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Cisco Ccnp Bcmsn Exam Tutorial The Four Or Five Stp Port States

(category: Computer-Certification, Word count: 364)
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As a CCNP candidate and a CCNA, you may be tempted to skip or just browse the many details of Spanning Tree Protocol. After all, you learned all of that in your CCNA studies, right? That's right, but it never hurts to review STP for a switching exam! Besides, many of us think of the four STP port states - but officially, there's a fifth one!

Disabled isn't generally thought of as an STP port state, but Cisco does officially consider this to be an STP state. A disabled port is one that is administratively shut down.

Once the port is opened, the port will go into blocking state. As the name implies, the port can't do much in this state - no frame forwarding, no frame receiving, and therefore no learning of MAC addresses. About the only thing this port can do is accept BPDUs from neighboring switches.

A port will then go from blocking mode into listening mode. The obvious question is "listening for what?" Listening for BPDUs - and this port can now send BPDUs as well. The port still can't forward or receive data frames.

When the port goes from listening mode to learning mode, it's getting ready to send and receive frames. In learning mode, the port begins to learn MAC addresses in preparation for adding them to its MAC address table.

Finally, a port can go into forwarding mode. This allows a port to forward and receive data frames, send and receive BPDUs, and place MAC addresses in its MAC table.

To see the STP mode of a given interface, use the show spanning-tree interface command.

SW1#show spanning-tree interface fast 0/11

Vlan Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type

------ -- - --- --- ----

VLAN0001 Desg FWD 19 128.11 P2p

To see these states in action, shut a port down in your CCNA / CCNP home lab and continually run the show spanning interface command. Once you see this in action on real Cisco equipment, you'll have no problem with BCMSN exam questions. Just don't practice this or any other Cisco command on a production network!

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Cisco Ccnp Bsci Exam Tutorial Ten Ip Routing Details You Must Know

(category: Computer-Certification, Word count: 397)
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To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP, you've got to keep a lot of details in mind. It's easy to overlook the "simpler" protocols and services such as static routing and distance vector protocols. With this in mind, here's a quick review of some details you should know for success in the exam room and real-world networks!

When packets need to be routed, the routing table is parsed for the longest prefix match if multiple paths exist with the same prefix length, the route with the lowest AD is preferred. If there are still multiple valid paths, equal-cost load-sharing goes into effect.

The ip route command is used to create static routes the command ip route creates a default static route.

A static route with a next-hop IP address has an AD of one, while a static route with a local exit interface has an AD of zero.

A floating static route is a static route with an AD higher than that of the dynamic routing protocols running on the router, ensuring that the static route can only be used if the routing protocol goes down.

On-Demand Routing (ODR) is only appropriate in a hub-and-spoke network. The spokes effectively become stub routers. ODR uses Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) to send route information.

To propagate a default route with IP routing, use the ip default-network command. To do so with IP routing disabled, use ip default-gateway. You can also redistribute a static route into most protocols, but not IGRP. IGRP does not understand a static route to

The ip helper-address command takes certain broadcasts and translates then into unicasts in order to allow the router to forward them. These default ports are:

TIME, port 37

TACACS, port 49

DNS, port 53

BOOTP/DHCP Server, port 67

BOOTP/DHCP Client, port 68

TFTP, port 69

NetBIOS name service, port 137

NetBIOS datagram services, port 138

To name other ports, use the ip forward-protocol command. To remove any of these ports from the default list, use the no ip forward-protocol command.

ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) hosts hear multicast Hellos from routers, allowing host-router discovery. HSRP routers create a virtual router that hosts think is a real router. Both protocols help networks cut over to a functional router quickly when their primary router goes down.

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Cisco Ccnp Certification Bsci Exam Tutorial Floating Static Routes

(category: Computer-Certification, Word count: 421)
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Passing the BSCI exam and earning your CCNP certification demands that you add greatly to the networking skills foundation you created when you studied for your CCNA certification. You learned quite a bit about static routing and default static routing when you passed the CCNA test, and it does seem like that should be all you need to know about static routing, right?

One thing you'll learn as you continue to earn Cisco certifications is that there's always something else to learn! You may have heard the term "floating static route", which does suggest some interesting mental pictures. "Floating"? Floating on what?

