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Excavation-Equipment Articles


Case Cx700 And Cx330

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 472)
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The company of Case has done it again, by introducing

yet another spectacular excavator, the CX700, which

weighs in at 70 metric tons and represents a new

size for Case, fitting perfectly between the CX460

and CX800 models. Case has also taken advantage of

Tier 3 technologies and upgraded the CX330, increasing

the power and improving fuel economy, all while adding

features that will enhance comfort for the operator

and simplify maintenance.

Power

The CX700 is a powered by a high performance, fuel

efficient Isuzu engine that is completely Tier 3

certified. With an operating weight of 153,400 lbs.

and over 400 HP, the CX700 is capable of digging to

31 feet 11 inches with reaches up to 46 feet 11 inches.

The frame for the CX700 is based on the larger CX800

to ensure optimum durability and reliability,

especially given the powerful performance specs the

machine calls for.

New to the Case CX700 is a switch that will allow

you to give priority to either the boom or the swing

functions. The CX700 also offers retractable side

frames and an optional counterweight removal device,

which makes transporting easier than ever before.

More durable

The Isuzu engine that powers the CX700 is fully

electronic and uses a high pressure rail system that

provides a 5% increase in HP and also gives the

excavator 10% better fuel economy.

Several enhancements have been made to the CX330

upon releasing the CX700, including the overall

reliabilty and durability of the machine, which

includes the strength of the front idlers by beefing

up the thickness and design of the center hub and

improving the track seal design for increased life.

Upgrades

Several of the features that come standard with the

CX700 are upgrades for the CX330 that will also be

applied to other large Case excavator models that

move forward. The key upgrades include ease of

maintenance and servicing. Both the CX330 and CX700

models feature an easy maintenance system, lubricated

bushings throughout the boom and arm, which provides

extended lube periods of up to 1,000 hours. The

engine oil filters are now mounted vertically in

the pump house access area, which allows for easier

access and servicing.

The addition of a modified oil drain plug with a

check valve will make it easier than ever to change

oil. Both the CX330 and CX700 both offer finer

fuel filtration, up to four microns, which provides

increased uptime and improved fuel performance.

The upgraded cooling system features a design that

reduces the stacking of coolers for better cooling

efficiency and also improves access to ease the

removal of debris. In addition to this, the Case

CX700 also features a hydraulically driven,

thermostat controlled reversible fan for improving

the cooling of the engine and easy cleanout of the

materials.

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Operating A Backhoe Safely

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 482)
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A skid steer loader with backhoe attachment or a backhoe

loader in general can be very productive if it is

operated safely and efficiently. The best way to

get the job done safely and efficiently is to know

yourself, the job site, and your equipment.

Even though the models of backhoes will vary, there

are safety features with all of them that include

steps and grab handles for getting on and off of

the machine. Backhoes also feature frame lock levers

and attaching levers to keep the backhoe securely

fastened to the loader frame during operation as well

as transporting.

In addition to these standard safety features, there

are some backhoes that provide a safety chain. The

safety chain will prevent the backhoe mounting

frame from rotating backwards and unexpectedly

trapping the operator, which can result in serious

injury or death. Therefore, it is always important

to know and check all of the mounting and attachment

points and the safety chain before you operate the

backhoe.

If you've attached the backhoe to the loader, you

should take a moment to inspect it and perform any

necessary maintenance. Check for broken or

damaged parts, also making sure to check for leaks,

cracks, excessive wear, and check the control

levers.

The warning and safety signs and instructional

decals are very important and will help you to

avoid injury. You should always take them seriously

and replace any damaged or missing decals.

Every 8 hours or so, you should grease all of the

zerk fittings, and check the hydraulic fluid

and oil and a daily basis. If the fluid is low,

the backhoe will not operate. Therefore, you

should always take the time to check your machine.

Anytime you have to leave the operator seat of the

backhoe, you should lower the bucket or attachment

to the ground, turn the engine off, remove the

ignition key, then exit the machine.

