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Common Turtle Species

(category: Environmental, Word count: 902)
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Turtle Species

Turtles are cold-blooded reptiles. They have a shell making them unique from other reptiles. Their upper shell is called the carapace, and a lower shell that protects the belly called the plastron. The carapace and plastron shape and color varies from species to species. One might think it would at least always be a hard shell, which also is untrue. There are softshell turtle species, along with many others.

Some turtle species include Clemmys insculpta which is the wood turtle; Geochelone sulcata which is the African Spurred tortoise; Chelonia mydas which is the green turtle; Emydoidea blandingii which is the Blanding's turtle; Clemmys guttata which is the spotted turtle; Malaclemys terrapin which is the diamondback terrapin; and Trachemys s. elegans which is the red-eared slider.

The species name for the wood turtle is Clemmys insculpta. This turtle is the largest in its genus. The carapace has raised projections on the back that resemble a small pyramid, making it different from others in the Clemmys genus.

The wood turtle is omnivorous and eats things like algae, moss, blueberries, mollusks, insects, earthworms, and mice. Typically adult males are larger than adult females, but not by a whole lot.

The species name for the African Spurred tortoise is Geochelone sulcata. The African Spurred Tortoise is the only tortoise in the world that has adapted fully for terrestrial life. The turtle is famous for digging burrows to protect itself from predators and the temperature. This turtle can go weeks without food or water. When the turtle does get a chance to drink water though, it can drink up to 15% of its body weight.

The species name for the green turtle is Chelonia mydas. Adult green turtles have a different diet than juvenile green turtles. Adults are herbivores eating plants and juveniles are carnivores eating meat. Adults usually spend their time in patches of sea grass and algae to get their food, while juveniles spend their time among the coral reef. Adults preferred food is young leaves and roots of sea vegetation. Juveniles eat animals such as jellyfish, sponges, snails, bivalves, and others.

This turtle is a medium to large sea turtle that has a broad, low, heart-shaped carapace.

Most of their lives are spent in the water but females return to the land to lay their eggs. The eggs take about two months to incubate, and then hatch. As most turtles are, green turtles possess environmental sex determination. Temperature of the nest determines the sex of the hatchling. Warmer temperatures produce females, and cooler temperatures produce males.

Green turtles are found throughout the oceans of the world. Populations are endangered or threatened everywhere.

The Blanding's turtle is a northern turtle that has a black carapace with tan to yellow spots on the scutes. Its species name is Emydoidea blandingii. Sometimes this turtle is confused with the box turtle because of similar appearances.

This turtle lives in clean, shallow water habitats. They like abundant aquatic vegetation, and firm aquatic bottoms in ponds, lakes, marshes, and creeks. However, preferences in habitat can change seasonally and by location. In Wisconsin, the Blanding's turtle prefers marshes over ponds, which is just a location preference. Turtles elsewhere may choose a pond over a marsh.

This turtle nests once a year usually from late-May to early July during the night. However, not every female nests every year.

The common name for Clemmys guttata is the spotted turtle. This is a small, black turtle that has a pattern on its smooth carapace with small yellow spots. Over time the spots may fade, making older turtles appear spotless.

Male spotted turtles tend to have tan chins with brown eyes differing from the females who tend to have yellow chins and orange eyes.

These turtles live in areas that are shallow wetlands. This can consist of swamps, bogs, fens, and marshes, but not confined to just these areas.

Spotted turtles are active during they day for the most part, meaning they are diurnal. However, females are active at night while they are nesting.

Spotted turtles are preyed upon by bald eagles, skunks, and raccoons.

The species name for the Diamondback Terrapin is Malaclemys terrapin. This turtle is a small to medium size turtle which feeds on sponges, bryozoans, gastropods, crabs, carrion, and plant material.

They have a hingeless plastron which can be yellow to green or black, and an oblong carapace is gray, light brown or black. They can be found in estuaries and salt marshes.