In a way, a floating static route is "floating" in your routing table. A floating static route is a route that will be used only if routes for the same destination but with a lower administrative distance are removed from the table. For example, you could be using an OSPF-discovered route as your primary route to a given destination, and the floating static route would serve as a backup route that would be used only if the OSPF route leaves the routing table.

Now, how can that happen? After all, OSPF has an administrative distance of 110 and static routes have ADs of one or zero, depending on whether it's configured with a next-hop IP address or a local exit interface. One way or the other, 1 and 0 are still less than 110!

When you want to configure a floating static route, you must assign the route an AD higher than that of the primary route. In this case, we've got to create a static route with an AD higher than 110. We do this by using the "distance" option at the end of the "ip route" command.

R1(config)#ip route ?

Distance metric for this route

name Specify name of the next hop

permanent permanent route

tag Set tag for this route

R1(config)#ip route 111

The number entered at the very end of the "ip route" command is the AD of that route. If there is an OSPF route for /24, that will be the primary route, and the floating static route will not be used unless the OSPF route is taken out of the routing table.

Floating static routes aren't just a good thing to know for the BSCI exam and your CCNP certification pursuit - they're very practical in the real world as well.

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Cisco Ccnp Certification The Bgp Weight Attribute

(category: Computer-Certification, Word count: 354)
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When you're studying for the CCNP certification, especially the BSCI exam, you must gain a solid understanding of BGP. BGP isn't just one of the biggest topics on the BSCI exam, it's one of the largest. BGP has a great many details that must be mastered for BSCI success, and those of you with one eye on the CCIE must learn the fundamentals of BGP now in order to build on those fundamentals at a later time.

Path attributes are a unique feature of BGP. With interior gateway protocols such as OSPF and EIGRP, administrative distance is used as a tiebreaker when two routes to the same destination had different next-hop IP addresses but the same prefix length. BGP uses path attributes to make this choice.

The first attribute considered by BGP is weight. Weight is a Cisco-proprietary BGP attribute, so if you're working in a multivendor environment you should work with another attribute to influence path selection.

The weight attribute is significant only to the router on which it is changed. If you set a higher weight for a particular route in order to give it preference (a higher weight is preferred over a lower one), that weight is not advertised to other routers.

BGP uses categories such as "transitive", "non-transitive", "mandatory", and "optional" to classify attributes. Since weight is a locally significant Cisco-proprietary attribute, it does not all into any of these categories.

The weight can be changed on a single route via a route-map, or it can be set for a different weight for all routes received from a given neighbor. To change the weight for all incoming routes, use the "weight" option with the neighbor command after forming the BGP peer relationships.

R2(config)#router bgp 100

R2(config-router)#neighbor remote-as 10

R2(config-router)#neighbor weight 200

Learning all of the BGP attributes, as well as when to use them, can seem an overwhelming task when you first start studying for your BSCI and CCNP exams. Break this task down into small parts, learn one attribute at a time, and soon you'll have the BGP attributes mastered.

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Cisco Ccna Exam Tutorial Split Horizon And Hub And Spoke Networks

(category: Computer-Certification, Word count: 658)
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For CCNA exam success, you had better know what split horizon is, how to turn it off, and when to turn it off. Knowing when to turn split horizon off is also important in production networks, because it can cause a hub-and-spoke network to have incomplete routing tables on the spokes.

Split horizon exists for a very good reason - routing loop prevention. The rule of split horizon states that a router cannot send an advertisement for a route out the same interface that it came in on. Split horizon is on by default on all interfaces running RIP, IGRP, and EIGRP.

In this CCNA tutorial, R1 will serve, as the hub and R2 and R3 will be the spokes. We'll first configure EIGRP over the /24 network, the network connecting the three routers.

R1#conf t

R1(config)#router eigrp 100

R1(config-router)#no auto-summary


R2#conf t

R2(config)#router eigrp 100

R2(config-router)#no auto-summary


R3#conf t

R3(config)#router eigrp 100

R3(config-router)#no auto-summary


Running show ip eigrp neighbor on R1 shows that adjacencies to R2 and R3 are up.

R1#show ip eigrp neighbor

IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 100

H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq Type

(sec) (ms) Cnt Num

1 Se0/0 11 00:02:45 1 5000 0 1

0 Se0/0 161 00:03:01 1 5000 0 1

Each router will now advertise its loopback address via EIGRP.