When the time comes to drive to the next job site,

you should always make sure that you have fully

raised both the front and rear stabilizers and

make sure you've put the backhoe seat into the

"down" position for better visibility. Before

you drive off, make sure that you've installed the

transport locking pin.

Here are some other things to keep in mind:

- Always select the right size bucket for

the job.

- Stake out the work area that is going to

be excavated and use flags to mark the area.

- Never work in areas that have inadequate

overhead clearances.

Always make sure that you keep bystanders or other

workers out of the swing area. If anyone gets in

the way of the boom swinging, they can very easily

get injured. The machine has no feelings,

therefore you should always be aware of who is

around you and where they are standing.

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Hydraulic Machinery

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 602)
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Hydraulic machinery are machines and tools that use

fluid power to do the work. Almost all types of

heavy equipment is a common example. With this type

of equipment, hydraulic fluid is pumped to a high

pressure then transmitted through the machine to

various actuators.

The hydraulic pumps are powered by engines or electric

motors. The pressurized fluid is controlled by the

operator with control valves and then distributed

through hoses and tubes.

The increasing popularity of hydraulic machinery is

due to the large amount of power that is transferred

through small tubes and flexible hoses. The high

power density and wide array of actuators can make

use of this power.

Hydraulic power

The theory that lies behind hydraulic equipment is

fluid pressure.

1. A force that acts on a small area can

create a bigger force by acting on a larger area

by hydrostatic pressure.

2. A large amount of energy can be carried

by a small flow of highly pressurized fluid.

Pumps

A hydraulic pump will supply the fluid to the

components in the system. Pressure in the system

will develop in reaction to the load. Pumps have

a power density of around ten times greater than

an electric motor. The pumps are powered by an

electric motor or engine, which is connected through

gears, belts, or a flexible elastomeric coupling

to reduce the heavy vibration.

The common types of hydraulic pumps for hydraulic

machinery applications include:

1. Gear pump - the gear pump is cheap,

durable, and simple. It is less efficient, simply

because it is constant displacement and suitable

for pressures that are below 3,000 psi.

2. Vane pump - vane pumps are cheap, simple,

and reliable. They are good pumps for higher flow

low pressure output.

Hoses and tubes

A hydraulic hose is graded by pressure, temperature,

and compatibility of fluid. A rubber interior is

surrounded by multiple layers of woven wire and

rubber. The exterior of the hose is designed for

resistance against abrasion.

The bending radius of the hydraulic hose is

designed very carefully into the machine, since

a hose failure can be deadly, and violating the

minimum bend radius of the hose can also cause

failure.

A hydraulic pipe is thick enough to have threads

cut into it for connections. It's rarely used

for high pressure systems though, which prefer to

have tubes or hoses. The pipe itself lends to

weldings and can also be used to fabricate the

manifold.

Hydraulic pipes on the other hand are preferred

over hoses whenever possible, as they are simply

more durable. Tubes are also preferred over pipes,

as they weigh a lot less. Hydraulic tubes will

normally have flared ends and captive nuts to

make connections. They can also be steel welded

with floating nuts and face seal fittings on the

ends.

Both tubes and pipes for hydraulic applications

traditionally haven't been plated or painted,

since the temperature and oil they operate under

drive away moisture and reduce the risk of rust.

Fittings

The fittings with hydraulic machinery serve

several purposes:

1. To bride different standards, such

as the O-ring boss to JIC or pipe threads to the

face seal.

2. Allows proper orientation of

components, as a 45 or 90 degree, straight, or

even swivel fitting will be chosen as it is

needed. They are designed to be positioned in

the correct orientation and then tightened as

needed.

3. To incorporate bulkhead hardware.

4. A quick disconnect fitting may be

added to a machine without having to modify hoses

or valves.

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Cranes

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 592)
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A crane is a tower or derrick that is equipped with

cables and pulleys that are used to lift and lower

material. They are commonly used in the construction

industry and in the manufacturing of heavy equipment.

