Examining Careers In Criminology
Criminology may sound, initially, like a very concentrated field; however, the truth is that there are a number of different elements that play into the genre of criminology. As a result, there are a number of different careers that an individual will be able to consider when they investigate the life and options of one who works in the field of criminology. For all the many job opportunities and career paths that exist for those who are interested in the field, the field can be slightly difficult to break into for a person. This is due in part to the fact that the inquiring person needs to be well-rounded when it comes to education, but also because the person does typically need a good amount of schooling in order to be considered as a qualified candidate for these types of jobs.
One of the most obvious careers that will typically pop into the minds of people who are thinking about crimes would be the profession of a police officer. This is a very well respected field and does not require as much training and schooling as some other fields might. Applicants will need to be tested in a number of ways prior to being offered a position, and in some more urban and populated areas there is a more desperate need for qualified police officers. As a result, there is slightly more competition than there may be in a small town that is looking to hire police officers.
A drug policy advisor needs to do many things depending on their field of concentration. Some of these advisors need to be able to look at trends and crimes over a period of time, and then weigh this information against the rest of the information that the individual has needed to research. In some cases, this can include the number of deaths as a result of the drug and the number of violent crimes that have taken place in an area involving the drug as an instigator in the crime. By looking at this information, and also at how much annually is spent on the drug for different demographics, a drug policy advisor can make some suggestions regarding the medication or drug. Sometimes there are no negative repercussions as a result of the drug, but in other cases policies need to be put in place in order to place restrictions for the good of the public and the welfare of citizens.
Other productive careers also include crime intelligence analysts, advocates on behalf of the consumer, private crime prevention leaders, and individuals that are working corrections. These many careers require different and specific levels of schooling before the individual candidate can be seen as qualified for the job. Cost of education varies depending on where an individual attends school in order to receive their education and how long they are required to their university.
Careers in Criminology are not just open within the United States for individuals, but are actually located in different areas around the world. Different laws are established by different governments, so not all individuals qualified to work in the field of Criminology within the United States could do so in other areas of the world. Still, individuals that are qualified in different areas can broaden their search options and range by looking at careers outside their geographic location.
What Is Criminology
When people look into criminology, they may initially be surprised by how expansive the field is. Anyone that is at all associated with the scientific study of crime, the relationship between the criminal and his or her environment, and society's reaction to crime would have some sort of placement within the scene of Criminology. In some instances, criminologists are researchers that are trying to find the common links between deviant behavior and the environment, in order to try to pinpoint what it is that causes or perpetuates crime.
There are currently a number of different theories that attempt to explain, through the process of science, what it is that causes a crime to take place. These theories began to emerge in earnest in the middle of the 1800's. Over the course of the next 200 or so years, new theories began to spring up and eventually they began to involve genetics, hormones and biological makeup. Previously, theories of criminology rested heavily on society and the environment's effect on the individual as a source to either push an individual into crime or away from crime.
There are three distinct schools of thought when it comes to criminology. One of the first schools of thought, the Classical school believes that utilitarian philosophy is the supporting notion of criminology. They argue that individuals have free will and can decide for themselves what is right and what is wrong. The hedonistic, or self-indulgent, side of the body must be balanced against the rational of the individual. When the hedonistic side wins, crime may ensue. Rational is the side of the individual that would consider the penalty of the crime and, if the punishment is severe enough, is believed to be the piece of the individual that would keep them from crime by looking at the costs. Positivists are those who believe that the factors that contribute to the criminal's propensity to go against the law do not rest within their own control. Rather, elements such as society or the person's chemical makeup do.
These are things that are considered to be outside the control of the individual, but are still things that may play what Positivists claim as the biggest part of the responsibility when a criminal has committed a crime. In the Chicago school of thought, individuals believe that criminals are a result of the disorganized environments from which they come. Later, this definition was extended to include the belief that older generations taught younger generations about the role of crime. It is then fair to say that these individuals believe that crime is a social occurrence only where the social makeup of the area is broken down and unequal.
Crime is often considered to be a blemish when it comes to the society of an area. It causes people to fear when they should not have to. Criminologists are, in their own way, attempting to determine what causes a crime or instigates that type of behavior in a person in order to limit the amount of crime that takes place.
Exploring The Basics Of Postmodern Criminology
One of the most current theories to be designed within the science of criminology would be those that adhere to the postmodern perspective. When it comes to postmodern criminology, one of the most basic beliefs and supposititious is that not only is crime the result of the social interactions in an area, which is the foundation of most conflict theories in criminology, but also that the social context will play a part on the outcome of a situation as well. This extends on the conflict theories that were created, which suggest that the criminal is responsible for his or her own actions, and that the deviant behavior of the individual is what caused them to go against the social norms that have been established by the ruling government. By expanding upon theories that have already been created, it is possible for individuals to evolve the beliefs more and hopefully get closer to the truth of identifying how a criminal is created and what effects this has on individuals and the society at large.