Nesting for these turtles is different from a majority of turtles because it is during the day. Most turtles tend to nest during the night. High tide is the most usual time for this particular turtle to nest.

The red-eared slider is native to the United States. It is commonly found in the Southern regions. The species name for it is Trachemys s. elegans.

When the red-eared slider is young it is carnivorous, but as it ages they become more vegetarian. They are a medium size and have a dark green oval shell. Their legs are green with think yellow stripes. The head is also green, but it has a red stripe behind the eye.

These turtles are found in most permanent slow-moving bodies of water. They prefer areas with mud bottoms.

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Learn More About Global Warming

(category: Environmental, Word count: 327)
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The scientists from all over the world have reached the verdict: the world is in a continuous warming due to pollution. The most dangerous air polluter is considered to be the carbon dioxide. Along with other air polluters the carbon dioxide accumulates into the atmosphere and makes up a blockage against the sun's heat, leading to the planet's warming up. The main source of carbon dioxide is: the coal-burning power plants and the automobiles.

Nature is trying to warn us about the consequences of our mistakes and is sending us signs that the global warming is installing. These early warning signs are: heat waves and unusually warm weather; the ocean has warmed up in the last few years, the sea level has been in a continuous rise and the coasts have been flooded; glaciers are melting and the Arctic and Antarctic are warming up. This is only the beginning as consequences will be seen soon: diseases will spread, the spring will arrive earlier, plant and animal range will shift and population will change; coral reef bleaching; in some parts of the world flooding, downpours and heavy snowfalls will follow and in other parts droughts and fires will dominate.

In order to protect ourselves, our economy, and our planet from the consequences of climate change, we must consider reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Such a transformation needs the involvement of all humans, over the near and long-term, in order to protect our planet. In the beginning we must understand that small measures like: recycling plastic and glass, saving water and conserving power will make a difference is everybody will adopt them. Until now 'greener' ways of producing energy have been considered, like using solar panels, producing gas from rotting rubbish and using the water for new energy.

Taking care of the nature does not need so much effort from us, but things...(read the full article at the link below)

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Why Use Recycled Plastic Lumber

(category: Environmental, Word count: 510)
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Plastic lumber, poly-wood, permo-wood, envirowood, poly lumber and eco-lumber are all names for the same great product - no matter what you call it - it all still refers to the revolutionary material that is transforming the casual and patio furniture industry. Poly wood is both environmentally friendly and economically viable.

Constructed from recycled milk jugs and plastic containers, recycled plastic lumber is formed into many of the profiles you would expect from traditional lumber. This feature allows it to be sawed, cut and screwed much the same as wood lumber. It is now being used for decking, railings, picnic tables, benches, patio furniture and even childrens playground equipment. Consumers can rest assured that the use of recycled poly lumber helps to keep billions of pounds of recyclable plastics from entering our every growing landfills. Due to increased environmental awareness post consumer plastic bottle recycling has dramatically increased over the past ten years from 234 million pounds to over a staggering 1.5 billion pounds.

Traditional hardwood lumber is often treated with hazardous chemicals to ward off possible insect attacks. It also will over time need sanding and some type of refinishing and will also start to rot if left out in the elements for prolonged periods of time. On the contrary, plastic lumber contains no hazardous chemicals and can not leak or contaminate the soil nor does it require any maintenance beyond cleaning as needed which usually just requires hosing off.

Recycled plastic lumber is built to withstand all of the elements from frosty winters, to tropical sun and salty, windy coastal weather. This plastic lumber is weighty and not to be confused with a thin plastic product that his formed and molded into chairs that you find at many home supply stores. Poly lumber is actually formed into 2×4's, 2×6's and the like to then be cut, screwed and assembled into furniture that will adorn your patio, deck, poolside or garden. New applications for this product are being thought up every day. The most recent suggestion was for an artificial reef which would have a life span of 60 years submerged in the ocean.

