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Excavation-Equipment Articles


Operating A Backhoe Safely

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 482)
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A skid steer loader with backhoe attachment or a backhoe

loader in general can be very productive if it is

operated safely and efficiently. The best way to

get the job done safely and efficiently is to know

yourself, the job site, and your equipment.

Even though the models of backhoes will vary, there

are safety features with all of them that include

steps and grab handles for getting on and off of

the machine. Backhoes also feature frame lock levers

and attaching levers to keep the backhoe securely

fastened to the loader frame during operation as well

as transporting.

In addition to these standard safety features, there

are some backhoes that provide a safety chain. The

safety chain will prevent the backhoe mounting

frame from rotating backwards and unexpectedly

trapping the operator, which can result in serious

injury or death. Therefore, it is always important

to know and check all of the mounting and attachment

points and the safety chain before you operate the

backhoe.

If you've attached the backhoe to the loader, you

should take a moment to inspect it and perform any

necessary maintenance. Check for broken or

damaged parts, also making sure to check for leaks,

cracks, excessive wear, and check the control

levers.

The warning and safety signs and instructional

decals are very important and will help you to

avoid injury. You should always take them seriously

and replace any damaged or missing decals.

Every 8 hours or so, you should grease all of the

zerk fittings, and check the hydraulic fluid

and oil and a daily basis. If the fluid is low,

the backhoe will not operate. Therefore, you

should always take the time to check your machine.

Anytime you have to leave the operator seat of the

backhoe, you should lower the bucket or attachment

to the ground, turn the engine off, remove the

ignition key, then exit the machine.

When the time comes to drive to the next job site,

you should always make sure that you have fully

raised both the front and rear stabilizers and

make sure you've put the backhoe seat into the

"down" position for better visibility. Before

you drive off, make sure that you've installed the

transport locking pin.

Here are some other things to keep in mind:

- Always select the right size bucket for

the job.

- Stake out the work area that is going to

be excavated and use flags to mark the area.

- Never work in areas that have inadequate

overhead clearances.

Always make sure that you keep bystanders or other

workers out of the swing area. If anyone gets in

the way of the boom swinging, they can very easily

get injured. The machine has no feelings,

therefore you should always be aware of who is

around you and where they are standing.

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Backhoe Loader

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 471)
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Also referred to as a loader backhoe, the backhoe

loader is an engineering and excavation vehicle that

consists of a tractor, front shovel and bucket and

a small backhoe in the rear end. Due to the small

size and versatility, backhoe loaders are common

with small construction projects and excavation type

work.

Originally invented in Burlington Iowa back in 1857,

the backhoe loader is the most common variation of

the classic farm tractor. As the name implies, it

has a loader assembly on the front and a backhoe

attachment on the back.

Anytime the loader and backhoe are attached it is

never referred to as a tractor, as it is not normally

used for towing and doesn't normally have a PTO.

When the backhoe is permanently attached, the

machine will normally have a seat that can swivel

to the rear to face the backhoe controls. Any type

of removable backhoe attachments will normally have

a seperate seat on the attachment itself.

Backhoe loaders are common and can be used for many

tasks, which include construction, light transportation

of materials, powering building equipment, digging

holes and excavating, breaking asphalt, and even

paving roads.

You can often replace the backhoe bucket with

other tools such as a breaker for breaking and

smashing concrete and rock. There are some loader

buckets that offer a retractable bottom, which

enable it to empty the load more quickly and

efficiently.

The retractable bottom loader buckets are often

times used for grading and scratching off sand.

The front assembly on a backhoe may be either

removable or permanently attached. Often times,

the bucket can be replaced with other tools or

devices. In order to mount different attachments

to the loader, it must be equipped with a tool

coupler. The coupler consists of two hydraulic

cylinders on the end of the arm assembly, which

can expand and retract to allow different tools to

be attached to the unit.

There are several types of backhoe loader brands,

including New Holland, John Deere, and Case. Some

will offer you cabs, while others won't. The

newer types of backhoe loaders even offer you air

conditioning, radios, and other accessories that

make you feel like you are working with luxury.