Postmodern criminology supporters will look at a crime or criminal action and will go on to ask a very important question. Was the crime a result of the environment that exists in the society where the crime was committed? By identifying whether or not the culture was responsible for the crime or not, it is possible to learn more concretely how different instances in an individual's life will affect them. In some cases, individuals are forced to go against the normal responses to particular situations. There are many times in which an individual may have to kill another person, and while this type of violence is rarely enjoyed, it can be a last resort for certain people. A good example of this having occurred would be to look at an instance in which a policeman had to shoot a suspect in order to save the lives of many innocent people in the immediate area. The individual policeman cannot be said to be inherently criminal or deviant, because if the shooting is justified than he had no other reaction. Even if another reaction could have occurred, it may not have been as successful, beneficial or helpful to the individuals that were also involved in the situation. In making the decision to stop the shooter in the illustrated situation, the policeman stepped beyond the ordinarily imposed social norms that would define murder. Instead, he is more likely to be seen as providing a service to the individuals that were being threatened in the situation.
By building and rebuilding social contexts and responses, as a whole we can work together to create a better society. Within a better society, there will be less criminal elements to distract the public. This is because the responses that we develop will be more likely to benefit others in addition to ourselves in an honest form. When the society is more stable and healthy the criminal element will not be as prevalent, which is one of the important building blocks of postmodern criminology theories.
Rethinking Criminology Jock Young
Jock Young is a very important theorist when it comes to criminology. He has been able to contribute in a variety of different ways when it comes to how we are able to define crime as a society and what the sociological elements may be when it comes to the criminal element in a region. Many of his papers have been published in different books and journals. From there, his work has been able to influence the thinking and direction of other criminologists' theories and ideas. For the most part, his work has always been about pushing forward with ideas and theories in order to determine the roots of crime and how to eliminate the criminal element from societies.
This is important because it would lead to the general well-being of a particular area, while individuals would be able to relax and not worry or stress about the level of crime or violence in the area. Criminology, and Jock Young, revolves around the study of how crime is created and how it interacts with society. So far, we have not been able to determine a direct cause of crime. In order to make sure that we do, criminology constantly needs to be re-addressed and thought about from different angles in order to ensure that we are one day able to come to the correct and proper conclusions that would allow our societies to operate in a more effective and efficient manner, free of violent crime.
Different perspectives need to be used when viewing criminology in order to keep the approached to the science fresh and always evolving. In many cases, there are a number of approaches that need to be redefined in order to make them more applicable to different societies. It is also important that individuals who study criminology do not neglect cultural or societal differences between cultures and the crime that takes place in the area that is being studied.
While one theory may work in a specific geographical area, there are different cultural and societal aspects that may make the theory null and void in another geographic location, even if the crimes are similar in both areas. Criminology needs to be rethought when looking at different societies in order to make sure that there are the proper distinctions placed on the culture of the crime scene. Some other factors that may be important when looking at the ways in which the criminal element and the culture or society interacts would be in regards to gender, age and the type of crime that is being committed. These may seem like variables in the science of studying crime and society, but there are many reasons to believe that these differences may formulate completely different outcomes as a result.
In addition, there are some people that believe it would be more applicable to look at how a person maintains a non-deviant lifestyle as opposed to how a person might become a criminal. These are just some of the ways in which it can help to readdress criminology and crime in order to come to different conclusions about how we interact and function within the world when it comes to morals and non-deviant living.
How To Understand Criminology Theories
When it comes to understanding the theories behind connections between crimes and individuals or the community, many people may not realize that the beliefs that differentiate the theories are not as complex as they may seem at first. By simplifying the core of the theories, individuals are able to more properly understand the different theories that can help individuals to identify the theory that they most identify with when considering the interactions of crime and society. Once the foundation of the theories are understood, it is much easier to build upon the theory by including some of the more complex ideas supported by the theory. A number of theories exist, and many are being created daily on the part of individuals. However, there are a few theories that are more common and widely held as beliefs than other theories may be.
There are social structure theories, or those theories that the status and construction of the social setting will define the likelihood and amount of crime in the area. Individuals that are exposed to poverty and other signs of social deterioration are believed to be more prone to crimes and acts of violence. There are other specific social theories that believe crime is perpetuated by the inequality that exists within the social structure that is established. When people are unable to achieve that which society expects of them, such as the "American Dream", these individuals turn to crime to try to realize this dream. Individual theories exist in order to explain criminology within a society. Trait theories are those based on scientific knowledge of the human body and how chemicals and genetic material will determine or alter how an individual responds to stimuli. Aggressive behavior and antisocial tendencies are just some of the many personality traits of individuals that are involved in crime, and the links to genetics, hormones and other biological factors are currently being studied.