R1#conf t

R1(config)#router eigrp 100


R2#conf t

R2(config)#router eigrp 100


R3#conf t

R3(config)#router eigrp 100


Running show ip eigrp route on each router shows that R1 has a route for both R2's and R3's loopback. R2 and R3 will only see R1's loopback address, and not each other's. Why?

R1#show ip route eigrp is subnetted, 1 subnets

D [90/2297856] via, 00:03:19, Serial0/0 is subnetted, 1 subnets

D [90/2297856] via, 00:03:04, Serial0/0

R2#show ip route eigrp is subnetted, 1 subnets

D [90/2297856] via, 00:03:40, Serial0/0.123

R3#show ip route eigrp is subnetted, 1 subnets

D [90/2297856] via, 00:05:17, Serial0/0.31

EIGRP uses Split Horizon by default to prevent routing loops. In this lab, though, it prevents full network reachability. R2 and R3 both form neighbor relationships with R1's Serial physical interface. R2 advertises its loopback address to R1's Serial interface, as does R3. Split Horizon does not allow a route to be advertised back out the same interface it was received on. This prevents R1 from advertising R2's loopback to R3, or R3's loopback to R2.

Split Horizon must be disabled to allow full network reachability in this lab. To do so, run no ip split-horizon eigrp 100 on R1's Serial interface. When Split Horizon is disabled, that will cause the neighbor

relationships to fail, and then reestablish. Run show ip route eigrp 100 on both R2 and R3. The appropriate route to the remote loopback address will now appear.

R1#conf t

R1(config)#int serial0

R1(config-if)#no ip split-horizon eigrp 100

10:02:23: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor (Serial0/0) down: split horizon changed

10:02:23: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor (Serial0/0) down: split horizon changed

10:02:27: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor (Serial0/0) ip: new adjacency

10:02:54: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 100: Neighbor (Serial0/0) ip: new adjacency

R2#show ip route eigrp is subnetted, 1 subnets

D [90/2297856] via, 00:00:06, Serial0/0.123 is subnetted, 1 subnets

D [90/2809856] via, 00:00:06, Serial0/0.123

R3#show ip route eigrp is subnetted, 1 subnets

D [90/2297856] via, 00:00:12, Serial0/0.31 is subnetted, 1 subnets

D [90/2809856] via, 00:00:12, Serial0/0.31

Disabling split horizon should be done with care, but knowing when and where to do so shows that you truly understand how this technology works - and that's a big step on the way to earning your CCNA!

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Cisco Ccna Certification The Path To Take After Earning The Ccna

(category: Computer-Certification, Word count: 254)
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Once you earn your CCNA certification, you've got quite a few exciting choices ahead of you! The majority of CCNAs go on to pursue another Cisco certification, and this is a wise decision. The more you know, the more valuable you are in today's IT market.

A question I'm often asked by new CCNAs is "Which certification should I go after next?" Often, these new CCNAs have their eye on the Cisco Certified Security Professional (CCSP) certification. While adding a security certification to your resume is an excellent idea, I strongly recommend that new CCNAs acquire their Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) certification before pursuing their security certifications. The CCNP requires you to pass three or four exams (depending on the path you choose) that will demand a further mastery of some subjects you studies to earn your CCNA as well as several important topics that you haven't seen yet.

The CCNP builds on the foundation of networking knowledge you built when you earned your CCNA, and your CCNP study will add greatly to your skills and resume. There are some common technologies that you'll see in many networks - BGP and route redistribution among them - that you don't learn about in your CCNA studies. By pursuing your CCNP, you'll also learn much more about OSPF, switching, and refine your troubleshooting skills. These are skills that will pay off in your current job as well as any future job hunting you do.

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Cisco Ccna Ccnp Certification Exam Attending A Video Boot Camp

(category: Computer-Certification, Word count: 356)
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When you're studying for the CCNA and CCNP exams, you've got a lot of different choices when it comes to training. One popular choice is choosing one of the many "boot camps" and five-day in-person courses that are out there. I've taught quite a few of these, and while many of them are good, they do have drawbacks.

Of course, one is cost. Many employers are putting the brakes on paying for CCNA and CCNP boot camps, and most candidates can't afford to pay thousands of dollars for such a class. Then you've got travel costs, meals, and having to possibly burn your own vacation time to take the class. Add in time away from your family and boot camps become impractical for many CCNA / CCNP candidates.

