Caterpillar D 11
The D-11 from Caterpillar is among the series of
tracked type tractors are among the largest
conventional bulldozers in the world, second to the
Komatsu D575. It comes in two variations, the
standard D-11R and the bigger and heavier D-11R CD.
The D-11 bulldozer is among the upper end of
Caterpillars track type tractors, which range in
power and size from the D-3 (77 HP) to the D-11R
The primary use for the D-11 is for moving large
quantities of rock, dirt, etc. short distances in
confined spaces. The D-11 is often times used in
quarries. The price, size, power and weight of
the D11 dictate that they are used primarily for
major products. You can normally find the D11
used in forestry, mining, excavation, and quarry
The D-11 is high known and favored for its amazing
power and ability to rip into the earth, making
them ideal for agricultural and rock ripping type
work. The ripper is the long claw like device
you can find on the back of the D-11. Rippers come
in single shank or in groups of two or more, known
as multi shank rippers. Normally, a single shank
is all you need for heavy ripping work.
The ripping of rock will allow the ground surface
rock to be broken up into small, easy to handle
and transport rubble which can then be removed
so that you can grade the area.
The agricultural ripping feature will allow rocky
or very hard ground to be broken up so that
otherwise unarable land can be put to use with
The blade on the front of the D-11 comes in 3
1. A straight blade which is short and
has no lateral curve, no side wings, and is ideal
for fine grading.
2. A universal blade which is tall and
very curved, and has large side wings which can
carry more material.
3. A combination blade that is shorter,
has less curvature, and smaller wings on the side.
The nearest competition for the Caterpillar D-11
is the Komatsu D-475. The Caterpillar can best be
distinguished from the Komatsu by the elevated drive
sprocket or high drive system that results in a
triangular, rather than oval, shaped caterpillar
The D-11 is a fine testament to the superb products
Caterpillar offers. They are great for excavation
and clearing dirt, as they can push large piles
of dirt. They are also good for rock, as they can
move even the biggest of rocks from the ground
without breaking a sweat. If you've wanted a
bulldozer with uncanny strength and abilities, the
D-11 is just what you need on your job site.
The bulldozer is a very powerful crawler that is
equipped with a blade. The term bulldozer is often
used to mean any type of heavy machinery, although
the term actually refers to a tractor that is fitted
with a dozer blade.
Often times, bulldozers are large and extremely
powerful tracked vehicles. The tracks give them
amazing ground mobility and hold through very rough
terrain. Wide tracks on the other hand, help to
distribute the weight of the dozer over large areas,
therefore preventing it from sinking into sandy or
Bulldozers have great ground hold and a torque
divider that's designed to convert the power of the
engine into dragging ability, which allows it to
use its own weight to push heavy objects and even
remove things from the ground. Take the Caterpillar
D9 for example, it can easily tow tanks that weight
more than 70 tons. Due to these attributes,
bulldozers are used to clear obstacles, shrubbery,
and remains of structures and buildings.
The blade on a bulldozer is the heavy piece of
metal plate that is installed on the front. The
blade pushes things around. Normally, the blade
comes in 3 varieties:
1. A straight blade that is short and has
no lateral curve, no side wings, and can be used
only for fine grading.
2. A universal blade, or U blade, which is
tall and very curved, and features large side wings
to carry more material around.
3. A combination blade that is shorter,
offers less curvature, and smaller side wings.
Over time, bulldozers have been modified to evolve
into new machines that are capable of things the
original bulldozers weren't. A good example is
that loader tractors were created by removing the
blade and substituting a large volume bucket
and hydraulic arms which will raise and lower the
bucket, therefore making it useful for scooping
up the earth and loading it into trucks.
Other modifications to the original bulldozer
include making it smaller to where it can operate
in small working areas where movement is very
limited, such as mining caves and tunnels. Very
small bulldozers are known as calfdozers.