Common with excavating jobs, the backhoe can serve

many purposes. It can haul equipment and supplies

in the loader bucket. Another great use is to cover

up dirt when filling in trench lines or covering

up pipe that was just put in the ground. The

backhoe attachment at the rear is ideal for digging

water pipes and sewer pipes.

The best thing about the backhoe loader is the

fact that they are easy to operate. You don't

need to be a rocket scientist to fully operate this

nifty piece of equipment.

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Trench Digging

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 654)
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Digging trenches is one of the oldest types of work

with both construction and excavating. Prior to World

War 2, trenches were dug by hand. As workers dug the

trenches deeper, the sides needed to be shored or

supported, to keep the walls of the trench from caving

in.

Following the World War, several innovations were made

in backhoes, and trench digging seemed to fade away

as a profession. By 1950, hydraulically actuated

backhoes were developed, which make it possible to

rapidly dig very deep trenches. Resulting from the

innovations with backhoes, and because there were no

workers inside digging the trenches, the walls no

longer needed to be shored.

All types of trenches have what's known as a stand up

time. This time is the amount of time that elapses

from the time the ditch is dug until the time the

trench walls start to collapse. The stand up time

is dependant on many factors, which include the type

of soil, water content, trench depth, weather

conditions, and whether or not the soil has been

disturbed.

The stand up time can be as short as zero seconds

or as long as several months, as they are very

difficult to predict. Before the trench can be dug,

someone must take soil samples as way of estimating

the stand up time. Keep in mind that the soil

conditions can be dramatically different only a

few feet from where the sample of the soil was taken.

After the trench has been dug, workers will go down

into the trench, and perform whatever work is

needed, such as laying pipe or installing telephone

lines, welding pipe, or installing valves. If the

trench walls aren't supported, there is the possibility

of the walls collapsing and trapping the workers in

the trench. Throughout history, there have been

100 - 300 people killed in the U.S. each year

due to trenches collapsing.

The public has become very aware that industrial

progress will often have negative side effects as

well. The place of engineers protecting the

public from these types of side effects is a very

controversial issue. The use of trench boxes on

the site, will help to ease this debate.

The trench box, also called a trench shield, may

be placed in the trench to prevent failures from

injuring workers. The trench box consists of two

large plates, normally made from steel, which are

parallel to the walls of the trench, and horizontal

cross members which will hold the two plates

apart.

The lower edge of the trench box rests at the

bottom of the trench, with the top edge of the

box extending above the top of the trench. The

workers will stay between the plates of the trench

box, so that if the trench does collapse, the dirt

will be stopped by the outside of the trench box.

As the work progresses, the trench box is pulled

along in the trench with a backhoe or other machine.

When a project calls for a large excavation such

as digging the foundation for a tall building, the

supporting structure for the excavated walls will

be specified in the plans. The big problem with

not using trench boxes occurs in cities, when

water or sewer lines are being installed or

repaired. The engineer doesn't specify for the

trench box in the plans, but instead leaves it

up to the contractor.

Anytime you are going to be digging trenches or

working in them, you should always use common sense

and take your time. Trenches can be very deadly,

especially if trench boxes aren't used. To be on

the safe side, you should always use a trench box

if you need to be in the trench. If you don't

need to be in the trench - do the smart thing

and let the machines do all of the work.

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Case Cx330

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 645)
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As you may know, the CX330 is the upgrade to the

9050B model from Case. The CX330 is quite an upgrade,

being much bigger than the 9050B.

In standard form, the CX330 is almost 5,000 pounds

heavier than the 9050B. This added weight comes

from a larger counterweight and from a redesigned

carbody that will now completely enclose the swing

system.

These added pounds will also contribute to the boost

in the CX330s over-front capacity, and in combination

with higher hydraulic pressures the travel circuit,

give the excavator a very impressive 16% boost in

draw bar pull, which means more power for negotiating

poor underfoot conditions and very steep grades.

