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Excavation-Equipment Articles


Forklift

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 481)
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Sometimes called a forklift truck, the forklift is

a powerful industrial truck that is used to lift

and transport material by steel forks that are

inserted under the load. Forklifts are commonly

used to move loads and equipment that is stored on

pallets. The forklift was developed in 1920, and

has since become a valuable piece of equipment in

many manufacturing and warehousing operations.

Types

The most common type of design with forklifts is

the counter balance. Other types of designs

include the reach truck and side loader, both of

which are used in environments where the space is

at a minimum.

Control and capability

Forklifts are available in many types and different

load capacities. In the average warehouse setting,

most forklifts have load capacities of around

five tons.

Along with the control to raise and lower the

forks, you can also tilt the mast to compensate

for the tendency of the load to angle the blades

towards the ground and risk slipping it off the

forks. The tilt will also provide a limited

ability to operate on ground that isn't level.

There are some variations that allow you to move

the forks and backrest laterally, which allows

easier placement of a load. In addition to this,

there are some machines that offer hydraulic

control to move the forks together or further

apart, which removes the need for you to get out

of the cab to manually adjust for a different size

load.

Another forklift variation that is sometimes

used in manufacturing facilities, will utilize

forklifts with a clamp attachment that you can

open and close around a load, instead of having

to use forks. Products such as boxes, cartons,

etc., can be moved with the clamp attachment.

Safety

Forklifts are rated for loads at a specified

maximum weight and a specified forward type center

of gravity. All of this information is located

on a nameplate that is provided by the manufacturer

and the loads cannot exceed these specifications.

One of the most important aspects of operating a

forklift is the rear wheel steering. Even though

this helps to increase maneuverability in tight

cornering situations, it differs from the

traditional experience of a driver with other

wheeled vehicles as there is no caster action.

Another critical aspect of the forklift is the

instability. Both the forklift and the load must

be considered a unit, with a varying center of

gravity with every movement of the load. You

must never negotiate a turn with a forklift at

full speed with a raised load, as this can easily

tip the forklift over.

Normally, to drive a forklift, you'll need to

pass a basic test. They aren't difficult to

operate, although you'll need to be safe when you

operate them. Once you have operated one for a

while, you'll have no problems being safe.

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Cranes

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 592)
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A crane is a tower or derrick that is equipped with

cables and pulleys that are used to lift and lower

material. They are commonly used in the construction

industry and in the manufacturing of heavy equipment.

Cranes for construction are normally temporary

structures, either fixed to the ground or mounted

on a purpose built vehicle.

They can either be controlled from an operator in

a cab that travels along with the crane, by a push

button pendant control station, or by radio type

controls. The crane operator is ultimately responsible

for the safety of the crews and the crane.

Medieval cranes

Cranes of the Middle Ages were used to build the

cathedrals of Europe. The crane was fixed on top

of a wall as it was being constructed and was

powered by men that ran inside of two large wheels

on each side. Cranes were also used in medieval ports

and in shipyards.

Mobile cranes

The most basic type of crane consists of a steel

truss or telescopic boom mounted on a mobile platform,

which could be a rail, wheeled, or even on a cat

truck. The boom is hinged at the bottom and can

be either raised or lowered by cables or hydraulic

cylinders.

Telescopic crane

This type of crane offers a boom that consists of

a number of tubes fitted one inside of the other.

A hydraulic mechanism extends or retracts the

tubes to increase or decrease the length of the

boom.

Tower crane

The tower crane is a modern form of a balance

crane. When fixed to the ground, tower cranes

will often give the best combination of height and

lifting capacity and are also used when constructing

tall buildings.

Truck mounted crane

Cranes mounted on a rubber tire truck will provide

great mobility. Outriggers that extend vertically

or horizontally are used to level and stabilize

the crane during hoisting.

Rough terrain crane

A crane that is mounted on an undercarriage with

four rubber tires, designed for operations off

road. The outriggers extend vertically and

horizontally to level and stabilize the crane when

hoisting. These types of cranes are single engine

machines where the same engine is used for powering

the undercarriage as it is for powering the

crane. In these types of cranes, the engine is

normally mounted in the undercarriage rather than

in the upper portion.

Loader crane

A loader crane is a hydraulically powered articulated

arm fitted to a trailer, used to load equipment

onto a trailer. The numerous sections can be

folded into a small space when the crane isn't in

use.

Overhead crane

Also refered to as a suspended crane, this type

is normally used in a factory, with some of them

being able to lift very heavy loads. The hoist is

set on a trolley which will move in one direction

along one or two beams, which move at angles to

that direction along elevated or ground level

tracks, often mounted along the side of an assembly

area.