The first types of bulldozers were adapted from
farm tractors that were used to plough fields. In
order to dig canals, raise earth dams, and partake
in earthmoving jobs, the tractors were equipped
with a thick metal plate in the front. Later
on, this thick metal plate earned the name blade.
The blade of the bulldozer peels layers of soil
and pushes it forward as the tractor advances.
The blade is the heart and soul of the bulldozer,
as it was the first accessory to make full use
for excavation type jobs.
As the years went by, when engineers needed
equipment to complete larger jobs, companies such
as CAT, Komatsu, John Deere, Case, and JCB started
to manufacture large tracked earthmoving equipment.
They were very loud, very large, and very powerful
and therefore earned the nickname "bulldozer".
Over the years, the bulldozers got bigger, more
powerful, and even more sophisticated. The
important improvements include better engines,
more reliable drive trains, better tracks, and
even hydraulic arms that will enable more precise
manipulation of the blade and automated controls.
As an added option, bulldozers can come equipped
with a rear ripping claw to break up pavement or
loosen rocky soil.
The best known manufacturer of bulldozer is CAT,
which has earned a vast reputation for making
tough and durable, yet reliable machines. Even
though the bulldozer started off a modified farm
tractor, it rapidly became one of the most useful
pieces of equipment with excavating and construction.
Excavation is most commonly and best known for a
technique within the science of archaeology. The
individual types of excavation are known simply
as digs to those who participate, with this being
an over literal description of the process. An
excavation concerns itself with a specific
archaeological site or connected series of sites,
and may be carried on over a number of years, since
the work is normally seasonal.
Within the industry of excavation, many more
techniques may be utilized, with each dig having
its own particular features that may necessitate
differences of approach. Resources and other
practical issues don't allow archaeologists to carry
out excavations whenever and wherever they choose,
as many known sites have been deliberately left
alone and non excavated.
Initially, excavation involves the removal of any
topsoil that is uncovered by machine. What is
dug up may be examined by a metal detector for stray
finds but unless the excavation site has remained
untouched for a long period of time, there is a
small layer of modern material on the surface that
is of limited archaeological interest.
In rural areas, any type of archaeological features
should be visible beneath the surface. With
urban areas, they may be thick layers of human
deposits and only the uppermost will be visible to
the naked eye. With either case, the first task
is drawing a scaled site plan that will show the
edges of the excavation.
This plan can be composed using tape measures, or
as it is more common these days, an electronic
total station. A grid is normally set up, to
divide the site.
Excavation is also useful for digging out houses
and trenches. When clearing dirt out for roads
or sub divisions, excavation is what takes care of
things. Even though there are a few means, the
term excavation is used anytime that the earth or
dirt is disturbed.
Heavy machinery is also very common with excavation,
such as excavators or backhoes. Excavating crews
run the equipment and dig up soil and rocks for
whatever the purpose may be. Excavators are the
most used machinery, as they can move a lot of dirt
in a little bit of time.
Anytime you are taking part in excavation, you should
always use common sense and be safe. If you plan
to get down into a hole or trench, you should always
use a trench box. Even though the hole may not
be that deep, excavation sites can always cave in
and at that point - things are very dangerous and
possibly even deadly.
For digging up rare artifacts or putting in houses
or roads, excavation is something that has been around
for years and years. There is a lot to learn with
excavation, as you'll need to know how to run
machinery, shoot grade, and how to properly dig
holes and trenches so they won't cave in.
The compact hydraulic excavator can be a tracked or
wheeled vehicle with an approximate operating weight
of 13,300 pounds. Normally, it includes a standard
backfill blade and features an independent boom
swing. The compact hydraulic excavator is also
known as a mini excavator.
A compact hydraulic excavator is different from other
types of heavy machinery in the sense that all
movement and functions of the machine are accomplished
through the transfer of hydraulic fluid. The work
group and blade are activated by hydraulic fluid
acting upon hydraulic cylinders. The rotation and
travel functions are also activated by hydraulic
fluid powering hydraulic motors.