In addition to the new features, the CX330s digging

linkage has been enhanced in many ways. The boom

and arm, deeper in cross section to accommodate

higher digging forces, now incorporate V-groove

type welds that are placed by robots and 100 percent

ultra sound inspected.

The boom foot and boom to arm pivots use improved

bushings, new plated pins, and new dust seals that

combine to make a more durable and easier to take

care of assembly. The newly hardened chrome pins

will also contribute to the overall digging linkage

durability.

Even though the basic 6 cylinder, 8.3 liter engine

in the CX330 has been used in Case products since

1985, continual refinement over the years has

changed nearly 85% of the original engine's part

numbers. The CX330 features 259 net HP with an

air to air intercooler and a free breathing 24 valve

cylinder head.

The electronic logic that controls the new engine's

fuel system tracks the machine's operating parameters

and keeps the system continually armed to respond

instantly and precisely to the fuel requirements of

each individual cylinder. The total electronic

design of the engine will also eliminate cable

and step motor controls from the fuel system, with

a large gain in reliability.

Even though modest changes in the CX330s digging

linkage geometry will contribute to the higher

forces of digging, the big guns here are the

refinement of the trench with it's open center

hydraulic system. The main pressure in the

implement circuit is up almost 8%, with the hydraulic

cylinder diameter up 7% as well.

Hydraulic power

The increase in hydraulic power combines with the

more efficient linkage geometry to yield almost

20% more bucket digging force and 15% more arm

force. With 19 more HP, the CX330 can drive it's

main hydraulic pumps with much better force. In

addition, the new pumps will produce about 6% more

flow for increased hydraulic speed at much lower

system pressures.

The new PCS (Pro Control System) will manage the

hydraulic system and interface with the 6TAA-830

engine, and does it with more electronic genious

than the 9050B did. Similar to the 9050B, the

CX330 does have manually selected working modes,

although it departs from previous designs by adding

a new automatic work mode. By working in the

new automatic mode, the CX330 can analyze load

demands and operator input at the joystick, then

adjust the engine and hydraulic pumps to balance

power and speed with efficiency and even with the

economy.

Other PCS features include a high speed assistance

system, which will speed up boom and arm functions,

and an automatic power boost system as well. The

power boost system will increase main pressure by

10% for 8 seconds if the implement system reaches

the standard relief pressure for more than 1 second

in tough digging conditions.

With everything the CX330 from Case offers, it's

truly the best excavtor in years. Case has outdone

themselves this time, doing their part to make

excavating both fun and exciting. If you've been

looking for the perfect upgrade from the 9050B, the

CX330 is all that and a bag of chips.

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Case Cx700 And Cx330

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 472)
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The company of Case has done it again, by introducing

yet another spectacular excavator, the CX700, which

weighs in at 70 metric tons and represents a new

size for Case, fitting perfectly between the CX460

and CX800 models. Case has also taken advantage of

Tier 3 technologies and upgraded the CX330, increasing

the power and improving fuel economy, all while adding

features that will enhance comfort for the operator

and simplify maintenance.

Power

The CX700 is a powered by a high performance, fuel

efficient Isuzu engine that is completely Tier 3

certified. With an operating weight of 153,400 lbs.

and over 400 HP, the CX700 is capable of digging to

31 feet 11 inches with reaches up to 46 feet 11 inches.

The frame for the CX700 is based on the larger CX800

to ensure optimum durability and reliability,

especially given the powerful performance specs the

machine calls for.

New to the Case CX700 is a switch that will allow

you to give priority to either the boom or the swing

functions. The CX700 also offers retractable side

frames and an optional counterweight removal device,

which makes transporting easier than ever before.

More durable

The Isuzu engine that powers the CX700 is fully

electronic and uses a high pressure rail system that

provides a 5% increase in HP and also gives the

excavator 10% better fuel economy.

Several enhancements have been made to the CX330

upon releasing the CX700, including the overall

reliabilty and durability of the machine, which

includes the strength of the front idlers by beefing

up the thickness and design of the center hub and

improving the track seal design for increased life.