Recycled plastic lumber is an economically viable alternative to traditional hardwood lumber. It is built to last a lifetime so there will be no replacing your splintering, bug infested or rotting patio furniture in a matter of years. Recycled plastic lumber is a friend to numerous environmental issues such as deforestation. By using recycled products for furniture you are helping to reduce the use of our forests and precious air filtering trees for our day to day needs! We all know that our forests and trees play a major role in helping prevent global warming.

Therefore, recycled plastic lumber is quickly becoming a resource that is sought out in all types of applications with both environmental advantages as well as economical advantages. Recycled plastic lumber is definitely a product worth looking into with virtually no maintenance the advantages of this environmentally friendly product is undeniable.

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The World Turns To Renewable Energy

(category: Environmental, Word count: 502)
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The issues associated with the continued of fossil fuels are complex. What is undisputed, however, is the world is turning to meet the challenge through renewable energy.

The World Turns To Renewable Energy

When one thinks of the amount of energy needed to power the modern world, it is easy to get a headache. The sheer volume is so massive as to be difficult to picture. Now that we have awakened to environment, climate and societal problems associated with the continued use of fossil fuels, it is interesting to hear the politicians suddenly thinking green.

Ten years ago, who would have imagined the Terminator, now the Governator of California, driving around in a hybrid hummer? Well, he does. More so, Governor Schwarzenegger happens to arguably be the greenest politician in the Unites States when it comes to actually taking action. California, after all, has just instituted a 3 billion dollar solar energy plan.

Alas, the federal government falls on its face when it comes to energy issues. Beholden to big oil, there current administration simply refuses to acknowledge there is a problem, much less take action. For many in the country, this must give the impression that nothing is being done around the world. In fact, much is being done, but the U.S. simply is not taking part.

For example, give some thought to Victoria, Australia. This province has just committed itself to obtaining 60 percent of all of its energy from renewable sources by 2016. That is a staggering number.

How about Germany? The Germans lead the world in wind and solar technology. By 2020, a full 20 percent of the total German energy supply will come from renewable energy. If you have ever experienced the lights of Berlin at night, you know that is impressive.

How about Norway? The country is 99 percent reliant on renewable energy sources. Norway has no petroleum powered power plants. None! It imports no oil. In fact, it exports nearly all of its oil resources, making it the third biggest exporter in the world behind Saudi Arabia and Russia.

How about Brazil? The country is known for its "interesting" political situation, yet it has managed to turn itself into a clean energy giant in South America. The reason is the country has converted much of its transportation, public and private, to ethanol. By 2007, it is believed most transportation in Brazil will run on 100 percent ethanol, which is a biofuel made from sugar cane. The price per gallon of ethanol is half that of oil. If the United States was to take the same step, the savings on oil each year would be close to $2 trillion dollars.

The above represent only a few samples of a world making a concerted clean energy effort. Unfortunately, the United States is both the biggest consumer of fossil fuels and emitter of greenhouse gases. Until we follow these changes, the process will be incomplete.

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Overview Of Solar As An Energy Platform

(category: Environmental, Word count: 483)
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With renewable energy all the rage these days and fossil fuel costs soaring, solar energy is in the news. Here are some thoughts about solar as a viable energy platform.

Overview of Solar As An Energy Platform

Energy is an important topic that is on many peoples minds these days. With the rising costs of fuel and electric power, many households and individuals are considering alternative power sources. Solar is one of the more cost effective and biologically sound alternatives available.

One of the most interesting aspects of solar energy is how little of the energy production on the planet comes from the harnessing of the energy of the sun. In fact, only 0.1 percent of the power used today comes from converting sunlight into electrical current. It would be possible, however, to obtain enough power to run all of the worlds energy needs using solar energy. If more people were willing and able to install solar collectors on their homes and even their cars when technology gets to that point, solar energy could more than cover the Earth's power needs for transportation and housing.