In the excavation world, cranes are used to move

equipment or machinery. Cranes can quickly and

easily move machinery into trenches or down steep

hills, or even pipe. There are many types of

cranes available, serving everything from

excavation to road work.

Cranes are also beneficial to building bridges or

construction. For many years, cranes have proven

to be an asset to the industry of construction

and excavating. Crane operators make really good

money, no matter what type of crane they are

operating.

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Case Cx330

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 645)
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As you may know, the CX330 is the upgrade to the

9050B model from Case. The CX330 is quite an upgrade,

being much bigger than the 9050B.

In standard form, the CX330 is almost 5,000 pounds

heavier than the 9050B. This added weight comes

from a larger counterweight and from a redesigned

carbody that will now completely enclose the swing

system.

These added pounds will also contribute to the boost

in the CX330s over-front capacity, and in combination

with higher hydraulic pressures the travel circuit,

give the excavator a very impressive 16% boost in

draw bar pull, which means more power for negotiating

poor underfoot conditions and very steep grades.

In addition to the new features, the CX330s digging

linkage has been enhanced in many ways. The boom

and arm, deeper in cross section to accommodate

higher digging forces, now incorporate V-groove

type welds that are placed by robots and 100 percent

ultra sound inspected.

The boom foot and boom to arm pivots use improved

bushings, new plated pins, and new dust seals that

combine to make a more durable and easier to take

care of assembly. The newly hardened chrome pins

will also contribute to the overall digging linkage

durability.

Even though the basic 6 cylinder, 8.3 liter engine

in the CX330 has been used in Case products since

1985, continual refinement over the years has

changed nearly 85% of the original engine's part

numbers. The CX330 features 259 net HP with an

air to air intercooler and a free breathing 24 valve

cylinder head.

The electronic logic that controls the new engine's

fuel system tracks the machine's operating parameters

and keeps the system continually armed to respond

instantly and precisely to the fuel requirements of

each individual cylinder. The total electronic

design of the engine will also eliminate cable

and step motor controls from the fuel system, with

a large gain in reliability.

Even though modest changes in the CX330s digging

linkage geometry will contribute to the higher

forces of digging, the big guns here are the

refinement of the trench with it's open center

hydraulic system. The main pressure in the

implement circuit is up almost 8%, with the hydraulic

cylinder diameter up 7% as well.

Hydraulic power

The increase in hydraulic power combines with the

more efficient linkage geometry to yield almost

20% more bucket digging force and 15% more arm

force. With 19 more HP, the CX330 can drive it's

main hydraulic pumps with much better force. In

addition, the new pumps will produce about 6% more

flow for increased hydraulic speed at much lower

system pressures.

The new PCS (Pro Control System) will manage the

hydraulic system and interface with the 6TAA-830

engine, and does it with more electronic genious

than the 9050B did. Similar to the 9050B, the

CX330 does have manually selected working modes,

although it departs from previous designs by adding

a new automatic work mode. By working in the

new automatic mode, the CX330 can analyze load

demands and operator input at the joystick, then

adjust the engine and hydraulic pumps to balance

power and speed with efficiency and even with the

economy.

Other PCS features include a high speed assistance

system, which will speed up boom and arm functions,

and an automatic power boost system as well. The

power boost system will increase main pressure by

10% for 8 seconds if the implement system reaches

the standard relief pressure for more than 1 second

in tough digging conditions.

With everything the CX330 from Case offers, it's

truly the best excavtor in years. Case has outdone

themselves this time, doing their part to make

excavating both fun and exciting. If you've been

looking for the perfect upgrade from the 9050B, the

CX330 is all that and a bag of chips.

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Trenching And Plowing Equipment

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 502)
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When trenchers were first introduced to the residential

and commercial contractors, they rapidly became the

backbone of the crew. The time and labor trenchers

saved when they replaced the pick and shovel was

simply incredible. The contractor was able to double

the number of jobs his crew could complete in the

same amount of time - or less.

The standard types of trenchers, whether dedicated

units or attachments, they are versatile machines

for contractors to have with them on the job. They

can be used for many different purposes, from digging

valve box holes to trenches for drain pipes. In

areas that contain rocky soil, large roots, or

other problems where the other machinery can't access

the soil, the trencher will minimize downtime that

was once spent digging by hand.

The many types of vibratory plows will offer even

more labor saving options. These plows eliminate

the hand labor of having to lay the pipe and

backfilling on numerous jobs. Even though vibratory

plows have taken their market share and are great

for pulling pipe, trenchers are still very important

for many different types of applications.