Upgrades

Several of the features that come standard with the

CX700 are upgrades for the CX330 that will also be

applied to other large Case excavator models that

move forward. The key upgrades include ease of

maintenance and servicing. Both the CX330 and CX700

models feature an easy maintenance system, lubricated

bushings throughout the boom and arm, which provides

extended lube periods of up to 1,000 hours. The

engine oil filters are now mounted vertically in

the pump house access area, which allows for easier

access and servicing.

The addition of a modified oil drain plug with a

check valve will make it easier than ever to change

oil. Both the CX330 and CX700 both offer finer

fuel filtration, up to four microns, which provides

increased uptime and improved fuel performance.

The upgraded cooling system features a design that

reduces the stacking of coolers for better cooling

efficiency and also improves access to ease the

removal of debris. In addition to this, the Case

CX700 also features a hydraulically driven,

thermostat controlled reversible fan for improving

the cooling of the engine and easy cleanout of the

materials.

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Caterpillar D Series

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 621)
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The CAT (Caterpillar) 420D and 430D backhoe loaders

are the high performance machines in the D series

lineup. The 420D boasts 85 HP and a backhoe digging

depth of 14 feet when equipped with a standard

stick.

The 430D offers 94 HP and a backhoe digging depth

of 15 feet when it is equipped with a standard

stick. By using an extendible stick, you can

push the digging depth of the 420D to 18 feet and

the depth of the 430D to 19 feet, which is very

impressive to say the least.

Both D series machines are available in IT

(Integrated Toolcarrier) configurations for

applications that benefit from a parallel lift

loader linkage and the versatility of quick work

tool changes through the use of a versatile

hydraulic quick coupler. Applications include the

use of pallet forks, material handling arms,

brooms, and even buckets.

The new and improved pilot operated hydraulic backhoe

and IT loader controls will help to ensure smooth,

precise operation with reduced effort on behalf of

the operator. These backhoes use excavator type

joystick controls, and an optional pattern change

valve which allows you to select the patern of

control.

The 205 degree rotation that is offered by the

backhoe bucket linkage will make it easier to dig

vertical walls and clamp material when loading

trucks. The rotation with the D series is 40

degrees more than with the C series. Now, the

backhoe buckets feature a single pin position,

with the bucket link featuring an integrated

lifting eye as well.

The optional quick coupler you can get for the

backhoe will allow fast changes of working tools

for increased versatility and flexibility in

almost all applications.

Both of the D series backhoe loaders use the

turbocharged, direct injection, four cylinder diesel

engine, with a displacement of 4.0 liters. This

engine offers superior lug performance which is

mostly due to the responsive fuel injection

system.

The standard power shuttle transmission provides

four forward speeds and four speeds in reverse

as well. Fully synchromesh in all gears will

permit on the go shifting, while the forward and

reverse electric power shuttle will provide

instant direction changes through powered

clutches.

The auto shifting feature will automatically

shift between second gear and the highest gear

selected for ease of operation. The auto shift

feature has five forward and three reverse gears,

with a transmission kick switch on the lever of

the loader control.

With D series loaders, you'll also have the choice

of standard two wheel drive or all wheel drive,

which you can engage easily on the go, under

heavy load, by pressing a switch that is located

on the front console.

The D series loaders from CAT are very fast and

versatile as well, as they will move faster than

most types of backhoes on the market. The

diesel engines are very fast, while the machine

has enough traction and control to keep you

moving even in wet or muddy conditions.

The variable load sensing hydraulic system will

adjust the flow and pressure of the machine to

meet the demands of work with an increased

pressure of 3,300 PSI. The hydraulic system is

tuned to work efficiently with the engine, and

it provides full hydraulic force to the working

tool on hand at any engine speed you desire.

Unlike other backhoe loaders, the D series will

reduce demands on the operator, cut fuel consumption

in half, reduce wear on the engine, and allow

for quieter operation. To make a long story

short - the D series from CAT are among the best

backhoe loaders that money can buy - bar none.

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Easy Site Prep

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 624)
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Site prep is the best term that is used to describe

the operations necessary to make raw land ready

to accept improvements such as buildings, parking

lots, roads, and other amenities. Once the project

has been completed, the site prep is invisible.