Another of the interesting aspects about solar energy is how much solar energy is worth, or to put it another way, how much money you can save using solar energy. If you have a roof that is 1000 sq ft large, and you install solar panels on this roof, you could conceivably save as much as $6,460 dollars a year over the cost of oil heating. Unfortunately, the cost of installing the hardware needed to obtain the amount of power to save this money would be between $20,000 to $50,000; cost prohibitive to most home owners. These costs, however, are offset by tax incentives, rebates and net metering concepts in most states. While the upfront cost can be prohibitive, the savings over the life of the product are many times the initial burden.

One of the major hopes for reducing the cost of solar is found in Asia. Specifically, China is facing up to the fact it has massive pollution problems and is investigating renewable energy solutions. Working with American architects and developers, China is building entire communities that are made and powered by recyclable resources. Homes are made out of straw bales and powered with solar and geothermal heating. Given the sheer size of China and its population, the vicious pollution problem has spurred development in the renewable fields. With such a massive focus, it is hoped that the Chinese will develop more efficient, but less costly versions of solar energy for use around the world.

When considering solar as a platform, the most important aspect to keep in mind is that we have barely tapped it as a resource. If we can make systems that are more efficient and cheaper, the future of solar will be bright.

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Help For Our Economy And Ecology

(category: Environmental, Word count: 92)
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There are several ways you can conserve energy and protect the environment:

(*) Replace incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescents.

(*) Air dry dishes instead of using the dishwasher drying cycle.

(*) Use your microwave instead of a conventional electric range or oven.

(*) Turn off your computer and monitor when not in use.

(*) Plug home electronics, such as TVs and VCRs, into power strips and turn power strips off when equipment is not in use.

(*) Lower the thermostat on your hot water heater; 115

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The Future Of Solar Is Bright

(category: Environmental, Word count: 1275)
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The Future of Solar PV (Photovoltaic) Energy

1. The Problem

2. The Solution

3. The Results

4. The Benefits

5. An Investment in the Future

1. The Problem:

Traditional sources of electrical power generation are running out as production will peak in the next decade but demand will continue to rise. Energy prices will continue to rise at a higher rate as well as the number of outages during peak hours. There is the obvious problem of the pollution we are causing to our environment.

From my perspective, the world's energy needs vary greatly; there is no clear single solution to the problem of supplying the world's energy.

All forms of energy production have issues associated with them, i. e. -

1. Coal - Pollution/Strip Mining

2. Natural Gas - Cost and Lack of Infrastructure

3. Hydro - Limited Availability/Environmental Concerns

4. Wind - Limited Site and Resource Availability

5. Solar PV - Higher Cost

6. Nuclear - Waste disposal

2. The Solution:

Solar PV (Photovoltaic) systems effectively deliver three to five hours of peak power per day at roughly 10 Watts per square foot. Not one square inch of new land would be required to site PV. Theoretically, there are adequate residential, commercial, Government rooftops, and parking structures in California to power a substantial percentage of our State's electrical needs from solar.

In Southern California, solar produces a net energy gain in approximately three years. This means that within three years, PV systems begin producing more energy than the energy spent in producing the system and its raw materials. Best of all, the energy produced cost zero emissions.

At today's prices, a typical solar system costs approximately $8.00/watt, installed and has an operating life in excess of 25 years. For all intents and purposes, maintenance and operating costs are minimal. Now there are systems available for rent. Companies such as Citizenre at allow you to create solar power of a unit that is installed, maintained and monitored by them. You merely pay the monthly rental fee for you clean electricity which is the same price as you pay the electric company for you electricity. Also they allow you to lock in a rate now for up to 25 years so you are paying the same price throughout the entire contract.

3. The Results:

Solar energy increases the diversity of power and adds stability to a fossil fuel favored energy structure, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

4. The Benefits:

- Solar can be quickly deployed at the point of use, reducing the need for additional transmission and distribution infrastructure, and cost thereof.