Most types of compact hydraulic excavators have
three assemblies - house, undercarriage, and the
The house structure contains the compartment for
the operator, engine compartment, hydraulic pump
and also the distribution components. The house
structure is attached to the top of the undercarriage
via swing bearing. Along with the work group, the
house is able to rotate upon the undercarriage
without limit due to a hydraulic distribution valve
that supplies oil to the undercarriage components.
The undercarriage of compact excavators consists of
rubber or steel tracks, drive sprockets, rollers,
idlers, and associated components and structures.
The undercarriage is also home to the house
structure and the work group.
The work group consists of the boom, dipper or
arm, and attachment. It is connected to the front
of the house structure via a swinging frame that
allows the work group to be hydraulically pivoted
left or right in order to achieve offset digging
for trenching parallel with the tracks.
Independent boom swing
The purpose of the boom swing is for offset
digging around obstacles or along foundations,
walls, and forms. Another use is for cycling in
areas that are too narrow for cab rotation. Another
major advantage of the compact excavator is the
independent boom swing.
The backfill blade on compact excavators are used
for grading, leveling, backfilling, trenching,
and general dozer work. The blade can also be
used to increase the dumping height and digging
depth depending on it's position in relation to
The most common place you'll find compact excavators
is in residential dwellings. When digging phone
lines or other things, these pieces of equipment
are very common for getting between houses. Due
to their small size, they can fit almost anywhere.
Over the years, the capabilities for compact
excavators have expanded far beyond the tasks of
excavation. With hydraulic powered attachments
such as breakers, clamps, compactors and augers,
the compact excavator is used with many other
applications and serves as an effective attachment
tool as well. Serving many purposes, the compact
excavator is a great addition to any job that
requires the use of machinery.
As you may know, the CX330 is the upgrade to the
9050B model from Case. The CX330 is quite an upgrade,
being much bigger than the 9050B.
In standard form, the CX330 is almost 5,000 pounds
heavier than the 9050B. This added weight comes
from a larger counterweight and from a redesigned
carbody that will now completely enclose the swing
These added pounds will also contribute to the boost
in the CX330s over-front capacity, and in combination
with higher hydraulic pressures the travel circuit,
give the excavator a very impressive 16% boost in
draw bar pull, which means more power for negotiating
poor underfoot conditions and very steep grades.
In addition to the new features, the CX330s digging
linkage has been enhanced in many ways. The boom
and arm, deeper in cross section to accommodate
higher digging forces, now incorporate V-groove
type welds that are placed by robots and 100 percent
ultra sound inspected.
The boom foot and boom to arm pivots use improved
bushings, new plated pins, and new dust seals that
combine to make a more durable and easier to take
care of assembly. The newly hardened chrome pins
will also contribute to the overall digging linkage
Even though the basic 6 cylinder, 8.3 liter engine
in the CX330 has been used in Case products since
1985, continual refinement over the years has
changed nearly 85% of the original engine's part
numbers. The CX330 features 259 net HP with an
air to air intercooler and a free breathing 24 valve
The electronic logic that controls the new engine's
fuel system tracks the machine's operating parameters
and keeps the system continually armed to respond
instantly and precisely to the fuel requirements of
each individual cylinder. The total electronic
design of the engine will also eliminate cable
and step motor controls from the fuel system, with
a large gain in reliability.
Even though modest changes in the CX330s digging
linkage geometry will contribute to the higher
forces of digging, the big guns here are the
refinement of the trench with it's open center
hydraulic system. The main pressure in the
implement circuit is up almost 8%, with the hydraulic
cylinder diameter up 7% as well.