The impressive company Bobcat offers three different

trenching attachments that are designed for use on

the smaller skid steer loaders. The attachment

models LT102, LT203, and LT304 all have digging

depths from 2 - 4 feet.

Mini trenchers

The mini trenchers have been re-designed and

finely tuned from the same concept that made standard

trenchers so popular. As the name suggests, they

are lightweight, with the largest models weighing

less than 400 pounds. They are also compact,

allowing you to put them in the back of an average

pickup truck.

They will also dig a trench around 4 inches wide,

and up to 13 inches deep, neatly laying the soil

on side of the trench. Without any trouble at

all, you can cover pipe with the backfill, leaving

a barely visible seam in the soil.

With time being money, these types of mini trenchers

are the answer when working in tight or small areas,

or on jobs that have a lot of trees or shrubbery.

Mini trenchers have a turning radius of less than

two feet and they will easily fit through most

garden gates. Jobs that would normally need a lot

of manual labor will now save you a lot of time

and man power.

If you do construction or excavation work, even

gardening, you'll find trenching and plowing

equipment to be essential to your work. If you've

never used these types of equipment before,

you'll be amazed at just how much time you can

save.

If you are just starting up your business, you'll

find this type of equipment to be just what you

need. You won't need a lot of labor with a trencher,

as you can do most of it yourself. For saving

time, money, and effort, trenching and plowing

equipment is the way to go.

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Comparing Trenchers To Compact Excavators

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 478)
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Both of these machines are affordable, popular,

highly productive, and they both have helped lay a

lot of cable and pipe in the ground. While they

both can do the work, there are differences as

to how they perform when stacked up against each

other in residential utility installations.

Size and price

The average dig depth for utility installations in

residential applications is between 40 and 48

inches. The basic trencher that digs to the above

depth will boast a 20 - 30 horsepower engine and

cost around 40,000 dollars.

The most popular type of compact excavator is the

2.5 metric ton size class, and it uses a 30 HP

engine and costs around the same price. The

biggest difference in the two surfaces when you

need the trencher to dig deeper. The 2.5 metric

ton excavator has no trouble at all digging to 8

feet or more, although a trencher that can dig

that deep will require an engine with around 100

horsepower and cost upwards of 90,000 dollars!

Life costs

Not counting the bucket teeth and the replacement

of the rubber tracks at 2,000 hours, fuel and

routine maintenance are your only daily costs

with a compact excavator. The digging chain, teeth,

and sprockets on the trenchers are considered

wear items and need to be replaced often. Even

with the high consumable costs of trenchers, the

differences will tend to even out when productivity

is taken into effect.

Productivity

For straight line trenching at an average depth,

trenchers will flat out lead compact excavators.

Under reasonable conditions, a trencher can work

three to four times faster than that of a compact

excavator. Another area where trenchers really

excel is wooded areas, where tree roots and logs

can make for slow and sloppy digging when using a

bucket.

Versatility

When it comes down to it, compact excavators can

do a lot of things that trenchers can't, especially

when they have attachments on hand. If you are

digging with a compact excavator, you can't go

anywhere near as fast as you can with a good quality

trencher.

Keep in mind that a trencher isn't a single minded

machine either. Most styles of trenchers can be

outfitted with a backhoe attachment that attaches

to the front end. Whenever concrete, rocks, or

asphalt stands in the way, the boom and chain can

be replaced with rock teeth and a wheel. In soft

soils, you can set up a trencher with a plow

attachment and plow in cables faster than using

any other available method.

When it comes down to choosing, keep in mind that

it all depends on your needs. There are some

cases where the compact excavator is best to

choose, while there will also be jobs in which

the trencher is going to do the best work.

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Caterpillar Equipment

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 468)
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Caterpillar Incorporated, also known as CAT is a

United States based corporation that is based in

Peoria, Illinois. The company commonly known as CAT

is known around the world as the largest manufacturer

of construction and mining equipment, diesel and

natural gas engines, and industrial gas turbines.

Well known and famous for their products that feature

the Caterpillar track and distinctive yellow paint,

CAT produces a wide range of heavy equipment for

all types of jobs, including the very popular

Caterpillar D9 bulldozer.

History

The story of CAT dates back to the late 19th century,

when Daniel Best and Benjamin Holt were experimenting

with different ways to fulfill the promise that

steam tractors held for farm work. Prior to 1925,

the Holt family had pioneered track tractors and

gasoline powered engines. After the companies of

Best and Holt were merged, the company went through

several changes then at the end of World War 2,

they began to grow at a very fast pace, launching

the first venture outside of the country in 1950,

which marked the beginning of CAT development into

a big corporation.