The term site prep is a broad term that can include

several different tasks, such as clearing and

grubbing, soil erosion, sediment control, storm

drains, water and sewer pipes, topsoil stripping,

rock removal, underground utility, and several

other tasks.

Soil erosion and management

To protect the quality of the water, soil erosion

and sediment control measures are vital. With

most locations, storm water permitting is

required. All erosion and sediment control

measures and devices must be in place and inspected

before the first tree drops or first shovel full

of dirt is removed.

The designs for storm water management systems

are becoming more and more complex. The detension

basins have complex and spiraling side slopes

and bottoms that have almost flat grades.

Clearing

The limits of clearing can be marked with a GPS

dozer. By following the outline of the display

in the cab, the bulldozer can cut a path through

the wooded area so other equipment will have a

clear line to go by.

The traditional method used to clear debris, such

as burning, is rapidly fading away. The air

pollution standards will prevent any type of

burning of most areas across the United States.

Site prep made easy

Depending on the job site, what you have to do will

vary greatly. With excavation, what is needed to

complete a job is as different as night and day. No

matter what type of work you are doing, it will

almost always require the use of heavy machinery.

Clearing lots for houses, grading roads, laying

pipe, fixing water leaks, and digging foundations

are just some of the most common tasks found with

the art of excavation. To do this type of work,

it takes a special individual as work is outdoors

year round, meaning that you freeze in the winter

and burn up in the summer.

Laying pipe is a task that takes skill. You first

must dig the trench for the pipe, making sure that

the elevation is right, and that the pipe will meet

the specifications listed in the blueprints. There

are several different types of pipe that needs to

be layed, including water, sewer, and storm drains.

When you first begin your job, you'll need to have

the proper permits from the area that you are going

to be disturbing the ground in. Once you have

the proper permits, you can begin your work. With

some jobs, you'll need to document on paper just

how much land you disturb each day.

Sometimes with excavation, the job site and plans

will call for ponds or temporary ponds. This can

be fun to do, although you have to be careful as

well. Very common with sub divisions, ponds are

something that take a lot of skill to dig right.

Manholes are something else that you will encounter

as well. You can use machinery to set them in place,

although they will need to go a certain way. The

easiest way to put them in place is by using an

excavator, as you can lower it down and have a

couple of workers set it in place.

Anytime you are working on an excavation site, you

should always be careful and make sure you do things

by the book. There are always rules and regulations

that you need to follow. Excavation is a very fun

trade, although you'll need to be well versed with

following plans, running machinery, and having fun

outdoors.

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Different Types Of Backhoe Loaders

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 615)
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Caterpillar

Caterpillar hit a dial of power and performance with

its top of the line 446 backhoe loader when it first

introduced the D series version of the machine. The

102 HP machine also features a new operator station

and offers optional joystick controls. The dig

forces on the bucket have increased 10% on the

backhoe.

Bobcat

Bobcat gave its compact backhoe loaders a power

boost when the company introduced the second generation

B series to the lineup. The 31.5 HP B100 received

a 45% increase in backhoe bucket breakout force

and a 27% jump in the breakout force of the dipper.

The 46 HP B300 received a 44% increase in dipper

breakout force and a 21% boost in the breakout

force of the bucket. The three model line also

includes the B250, which is a 31.5 HP sideshift

unit. Similar to the larger B300, the B250 also

features all wheel steering and four wheel drive.

New Holland

Each one of the four models of backhoe loaders in

the New Holland lineup use the new 4.5 liter

turbocharged Tier 2 engine. This new engine and

a number of other upgrades were the basis for the

B series machines, which offer low effort pilot

controls which will give you a choice between

excavator or loader style patterns.

Case

Case added quite a bit to its M series backhoe

loaders, by switching to family 3 engines to meet

Tier 2 emission standards. The new machines

of the M series have quieter, larger displacement

engines for better lugging capacity. They also

have increased torque rise for faster cycles

of loader and backhoe operations.