The increase in hydraulic power combines with the
more efficient linkage geometry to yield almost
20% more bucket digging force and 15% more arm
force. With 19 more HP, the CX330 can drive it's
main hydraulic pumps with much better force. In
addition, the new pumps will produce about 6% more
flow for increased hydraulic speed at much lower
The new PCS (Pro Control System) will manage the
hydraulic system and interface with the 6TAA-830
engine, and does it with more electronic genious
than the 9050B did. Similar to the 9050B, the
CX330 does have manually selected working modes,
although it departs from previous designs by adding
a new automatic work mode. By working in the
new automatic mode, the CX330 can analyze load
demands and operator input at the joystick, then
adjust the engine and hydraulic pumps to balance
power and speed with efficiency and even with the
Other PCS features include a high speed assistance
system, which will speed up boom and arm functions,
and an automatic power boost system as well. The
power boost system will increase main pressure by
10% for 8 seconds if the implement system reaches
the standard relief pressure for more than 1 second
in tough digging conditions.
With everything the CX330 from Case offers, it's
truly the best excavtor in years. Case has outdone
themselves this time, doing their part to make
excavating both fun and exciting. If you've been
looking for the perfect upgrade from the 9050B, the
CX330 is all that and a bag of chips.
Trenching And Plowing Equipment
When trenchers were first introduced to the residential
and commercial contractors, they rapidly became the
backbone of the crew. The time and labor trenchers
saved when they replaced the pick and shovel was
simply incredible. The contractor was able to double
the number of jobs his crew could complete in the
same amount of time - or less.
The standard types of trenchers, whether dedicated
units or attachments, they are versatile machines
for contractors to have with them on the job. They
can be used for many different purposes, from digging
valve box holes to trenches for drain pipes. In
areas that contain rocky soil, large roots, or
other problems where the other machinery can't access
the soil, the trencher will minimize downtime that
was once spent digging by hand.
The many types of vibratory plows will offer even
more labor saving options. These plows eliminate
the hand labor of having to lay the pipe and
backfilling on numerous jobs. Even though vibratory
plows have taken their market share and are great
for pulling pipe, trenchers are still very important
for many different types of applications.
The impressive company Bobcat offers three different
trenching attachments that are designed for use on
the smaller skid steer loaders. The attachment
models LT102, LT203, and LT304 all have digging
depths from 2 - 4 feet.
The mini trenchers have been re-designed and
finely tuned from the same concept that made standard
trenchers so popular. As the name suggests, they
are lightweight, with the largest models weighing
less than 400 pounds. They are also compact,
allowing you to put them in the back of an average
They will also dig a trench around 4 inches wide,
and up to 13 inches deep, neatly laying the soil
on side of the trench. Without any trouble at
all, you can cover pipe with the backfill, leaving
a barely visible seam in the soil.
With time being money, these types of mini trenchers
are the answer when working in tight or small areas,
or on jobs that have a lot of trees or shrubbery.
Mini trenchers have a turning radius of less than
two feet and they will easily fit through most
garden gates. Jobs that would normally need a lot
of manual labor will now save you a lot of time
and man power.
If you do construction or excavation work, even
gardening, you'll find trenching and plowing
equipment to be essential to your work. If you've
never used these types of equipment before,
you'll be amazed at just how much time you can
If you are just starting up your business, you'll
find this type of equipment to be just what you
need. You won't need a lot of labor with a trencher,
as you can do most of it yourself. For saving
time, money, and effort, trenching and plowing
equipment is the way to go.
The skid loader is a rigid frame, engine powered
machine with lift arms that are used to attach a
wide variety of labor saving tools or attachments.
Skid loaders are normally four wheel drive with
left side drive wheels that are independent of
right side drive wheels. With each side being
independent to the other, the wheel speed and
direction of rotation of the wheels will determine
which direction the loader turns.
Skid loaders are capable of turning in their own
tracks, which makes them very maneuverable and
valuable for jobs that require the use of compact,
Unlike conventional front loaders, the lift arms
lay beside the driver with the major pivot points
located behind the shoulders of the operator. Due
to the operator being in close proximity to moving
booms and buckets, earlier models of skid loaders
weren't as safe as conventional front loaders,
particularly during entering and exiting.