Cranes for construction are normally temporary

structures, either fixed to the ground or mounted

on a purpose built vehicle.

They can either be controlled from an operator in

a cab that travels along with the crane, by a push

button pendant control station, or by radio type

controls. The crane operator is ultimately responsible

for the safety of the crews and the crane.

Medieval cranes

Cranes of the Middle Ages were used to build the

cathedrals of Europe. The crane was fixed on top

of a wall as it was being constructed and was

powered by men that ran inside of two large wheels

on each side. Cranes were also used in medieval ports

and in shipyards.

Mobile cranes

The most basic type of crane consists of a steel

truss or telescopic boom mounted on a mobile platform,

which could be a rail, wheeled, or even on a cat

truck. The boom is hinged at the bottom and can

be either raised or lowered by cables or hydraulic

cylinders.

Telescopic crane

This type of crane offers a boom that consists of

a number of tubes fitted one inside of the other.

A hydraulic mechanism extends or retracts the

tubes to increase or decrease the length of the

boom.

Tower crane

The tower crane is a modern form of a balance

crane. When fixed to the ground, tower cranes

will often give the best combination of height and

lifting capacity and are also used when constructing

tall buildings.

Truck mounted crane

Cranes mounted on a rubber tire truck will provide

great mobility. Outriggers that extend vertically

or horizontally are used to level and stabilize

the crane during hoisting.

Rough terrain crane

A crane that is mounted on an undercarriage with

four rubber tires, designed for operations off

road. The outriggers extend vertically and

horizontally to level and stabilize the crane when

hoisting. These types of cranes are single engine

machines where the same engine is used for powering

the undercarriage as it is for powering the

crane. In these types of cranes, the engine is

normally mounted in the undercarriage rather than

in the upper portion.

Loader crane

A loader crane is a hydraulically powered articulated

arm fitted to a trailer, used to load equipment

onto a trailer. The numerous sections can be

folded into a small space when the crane isn't in

use.

Overhead crane

Also refered to as a suspended crane, this type

is normally used in a factory, with some of them

being able to lift very heavy loads. The hoist is

set on a trolley which will move in one direction

along one or two beams, which move at angles to

that direction along elevated or ground level

tracks, often mounted along the side of an assembly

area.

In the excavation world, cranes are used to move

equipment or machinery. Cranes can quickly and

easily move machinery into trenches or down steep

hills, or even pipe. There are many types of

cranes available, serving everything from

excavation to road work.

Cranes are also beneficial to building bridges or

construction. For many years, cranes have proven

to be an asset to the industry of construction

and excavating. Crane operators make really good

money, no matter what type of crane they are

operating.

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Excavation

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 488)
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Excavation is most commonly and best known for a

technique within the science of archaeology. The

individual types of excavation are known simply

as digs to those who participate, with this being

an over literal description of the process. An

excavation concerns itself with a specific

archaeological site or connected series of sites,

and may be carried on over a number of years, since

the work is normally seasonal.

Within the industry of excavation, many more

techniques may be utilized, with each dig having

its own particular features that may necessitate

differences of approach. Resources and other

practical issues don't allow archaeologists to carry

out excavations whenever and wherever they choose,

as many known sites have been deliberately left

alone and non excavated.

Initially, excavation involves the removal of any

topsoil that is uncovered by machine. What is

dug up may be examined by a metal detector for stray

finds but unless the excavation site has remained

untouched for a long period of time, there is a

small layer of modern material on the surface that

is of limited archaeological interest.

In rural areas, any type of archaeological features

should be visible beneath the surface. With

urban areas, they may be thick layers of human

deposits and only the uppermost will be visible to

the naked eye. With either case, the first task

is drawing a scaled site plan that will show the

edges of the excavation.

This plan can be composed using tape measures, or

as it is more common these days, an electronic

total station. A grid is normally set up, to

divide the site.