With 500 hour intervals of oil changes and easy

to access transmission mounted hydraulic pumps,

the M series is surely a force to be reckoned

with in the world of backhoes.

Ingersoll-Rand

The newest compact backhoe loader from this

company can reach digging depths of up to 12

feet with its backhoe. Working as a loader, the

BL-580 has an operating capacity of 3,406 pounds

with a breakout force of 9,370 pounds.

Both the loader and backhoe are equipped with

standard auxiliary hydraulics with a two way

flow to accommodate a variety of attachments,

which includes booms, breakers, augers, and

even compactors. Other nifty features include

hydrostatic four wheel drive for power and traction,

and all wheel steering for a tight radius.

Komatsu

Komatsu announced that the optional excavator

style joystick controls would be offered on its

five model lineup of backhoes. The lineup has

also been upgraded with increased hydraulic speed,

stronger components, and Tier 2 engines. The

entire Komatsu line consists of the 87 HP WB140

series, and teh 94 HP WB150 series.

The standard model found with each series features

a four speed mechanical transmission complete with

a torque converter. The fifth model from Komatsu

is the WB150, with offers an all star wheel design

with a powershift transmission and anti theft

prevention system.

John Deere

The 410H is the hallmark of John Deere, offering

92 HP. The 410H also offers the total machine

control system, which integrates control for the

engine, transmission, hydraulics, and brakes so

that the system can respond in an efficient way

to the many different job demands.

Terex

Since acquiring the Fermec line, Terex has marketed

a full and impressive line of backhoes. The

models include the 92 HP TX760B and the 100 HP

TX860B. At 100 HP as well are the 860SX, 860 Elite,

and the 970 Elite. Both the 760 and 860 models

feature four speed shuttle gearboxes and travel

speeds of up to 25.8 miles per hour.

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Comparing Trenchers To Compact Excavators

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 478)
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Both of these machines are affordable, popular,

highly productive, and they both have helped lay a

lot of cable and pipe in the ground. While they

both can do the work, there are differences as

to how they perform when stacked up against each

other in residential utility installations.

Size and price

The average dig depth for utility installations in

residential applications is between 40 and 48

inches. The basic trencher that digs to the above

depth will boast a 20 - 30 horsepower engine and

cost around 40,000 dollars.

The most popular type of compact excavator is the

2.5 metric ton size class, and it uses a 30 HP

engine and costs around the same price. The

biggest difference in the two surfaces when you

need the trencher to dig deeper. The 2.5 metric

ton excavator has no trouble at all digging to 8

feet or more, although a trencher that can dig

that deep will require an engine with around 100

horsepower and cost upwards of 90,000 dollars!

Life costs

Not counting the bucket teeth and the replacement

of the rubber tracks at 2,000 hours, fuel and

routine maintenance are your only daily costs

with a compact excavator. The digging chain, teeth,

and sprockets on the trenchers are considered

wear items and need to be replaced often. Even

with the high consumable costs of trenchers, the

differences will tend to even out when productivity

is taken into effect.

Productivity

For straight line trenching at an average depth,

trenchers will flat out lead compact excavators.

Under reasonable conditions, a trencher can work

three to four times faster than that of a compact

excavator. Another area where trenchers really

excel is wooded areas, where tree roots and logs

can make for slow and sloppy digging when using a

bucket.

Versatility

When it comes down to it, compact excavators can

do a lot of things that trenchers can't, especially

when they have attachments on hand. If you are

digging with a compact excavator, you can't go

anywhere near as fast as you can with a good quality

trencher.

Keep in mind that a trencher isn't a single minded

machine either. Most styles of trenchers can be

outfitted with a backhoe attachment that attaches

to the front end. Whenever concrete, rocks, or

asphalt stands in the way, the boom and chain can

be replaced with rock teeth and a wheel. In soft

soils, you can set up a trencher with a plow

attachment and plow in cables faster than using

any other available method.

When it comes down to choosing, keep in mind that

it all depends on your needs. There are some

cases where the compact excavator is best to

choose, while there will also be jobs in which

the trencher is going to do the best work.

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