams do not test on the 1900 switches, which are menu-driven and do not have an IOS. You'll need to be well-versed with switches that do have an IOS, such as the 2950s.
The plus side here is that you will probably save money by using 1900 switches. If you're on a tight budget, having a 1900 switch is better than no switch at all. If at all possible, though, get a Cisco switch with an IOS.
The cables and transceivers included with these kits are generally exactly what you need to set up that particular kit, and this can be very helpful to those CCNA candidates who are new to the various cables needed to physically configure a home lab. Just make sure you're not buying a kit with 10 transceivers (used on AUI ports) when you've only got two routers with Ethernet ports.
Watch out for kits that include outdated study guides. I've seen four-year-old CCNA books included with some kits. If you already have your study guides, feel free to ask the vendor how much the kit costs without the books.
That leads me to the most important point. Get to know the vendor before buying anything. Visit their website and check their ebay feedback. If buying from an individual as opposed to a reseller, find out what conditions the router or switch has been kept in, and make sure to define the terms under which they will accept returns.
There's nothing wrong with buying equipment from someone who's selling their CCNA/CCNP/CCIE home lab, but just make sure you ask the right questions first. Professional resellers generally have their return policy right in their ebay ad; if they don't, ask for a copy.
Building your own CCNA and/or CCNP home lab is a little intimidating at first, but speaking as someone who has climbed the Cisco certification ladder from the CCNA to the CCIE, I can tell you that it is the best investment you can make in your career. Use a little caution, ask the right question, and soon you'll be leaving the world of "router simulators" behind - and you'll be developing your skills as a true professional should: On real Cisco routers and switches!
Tips On Buying A Cisco Ccna Ccnp Home Lab Kit
Buying a CCNA / CCNP home lab is the best way to be totally prepared for your Cisco exams. Most home labs are put together one router or switch at a time, but many CCNA / CCNP candidates prefer to buy kits where you get multiple routers and switches, along with all the cables and other connection devices you'll need.
While this is a good idea, keep a few things in mind when purchasing Cisco home lab kits.
Don't buy anything you don't need. The problem is that when you're first starting out with your Cisco home lab, you don't know everything that you need. (I sure didn't!) Keep in mind that you only need one transceiver per AUI port on a Cisco router, so if you're getting routers with two AUI ports in all, you don't need five transceivers in the kit. It doesn't hurt to have one spare, but three is a little too much.
More importantly, don't buy kits with old CCNA or CCNP study guides included. I've seen kits with books that were three years old and were of no use to the candidate. If you see a kit that looks good but includes books or manuals you just don't want, ask the vendor for a price that doesn't include the books. It never hurts to ask.
Watch the IOS version. Unless you've got access to IOS upgrades, you'll be working with the IOS version that's on the routers and switches when you buy the kit for a while. You don't necessarily need the latest and greatest IOS version for CCNA study, but don't buy routers with IOS versions beginning with "10" unless you have an IOS to upgrade them with. (And make sure the routers have enough memory to handle the IOS you plan on putting on them.)
Purchasing a Cisco CCNA / CCNP Home Lab is one of the best investments in your career that you will ever make. Exercise just a bit of caution when purchasing your kit, and you'll be on your way to true Cisco success, in the exam room and on your network!
What Is Mcse
MCSE stands for Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer. What is this term, really? While the term sounds like a degree that you would get in Microsoft, it is not really an engineering degree, per say. In fact, that is one of the biggest complaints about this learning process. Nevertheless, MCSE is a training course of sorts that is designed to teach individuals who want to learn how to handle various aspects of Microsoft skills. The goal is to have a group of people who are knowledgeable in the areas that Microsoft is specific. Let's explain.
Microsoft developed this type of training to allow individuals to get a specific training course, or several in various types of skills that pertain to Microsoft. The thing about this training is that it is specific to Microsoft. While you may learn to install a program in another course which would teach a broad range of information about all ways in which to do so, in the MSCE, you will learn strictly how it is done through Microsoft.
So, How Does MSCE Work?
In most cases, the training can be done in several ways. Students can take classes through certified teachers in school or they can study on their own. Some individuals feel that they have enough experience in the various uses of Microsoft to be able to take the test without taking a training class. The test is given at specific areas at specific times. In order to be considered, you must pay a fee of about $125 for each of the tests and certifications that you plan to take. The tests range in knowledge levels and in most cases, it is wise to take the training courses for MSCE prior to taking the test as it can be quite challenging.
You will find more information about MSCE throughout the web.
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