CAT equipment ranges from track type tractors to

hydraulic excavators, backhoes, motor graders, off

road trucks, wheel loaders, tractors, diesel and

gas engines, and gas turbines. CAT equipment is

used in construction, excavation, building roads,

mining, energy, forestry, transportation, and

material handling companies.

Sales

Over half of CAT's sales are to customers in overseas

areas. CAT products are sold in almost 200 different

countries. The company has a worldwide network

of over 200 dealers - 63 in the United States and

over 150 in other countries. CAT equipment and

components are manufactured in 42 plants in the

United States and 58 plants in Australia, Belgium,

Brazil, Canada, England, France, Germany, India,

Japan, Mexico, and several other countries.

Labor

CAT almost went down in the early 1980s due to

the massive union strikes and a down turn in product

demand. At the time, several news reports indicated

that products were piling up so high in facilities

that temporary workers hired to work the lines

could barely get to their stations to perform their

jobs.

In the 1990s, CAT suffered yet another long strike

in which the company hired what it deemed to be

permanent replacements for union workers that

were on strike. During both strikes, jack rocks

were placed in the home entrances of many of

CATs top executives and employees, puncturing

the tires of their vehicles and making things

worse for the company.

Not long after the strike of the 1990s ended

and the economy started to get back up again, CAT

adopted the "6 Sigma" quality management program,

to help reduce costs and inventory and identify

and correct the defects in processes and products.

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Dump Truck

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 631)
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Dump trucks or production trucks are those that are

used for transporting loose material such as sand,

dirt, and gravel for construction. The typical dump

truck is equipped with a hydraulically operated open

box bed hinged at the rear, with the front being

able to be lifted up to allow the contents to fall

out on the ground at the site of delivery.

Dump trucks come in many different configurations

with each one specified to accomplish a specific

task in the construction chain.

Standard dump truck

The standard dump truck is a full truck chassis with

the dump body mounted onto the frame. The dump body

is raised by a hydraulic ram lift that is mounted

forward of the front bulkhead, normally between the

truck cab and the dump body.

The standard dump truck also has one front axle,

and one or more rear axles which normally has dual

wheels on each side. The common configurations for

standard dump trucks include the six wheeler and

ten wheeler.

Transfer dump truck

For the amount of noise made when transferring, the

transfer dump truck is easy to recognize. It's a

standard dump truck that pulls a separate trailer

which can be loaded with sand, asphalt, gravel,

dirt, etc.

The B box or aggregate container on the trailer is

powered by an electric motor and rides on wheels

and rolls off of the trailer and into the main dump

box. The biggest advantage with this configuration

is to maximize payload capacity without having to

sacrifice the maneuverability of the short and

nimble dump truck standards.

Semi trailer end dump truck

The semi end dump truck is a tractor trailer

combination where the trailer itself contains the

hydraulic hoist. The average semi end dump truck

has a 3 axle tractor that pulls a 2 axle semi

trailer. The advantage to having a semi end

dump truck is rapid unloading.

Semi trailer bottom dump truck

A bottom dump truck is a 3 axle tractor that pulls

a 2 axle trailer with a clam shell type dump

gate in the belly of the trailer. The biggest

advantage of a semi bottom dump truck is the

ability to lay material in a wind row. This

type of truck is also maneuverable in reverse as

well, unlike the double and triple trailer

configurations.

Double and triple trailer

The double and triple bottom dump trucks consist

of a 2 axle tractor pulling a semi axle semi

trailer and an additional trailer. These types of

dump trucks allow the driver to lay material in

wind rows without having to leave the cab or stop

the truck. The biggest disadvantage is the

difficulty in going in reverse.

Side dump trucks

Side dump trucks consist of a 3 axle trailer pulling

a 2 axle semi trailer. It offers hydraulic rams

that tilt the dump body onto the side, which spills

the material to the left or right side of the

trailer. The biggest advantages with these types

of dump trucks are that they allow rapid unloading

and carry more weight than other dump trucks.

In addition to this, side dump trucks are almost

impossible to tip over while dumping, unlike the

semi end dump trucks which are very prone to being

upset or tipped over. The length of these trucks

impede maneuverability and limit versatility.

Off road dump trucks

Off road trucks resemble heavy construction equipment

more than they do highway dump trucks. They are

used strictly for off road mining and heavy dirt

hauling jobs, such as excavation work. They are

very big in size, and perfect for those time when

you need to dig out roads and need something to

haul the massive amounts of dirt to another

location.