- Solar operates most efficiently at mid day, when grid demand is at its peak. By decreasing the strain during peak hours, the longevity of existing power plants and infrastructure is extended, lowering further the cost of energy production.

- By deploying solar over time the cumulative effect of the installed base is impressive. Given its 25-year life, within 10 to 20 years, a respectable portion of California's energy could be supplied by solar.

- Once installed, the cost is fixed. In comparison to traditional sources of energy, the fuel cost is nonexistent, and operational costs are limited. A solar system's cost is amortized over its life, there are no rate hikes due to fuel or operating cost increases.

5. An Investment in the Future:

There are some negatives. Presently, solar costs more than traditional energy generation. Its efficient use is limited to daylight hours unless storage is employed. Admittedly, the solar industry today is not large enough to address all of our needs. The solar industry does not have the financial influence to compete with existing utilities, which typically oppose PV, within political circles. (Industry revenues globally represent only 3.0B/year). Globally, the industry has experienced an annual growth rate in excess of 18% in over a decade. This rate of growth is equivalent to that of semiconductor, telecommunications and computer industries.

Clearly, there is no easy solution to California's energy problem. No doubt, a variety of technologies and tools are needed to ensure California's energy independence and security.

The Solar Industry Needs Your Support

For those interested in promoting a clean, safe and environmentally friendly source of energy, I urge you to write your representatives in the State and Federal Government. Make it clear you vote for representatives who support current legislation aimed at advancing the deployment of solar energy, such as the net metering law which allows the solar producer to feed surplus power onto the grid, causing the meter to spin backward, lowering the electric bill. Tax credits and deployment subsidies provide the revenues necessary to support research and development of more efficient solar systems.

Remember, in the 1970's the State of California enacted emission standards that surpassed the rest of the nation. The argument against these standards was the cost of such improvements. Almost 30 years later, the impact is in the air and reflected in the increased fuel economy of the vehicles we drive.

Solar energy is part of the solution and is a key to America's long-term energy supply. After all, fossil fuels have a long history of issues with respect to stability of supply and cost.

The Outlook of Solar Power is Bright!

1. Solar will sustain its torrid growth, as costs continue to fall. The solar market has grown at ~40% per annum in recent years, and there are many reasons to think that it will sustain, if not exceed, that clip in 2008. Solar panel prices have followed a predictable experience curve since the 1970's, with prices dropping by 20% with each doubling of manufacturing capacity. As the silicon-dominated industry moves to thinner and higher-efficiency wafers, increases manufacturing scale, improves wafer and cell processing technologies, sees polysilicon prices return to rational levels, and migrates production to lower-cost countries - costs will continue to drive towards parity with grid rates, and solar will become increasingly more attractive. Companies have developed creative PPA (power-purchase agreement) financing models to reduce or eliminate upfront installation costs, which will make solar more accessible for a wider range of corporate and residential customers. The election year should also see more state subsidy support for solar and a renewal of the federal tax credit, which will further bolster growth.

2. Emerging startups that benefit from the polysilicon supply shortage will face increased pressure, as the poly-Si crunch begins to ease. Solar veterans can debate the timing endlessly, but many expect additional poly-Si supply to come online by late 2008. Startups that tout silicon-independent solar solutions, like concentrators and thin film (CIGS, a-Si, CdTe, etc.), will face pressure to come to market more quickly, as their cost/supply advantages erode with greater availability of poly-Si and a retreat from spot-pricing. E.g., none of the CIGS thin-film startups, which have collectively received hundreds of millions in investment in recent years, managed to reach mass commercialization this past year as many had projected. They will continue to be under pressure to reach market before the window of opportunity closes.