Some theories stop looking at what encourages an individual to become corrupt, and instead focus on the effects of society to explain how and why some people are able to lead productive and admirable lives. These theories are commonly referred to as control or social control theories. In an example, it is illustrated that an individual that has a greater degree of self control will be able to wait patiently while attaining their dream or goal instead of using possibly degenerate means in order to gain immediate access to their desire. Symbolic interaction as a theory examines the relationship of the powerful, ruling class and those that are less powerful. By integrating themselves into the belief that they were less powerful, youths that were looked down on played up to the role designated to them. It represents a self-fulfilling prophecy of sorts since the youths are taking the more powerful group at their word and transferring the definition onto themselves as criminals.
Of the last main theories that surround criminology, rational choice theory maintains that criminals weigh the pros and cons of an outcome just like anyone else. When the costs and benefits are dissected, the criminal will make a decision. They may also consider the time and place for the crime as well in order to find the situation with the lowest crime risk.
What Is The Definition Of Criminology
When thinking about what criminology is, an individual needs to first consider what aspects and fields are affected by the criminal element. Some of these fields will also either perpetuate or deter crime, depending on how they are used. Anthropology, sociology, law, research positions and others all tie into criminology. Criminology could then be defined as how any of these many multitudes of society's development and creation are able to affect how individuals interact, specifically when it comes to the degenerate element. Using science to approach the evolution of crime within an area or timeframe allows individuals to learn how an environment may respond to and otherwise affect crime. Certain things can be analyzed in order to come to a conclusion about crime and the criminal element within a particular area, such as any hereditary elements that may have had a factor or psychological issues that would have instigated the crime. In addition, many criminologists are also interested in studying how the punishment of criminals affects the likelihood of the same crimes being performed.
When people's actions or movements deviate from the normal status of things in a way which is excessively harmful or dangerous to themselves or others, criminologists may become involved in the situation. By studying both crime and the law, an academic person can come up with possible motivations for an individual's actions. These theoretical explanations are often helpful when profiling a person who has yet to be caught by the police, as well as when statistics are needed in order to illustrate a trend or issue for a community. However, it is not just crimes that are studied and analyzed by the criminologist. In addition, they also look at the criminal justice system on a whole in order to make sure that it is functioning in a sufficient manner that benefits the lives of citizens.
The definition of criminology is broad in order to encompass all of the different fields that fall under the term. However, by being more specific in the type of criminology that is being investigated, an individual is able to focus more on the individuals cornerstones of the different types of criminology that exist. For example, psychological criminology was a part of criminology for a long time but did not begin to be looked at on its own until the 20th century. This field looks at the abnormalities and mental diseases that may feed criminal behaviors. It is specialized in the way that proponents of this type of criminology believe that the personality of the individual is the breeding ground for the levels and types of crime that the individual will be capable of committing. Emotions and behavior patterns are often able to remain relatively stable and predictable regardless of what type of environment the individual is placed into, which helps academics to formulate the idea that this is what defines a person. Criminologists are able to look at crime and other related fields from different perspectives in order to analyze the cause and effect relationship of the crime, the individual and the environment in which they are immersed.
Exploring The Many Available Jobs In Criminology
With a criminology degree, there are a number of career paths available for the individual. Individuals that have just graduated are likely to get involved in these particular careers. These are some of the more flexible career fields when it comes to individuals who are educated by whom may not have the experience that some other employment offices may desire. In addition, these jobs are interesting and allow the individual to learn and explore aspects that they were not able to while in school. The hands on experience will help the graduate in many ways later on in their careers as well as at the time of their employment. One of these exciting careers is in the field of crime intelligence analysis. This is a very interesting field for individuals that are looking to have experience when it comes to deciphering the foundation of crimes.
Some other creative careers when it comes to criminology employment opportunities would go on to include consumer advocates, who work with laws and regulations that would either benefit or protect the average consumer from the manufacturers or corporations, environment protection analysts, who help to formulate different regulations when it comes to the environment and the protection that it can receive from the public and community members at large, and a regional crime prevention coordinator, who would be in charge of coming up with different methods in which to protect the residents in a region of the state. This is a position that would also help to come up with ways in which the community crime prevention members would be organized and structured in order to provide a more effective and efficient crime task force within the region. As a result, this career is very important when it comes to preventing crime within the region by understanding some of the underlying pressures and structures of the criminal element within the society or culture.
One of the most obvious career opportunities that exists for individuals that graduate with a criminology degree would be that of those who go on to become police officers. This can extend into other fields of the police department including detectives and criminal psychologists on the payroll of the police department. In this area, many people are able to come together in order to look at how society and crime interacts on an intimate level.