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Front Loader

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 480)
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Also known as a front end loader, bucket loader,

scoop loader, or shovel, the front loader is a type

of tractor that is normally wheeled and uses a

wide square tilting bucket on the end of movable

arms to lift and move material around.

The loader assembly may be a removable attachment

or permanently mounted on the vehicle. Often times,

the bucket can be replaced with other devices or

tools, such as forks or a hydraulically operated

bucket.

Larger style front loaders, such as the Caterpillar

950G or the Volvo L120E, normally have only a

front bucket and are known as front loaders,

where the small front loaders are often times

equipped with a small backhoe as well and called

backhoe loaders or loader backhoes.

Loaders are primarily used for loading materials

into trucks, laying pipe, clearing rubble, and

also digging. Loaders aren't the most efficient

machines for digging, as they can't dig very deep

below the level of their wheels, like the backhoe

can.

The deep bucket on the front loader can normally

store around 3 - 6 cubic meters of dirt, as the

bucket capacity of the loader is much bigger than

the bucket capacity of a backhoe loader. Loaders

aren't classified as excavating machinery, as

their primary purpose is other than moving dirt.

In construction areas, mainly when fixing roads

in the middle of the city, front loaders are

used to transport building materials such as

pipe, bricks, metal bars, and digging tools.

Front loaders are also very useful for snow

removal as well, as you can use their bucket or

as a snow plow. They can clear snow from the

streets and highways, even parking lots. They

will sometimes load the snow into dump trucks

which will then haul it away.

Unlike the bulldozer, most loaders are wheeled and

not tracked. The wheels will provide better

mobility and speed and won't damage paved roads

near as much as tracks, although this will come

at the cost of reduced traction.

Unlike backhoes or tractors fitted with a steel

bucket, large loaders don't use automotive

steering mechanisms, as they instead steer by a

hydraulically actuated pivot point set exactly

between the front and rear axles. This is known

as articulated steering and will allow the front

axle to be solid, therefore allowing it to carry

a heavier weight.

Articulated steering will also give a reduced

turn in radius for a given wheelbase. With the

front wheels and attachment rotating on the same

axis, the operator is able to steer his load in

an arc after positioning the machine, which can

come in quite handy. The problem is that when

the machine is twisted to one side and a heavy

load is lifted high in the air, it has a bigger

risk of turning over.

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Operating A Backhoe Safely

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 482)
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A skid steer loader with backhoe attachment or a backhoe

loader in general can be very productive if it is

operated safely and efficiently. The best way to

get the job done safely and efficiently is to know

yourself, the job site, and your equipment.

Even though the models of backhoes will vary, there

are safety features with all of them that include

steps and grab handles for getting on and off of

the machine. Backhoes also feature frame lock levers

and attaching levers to keep the backhoe securely

fastened to the loader frame during operation as well

as transporting.

In addition to these standard safety features, there

are some backhoes that provide a safety chain. The

safety chain will prevent the backhoe mounting

frame from rotating backwards and unexpectedly

trapping the operator, which can result in serious

injury or death. Therefore, it is always important

to know and check all of the mounting and attachment

points and the safety chain before you operate the

backhoe.

If you've attached the backhoe to the loader, you

should take a moment to inspect it and perform any

necessary maintenance. Check for broken or

damaged parts, also making sure to check for leaks,

cracks, excessive wear, and check the control

levers.

The warning and safety signs and instructional

decals are very important and will help you to

avoid injury. You should always take them seriously

and replace any damaged or missing decals.

Every 8 hours or so, you should grease all of the

zerk fittings, and check the hydraulic fluid

and oil and a daily basis. If the fluid is low,

the backhoe will not operate. Therefore, you

should always take the time to check your machine.

Anytime you have to leave the operator seat of the

backhoe, you should lower the bucket or attachment

to the ground, turn the engine off, remove the

ignition key, then exit the machine.

When the time comes to drive to the next job site,

you should always make sure that you have fully

raised both the front and rear stabilizers and

make sure you've put the backhoe seat into the

"down" position for better visibility. Before

you drive off, make sure that you've installed the

transport locking pin.

Here are some other things to keep in mind:

- Always select the right size bucket for

the job.

- Stake out the work area that is going to

be excavated and use flags to mark the area.

- Never work in areas that have inadequate

overhead clearances.

Always make sure that you keep bystanders or other

workers out of the swing area. If anyone gets in

the way of the boom swinging, they can very easily

get injured. The machine has no feelings,

therefore you should always be aware of who is

around you and where they are standing.

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