3. Entrepreneurs will increasingly look beyond cell and module production. As the technology-heavy areas of cell and module production get crowded, more and more entrepreneurs look to startup opportunities in the downstream balance-of-systems part of the value chain. This area has seen less attention to date, yet makes up ~50% of the total installed cost. Novel packaging techniques, distributed inverter / MPP tracking / power management technologies, systems monitoring solutions, streamlining of the installation process, and creative solar financing models

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Saving The Planet And Looking Good Doing It

(category: Environmental, Word count: 487)
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The world is in a sorry state due to greenhouse gas emissions. You know to recycle, reduce and reuse, but a girl can't go around looking like a tree-hugging hippie; you must look chic at all times. And that includes every aspect of your green-living life, from the way you decorate your home to the way you accessorize your person. Remember, going green doesn't mean you must abandon your sense of style or forfeit all things luxury.

Check out labels like Ecoist, which makes really cute purses and accessories out of repurposed paper and donates part of sales to environmental groups. Not only do they plant a tree when you buy a handbag, but they also have a line of specialty bracelets to help spread the word about global warming, which even come in kid sizes, so you can educate and decorate.

Ecologically sound clothing isn't limited to hemp anymore either. A lot of designers are taking an interest in organic cotton, which is grown without harmful chemicals that not only cause health problems for handlers, but also air and water pollution. Other materials are also gaining poplar use, like soy and paper as well as luxurious silk for the diva in you. Check out Shop Regeneration, who also carries eco-friendly housewares and furnishings. While you browse the site, don't forget about picking something up for the kids, the man in your life or your favorite four-legged friend. And you don't have to feel guilty about shopping, because part of your purchase will go to help environmental organizations.

If your apartment or house is in need of a redecorating, check out furniture that is new to you, rather than fresh off the truck, like at antique stores and thrift shops. If you want to go new, make sure it's made of sustainable materials, which minimize the impact of global warming during production. Earth Friendly Goods carries products and furniture made from sustainable and/or biodegradable materials, like bamboo, hemp, soy and other resources. This site is useful because it goes beyond furniture into household goods, products and the somewhat hard to find vegan-friendly shoes. And what girl can resist shoes?

Beautify your body with Nature Girl products, made from fresh organically grown products on small farms that use alternative pest control methods to prevent harmful chemicals from being released into the air.

Nature Girl donates a part of their profits to groups who work to save the planet. Not only will you help to eliminate the harmful toxins from being released into the atmosphere, you'll be protecting yourself from coming in contact with them too, so your skin really will be as healthy as it looks!

It's hard work to save the planet, but it sure is fun to try, especially when that means you get to do what you do best which is shop.

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Improving Your Home Can Make It A Nicer Place To Live

(category: Environmental, Word count: 325)
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The two most common home improvements are new kitchens and new bathrooms, for a variety of reasons. Few people replace their living room or bedroom regularly, but kitchens and bathrooms have so many fixtures and fittings that can quickly become dated, as there are constant advances in design.

When you're improving a kitchen, you're probably most interested in the decoration - function is important to some extent, but in the end kitchens work very similarly, and most modern fitted kitchens will have similar facilities. What you're looking for is a kitchen that you like the look of, and that suits your style. Metallic kitchens are quite fashionable at the moment, and are worth taking a look at, but there's nothing to say that you have to blindly follow fashion.

While bathroom improvements might seem similar at first glance (they are often sold in the same showrooms, after all), they tend to be much more about function than aesthetics. Yes, no-one wants an ugly bathroom, but most people who upgrade their bathrooms are doing it because they want a better bath or a better shower from a practical point of view. A popular improvement recently is to turn part of your bathroom into a shower room - it can be very nice if you have room, but don't try to squeeze it into too tight a space.

Of course, plenty of people also embark on much larger home improvement projects, such as extensions (including conservatories). This might be to add a bigger or extra bedroom onto your house, or a home office, or simply to make your living room larger. As you can't just buy extensions in a shop, you need to consult a professional architect and a builder first, but don't worry - a good one will be willing to listen to your needs and ideas and make something unique and great for you.

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