The crimes that take place are not looked at and analyzed in order to come up with ways to prevent the crime in the area, rather the police force is able to catch the criminals and hopefully take them out of the society in which they were raised or committing the crimes. In some cases, the police officers are able to work and interact with the regional crime coordinator, in order to create a more solidified union of crime prevention within the region, city or town. There are some other cases in which the police officers will interact with community correction officers, either because they are employed in jails where the criminals are required to serve their time or as parole or probation officers who are able to readjust the criminal to the society in which they live or to make sure that they are not violating any rules or restrictions that have been placed on them.
Successfully Answering Criminology Research Questions
In order to succeed at getting a degree in Criminology from almost any reputable college or graduate program, it will be necessary at one point or another that the students write research papers from the perspectives of different fields that relate to Criminology. In some instances, the professors of the classes will enable the students to come up with a thesis of their own. This allows more flexibility on the part of the student, since they are able to define for themselves what they want to discuss and what they want to leave out of their research. As long as the research that is left out is not critical to the thesis, this is typically allowed. However, in many cases the professors will not give the students this option. Instead, the professor will supply the students with a question, or a list of questions from which the student can choose the one that they would most like to turn into a term or research paper. The difference between these two scenarios is that the individual student needs to be sure that when they are doing a paper that has been assigned to them that they fully answer the research question posed to them. If this is not accomplished, it is very likely that the student will not be able to get as competitive of a grade as they would otherwise have been entitled to. This is why it is so important to fully tackle the research question.
When it comes to successfully answering posed questions with the greatest amount of success, students need to do their research. For many people, it is beneficial to use the internet as a source of information. Students need to be careful with this approach when they are trying to answer research questions for a grade. There are many different websites on the internet, and not all of them are reputable. Instead, students need to get their information for other places, or at least in addition to information found on the internet.
There are a number of different journals that are reputable and legitimate. Easily found in many libraries, the Canadian Journal of Criminology and the British Journal of Criminology are two of the most successful available resources. Both feature articles and information that comes from all different areas of the world and different academics. Many schools will also have Criminology databases that can be accessed by students and this too provides a valuable tool during the research phase of a students Criminology paper. The database includes journals, articles and periodicals that are popular within the world of Criminology. Searching is very important for students to accomplish properly and it is important that they not give up before the research is completed. Not only can this affect their grade, but it will not accurately show the capabilities of the students. In order to successfully answer research questions that are posed to students by professors and teachers, students need to come up with a well defined thesis that can be supported by different theories and ideas that are or have been expressed within the Criminology arena. Many professors are looking for new and expansive ideas, so this does not mean that the student needs to recycle material. Rather, they need to draw on the work of individuals that have come before them and use the knowledge of the past to help promote their new ideas and concepts.
Exploring The British Journal Of Criminology
There are a number of studies and journals that are involved in the discussion of criminology. One of the most widely read and well reputed journals that study and examine criminology would be the British Journal of Criminology. Quality pieces and articles that are contributed from sources from around the world are gathered in issues of the British Journal of Criminology. It is very easy for individuals, either from a scholarly or academic perspective or even those from a researcher's perspective, to use the British Journal of Criminology as a reference source because of the reputation that the Journal has. However, it does not just expose the work of different academics, but also publishes articles that peers write and have reviewed, as well as a book review segment within the Journal.
The British Journal of Criminology has its publishing basis within the United Kingdom, but its shipment range is much more expansive and in fact spans the entire globe. Regardless of their place of residency in the world, individuals can subscribe to the British Journal of Criminology. Even if an individual does not wish to subscribe to the British Journal of Criminology, it is also fairly easy to locate the Journal at libraries. Many back issues are supported in the libraries because of the notoriety that it receives in the literary world as well as in the world of the criminologist. Regardless of whether or not an individual is able or willing to secure a subscription to the British Journal of Criminology, the many different articles that are featured can have a profound effect on the individuals that read them. There are a number of different topics that are explored with each issue, and this allows the reader to learn about various aspects of the human mind when it is exposed to crime, and crime's effect on the community. Some of the perspectives that the articles deal with include criminology's relationship with sociology, anthropology, law, social fields and social work, and economics. By exploring the different ways in which these varying and equally important aspects play out in crime and within the criminal mind, individuals are able to broaden the ways in which they relate to and experience crime and the individual criminal, at least on an intellectual level.
Many instances exist in which an individual would want to reference the different thoughts and feelings expressed within the British Journal of Criminology. Sometimes a student will need to cite different sources in order to back up a particular thesis or type of thought which can be improved by some of the articles that have been published in the Journal. In other instances, the thoughts and ideas of others can be built upon in order to further define an individual's belief of crime and the criminal element. By establishing a theory with supporting elements, it is possible for an individual that was published in the journal to be contacted and asked to help in a criminal case. In many instances, this is done on the part of the author by elaborating on the conclusions that they have come to in their article or journal pieces.
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