Skid loaders today have fully enclosed cabs and
other safety features that will protect the operator
from injury. Just like other front loaders,
the skid steer can scrape material from one
location to another, carry material in a bucket,
or load material on a truck or a trailer.
A skid loader can sometimes take the place of a
large excavator by digging a hole out from the
inside. The skid loader will first dig a ramp
that leads to the edge of the hole. Then, the
loader will use the ramp to carry material out
of the hole.
The skid loader will then reshape the ramp by
making it steeper and longer as the excavation
gets deeper. This method is very useful for
digging under an overhead structure where the
overhead clearance doesn't allow for the boom of
a large excavator, such as those situations where
you are digging a basement under a house.
The bucket of most types of skid loaders can be
replaced with several specialized buckets or
attachments, many of which are powered by the
hydraulic system of the loader.
The first 3 wheeled front end loader was invented
by two brothers, Cyril and Louis Keller in their
machinist shop in Minnesota back in 1957. The
Kellers built the loader to help a nearby farmer
clean turkey manure from his two story barn. The
light and compact loader, with the rear caster
wheel, was able to turn around within the length
of itself, while performing the very same tasks as
conventional front end loaders.
Down the road, the Melroe manufacturing company
in Gwinner ND, purchased the rights to the Keller
loader in 1958 and hired the brothers to continue
their loader invention. Resulting from the
partnership, the M-200 self propelled loader was
introduced at the end of 1958.
The loader featured two independent front drive
wheels and a rear caster wheel, a 12.9 engine and
a 750 lb lift capacity. Two years later, they
ended up replacing the caster wheel with a rear
axle and introduced the M-400 loader, which was
the first four wheel skid steer loader in the
In 1962, the Bobcat name was added to describe
the key features of the machine - touch, agile, and
quick. The M-440 was powered by a 15.5 HP engine
and offered a 1100 lb rated operating capacity.
In the mid 1960s, the skid steer loader progressed
with the introduction of the M600 loader.
Years later, the Bobcat skid steer loader experienced
quite a few changes, including the development of
a hydrostatic drive system, enforced cab structures,
radius and vertical lift arm configurations,
deluxe instrumentation, and even heating and air
In addition to the rubber tire skid loaders of today,
there are now all-wheel steer loaders and even
compact track loaders. Compact track loads offer
less ground disturbance and feature better traction
and control in soft, muddy, wet, and even sandy
Drag Line Excavator
Drag line excavator systems are heavy machinery that
is used in civil engineering, surface mining, and
excavation. With civil engineering, the smaller
types are used for road and port construction. The
larger types of drag line excavators are used in
strip mining operations to extract coal. These are
among the largest types of mobile equipment and
weigh upwards of 10,000 tons!
The drag line excavator bucket system consists of
a large bucket that is suspended from a boom. The
bucket is moved by a number of chains and ropes. The
hoisting rope, which is powered by either a large
diesel or electric motor, will support the bucket
and hoist coupler assembly from the boom. The
drag rope on the assembly is used to draw the bucket
assembly horizontally. Through skillful maneuvering
of the hoist and drag rope, the bucket can be
controlled for many different types of operations.
With a typical excavation cycle, the bucket is
positioned high above the material that is being
excavated. The bucket is then lowered down and the
drag rope is drawn so that the bucket is dragged
along the materials surface. Using the hoist rope,
the bucket is then lifted. A swing operation is
then performed in order to move the bucket to the
place where the material is going to be dropped.
The drag rope is then released which will cause the
bucket to tilt, making the material in the bucket
fall down, which is commonly known as a dump operation.
With smaller drag line excavators, the bucket is
thrown by winding up the jib then releasing a
clutch on the drag cable, which swings the bucket
like a pendulum. Skillful operators can make the
bucket land about 1/2 the length of the jib further
away than if it had just been spun or dropped.