Another issue is fatigue. I enjoy teaching week-long classes, but let's face facts - whether you're training for the CCNA or CCNP exams, you're going to get a lot of information thrown at you in just a few days. You're going to be mentally and physically exhausted at the end of the week, and that's when some boot camps actually have you take the exam! You've got to be refreshed and rested when you take the exam to have your best chance of success.

How can you get the benefit of an experienced instructor without paying thousands of dollars? By taking a Video Boot Camp! There are some high-quality computer-based training (CBT) courses out there, and these courses offer quite a few advantages for the CCNA and CCNP candidate. These courses run hundreds instead of thousands of dollars, and you can train on your own schedule. It is important for you to make and keep that schedule, but instead of spending thousands of dollars and having to travel, you can get world-class CCNA and CCNP training in the comfort of your own home.

By combining a high-quality CCNA or CCNP CBT or video boot camp with a strong work ethic, you're on your way to passing the exam and accelerating your career. Now get to work!

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Microsoft Certification Farewell To The Mcse

(category: Computer-Certification, Word count: 325)
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Microsoft is in the middle of a major push to overhaul its certification program. Last year, they announced the new Microsoft Certified Architect (MCA) certification, which is not a written exam but rather a practical exam that will be graded by a board of examiners. Just applying for the certification will require 10 years' experience in IT as well as three years of practical experience as a network architect.

For those of us not quite ready for that, Microsoft has announced that it's also going to revise other certifications. The MCSE that we've all come to know and love is going to be a thing of the past. In its place will be a series of specialization exams and IP Professional certification tracks.

If you're currently an MCSE or working it, don't worry, you have plenty of time to adapt to the new tracks. Microsoft's official word is that the new certification structure will be implemented when the next Windows server/client version is released. For those holding MCDBAs, your current certification will remain valid and you'll have a chance to upgrade to the new certification with SQL Server 2005.

Those of us who have been on the certification track for a while remember the outcry when Microsoft planned to phase out the much-maligned NT 4.0 certification in the move to Windows 2000. There was quite an outcry from many certified individuals who felt MS was being unreasonable in their timetable and planned lack of support for the 4.0 certification. Whether you agree with Microsoft's planned changes, I urge you to visit Microsoft's certification site regularly to keep up with these changes.

Whether you choose to pursue any of these new tracks is your decision, but you owe it to yourself and your career to know about the new tracks. Change is inevitable in IT and the IT certification world, and you must be aware of these changes!

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Cisco Ccna Certification Exam Tutorial Configuring Dialer Profiles

(category: Computer-Certification, Word count: 329)
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The most common method of configuring ISDN is with dialer maps, but dial information can also be configured on a logical interface. To pass the CCNA exam, you must know how to configure and troubleshoot both dialer maps and dialer profiles.

Dialer Profiles allow different dialing information to be configured onto logical interfaces. The logical interfaces may have different dialing destinations, different remote router names, etc., but they'll be using the same physical interface.

Dialer strings are used on dialer profiles. Note that each logical interface has a different IP address, a different remote router to dial, and a different dialer string, but they will be using the same physical interface to dial out. The commands dialer pool and dialer pool-member are used to link the logical and physical interfaces. The number following each command must match for the logical interface to correctly bind to the physical interface.

R1(config)#interface dialer0

R1(config-if)#ip address

R1(config-if)#encapsulation ppp

R1(config-if)#dialer remote-name Remote0

R1(config-if)#dialer pool 1

R1(config-if)#dialer string 5551212

R1(config-if)#dialer-group 1

R1(config)#interface dialer1

R1(config-if)#ip address

R1(config-if)#encapsulation ppp

R1(config-if)#dialer remote-name Remote1

R1(config-if)#dialer pool 1

R1(config-if)#dialer string 5551234

R1(config-if)#dialer-group 1

R1(config)#interface bri0

R1(config-if)#no ip address

R1(config-if)#encapsulation ppp

R1(config-if)#dialer pool-member 1

R1(config-if)#isdn spid1 0835866101

R1(config-if)#isdn spid2 0835866301

When configuring dialer profiles, the encapsulation type should be placed on both the physical BRI interface and the logical dialer interfaces. The SPIDs are configured on the physical interface as well.

Configuring dialer profiles can be a little tricky at first, and the best way to master this skill is to get real hands-on practice in your own CCNA / CCNP home lab or a rack rental service. Either way, hands-on is the best practice. Best of luck in your CCNA studies!

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