The limitations of drag line excavators are the
height and length of their boom, as this limits
where the drag line can dump waste material. Being
inherent with their construction, the drag line
is most effective when excavating material
below the level of their tracks. Drag lines
aren't suitable for loading piled up material.
Despite their limitations and high capital cost,
drag line excavators remain very popular with
several mines, due to their very low waste removal
cost, performance, and reliability.
They also have different cutting sequences. The
first is the side casting method which uses
offest benches. This method involves throwing
the overburden sideways onto blasted material to
make a bench.
The second method is a key pass. This pass will
cut a key at the toe of the new highwall and will
also shift the bench further towards the low
wall. This can also require a chopping pass if the
wall is blocky. A chopping pass will involve
the bucket being dropped down onto an angled
highwall to scale the surface.
The next method is the slowest, known as the
blocks pass. This method will however, move the
most material. The blocks pass involves using
the key to access the bottom of the material to
lift it up to spoil or to an elevated bench
level. If required, the final cut is a pull
back, which pulls the material back further to
the low wall side.
For construction, mining, or excavation, drag line
excavators are great to have. They can move even
the biggest of material, which is great for deep
holes in the ground. If you've been looking for a
great way to maximize mining or excavation productivity,
the drag line excavator is just what you need.
A crane is a tower or derrick that is equipped with
cables and pulleys that are used to lift and lower
material. They are commonly used in the construction
industry and in the manufacturing of heavy equipment.
Cranes for construction are normally temporary
structures, either fixed to the ground or mounted
on a purpose built vehicle.
They can either be controlled from an operator in
a cab that travels along with the crane, by a push
button pendant control station, or by radio type
controls. The crane operator is ultimately responsible
for the safety of the crews and the crane.
Cranes of the Middle Ages were used to build the
cathedrals of Europe. The crane was fixed on top
of a wall as it was being constructed and was
powered by men that ran inside of two large wheels
on each side. Cranes were also used in medieval ports
and in shipyards.
The most basic type of crane consists of a steel
truss or telescopic boom mounted on a mobile platform,
which could be a rail, wheeled, or even on a cat
truck. The boom is hinged at the bottom and can
be either raised or lowered by cables or hydraulic
This type of crane offers a boom that consists of
a number of tubes fitted one inside of the other.
A hydraulic mechanism extends or retracts the
tubes to increase or decrease the length of the
The tower crane is a modern form of a balance
crane. When fixed to the ground, tower cranes
will often give the best combination of height and
lifting capacity and are also used when constructing
Truck mounted crane
Cranes mounted on a rubber tire truck will provide
great mobility. Outriggers that extend vertically
or horizontally are used to level and stabilize
the crane during hoisting.
Rough terrain crane
A crane that is mounted on an undercarriage with
four rubber tires, designed for operations off
road. The outriggers extend vertically and
horizontally to level and stabilize the crane when
hoisting. These types of cranes are single engine
machines where the same engine is used for powering
the undercarriage as it is for powering the
crane. In these types of cranes, the engine is
normally mounted in the undercarriage rather than
in the upper portion.
A loader crane is a hydraulically powered articulated
arm fitted to a trailer, used to load equipment
onto a trailer. The numerous sections can be
folded into a small space when the crane isn't in
Also refered to as a suspended crane, this type
is normally used in a factory, with some of them
being able to lift very heavy loads. The hoist is
set on a trolley which will move in one direction
along one or two beams, which move at angles to
that direction along elevated or ground level
tracks, often mounted along the side of an assembly
In the excavation world, cranes are used to move
equipment or machinery. Cranes can quickly and
easily move machinery into trenches or down steep
hills, or even pipe. There are many types of
cranes available, serving everything from
excavation to road work.
Cranes are also beneficial to building bridges or
construction. For many years, cranes have proven
to be an asset to the industry of construction
and excavating. Crane operators make really good
money, no matter what type of crane they are
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