Excavation is also useful for digging out houses

and trenches. When clearing dirt out for roads

or sub divisions, excavation is what takes care of

things. Even though there are a few means, the

term excavation is used anytime that the earth or

dirt is disturbed.

Heavy machinery is also very common with excavation,

such as excavators or backhoes. Excavating crews

run the equipment and dig up soil and rocks for

whatever the purpose may be. Excavators are the

most used machinery, as they can move a lot of dirt

in a little bit of time.

Anytime you are taking part in excavation, you should

always use common sense and be safe. If you plan

to get down into a hole or trench, you should always

use a trench box. Even though the hole may not

be that deep, excavation sites can always cave in

and at that point - things are very dangerous and

possibly even deadly.

For digging up rare artifacts or putting in houses

or roads, excavation is something that has been around

for years and years. There is a lot to learn with

excavation, as you'll need to know how to run

machinery, shoot grade, and how to properly dig

holes and trenches so they won't cave in.

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Comparing Trenchers To Compact Excavators

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 478)
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Both of these machines are affordable, popular,

highly productive, and they both have helped lay a

lot of cable and pipe in the ground. While they

both can do the work, there are differences as

to how they perform when stacked up against each

other in residential utility installations.

Size and price

The average dig depth for utility installations in

residential applications is between 40 and 48

inches. The basic trencher that digs to the above

depth will boast a 20 - 30 horsepower engine and

cost around 40,000 dollars.

The most popular type of compact excavator is the

2.5 metric ton size class, and it uses a 30 HP

engine and costs around the same price. The

biggest difference in the two surfaces when you

need the trencher to dig deeper. The 2.5 metric

ton excavator has no trouble at all digging to 8

feet or more, although a trencher that can dig

that deep will require an engine with around 100

horsepower and cost upwards of 90,000 dollars!

Life costs

Not counting the bucket teeth and the replacement

of the rubber tracks at 2,000 hours, fuel and

routine maintenance are your only daily costs

with a compact excavator. The digging chain, teeth,

and sprockets on the trenchers are considered

wear items and need to be replaced often. Even

with the high consumable costs of trenchers, the

differences will tend to even out when productivity

is taken into effect.

Productivity

For straight line trenching at an average depth,

trenchers will flat out lead compact excavators.

Under reasonable conditions, a trencher can work

three to four times faster than that of a compact

excavator. Another area where trenchers really

excel is wooded areas, where tree roots and logs

can make for slow and sloppy digging when using a

bucket.

Versatility

When it comes down to it, compact excavators can

do a lot of things that trenchers can't, especially

when they have attachments on hand. If you are

digging with a compact excavator, you can't go

anywhere near as fast as you can with a good quality

trencher.

Keep in mind that a trencher isn't a single minded

machine either. Most styles of trenchers can be

outfitted with a backhoe attachment that attaches

to the front end. Whenever concrete, rocks, or

asphalt stands in the way, the boom and chain can

be replaced with rock teeth and a wheel. In soft

soils, you can set up a trencher with a plow

attachment and plow in cables faster than using

any other available method.

When it comes down to choosing, keep in mind that

it all depends on your needs. There are some

cases where the compact excavator is best to

choose, while there will also be jobs in which

the trencher is going to do the best work.

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Drag Line Excavator

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 611)
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Drag line excavator systems are heavy machinery that

is used in civil engineering, surface mining, and

excavation. With civil engineering, the smaller

types are used for road and port construction. The

larger types of drag line excavators are used in

strip mining operations to extract coal. These are

among the largest types of mobile equipment and

weigh upwards of 10,000 tons!

The drag line excavator bucket system consists of

a large bucket that is suspended from a boom. The

bucket is moved by a number of chains and ropes. The

hoisting rope, which is powered by either a large

diesel or electric motor, will support the bucket

and hoist coupler assembly from the boom. The

drag rope on the assembly is used to draw the bucket

assembly horizontally. Through skillful maneuvering

of the hoist and drag rope, the bucket can be

controlled for many different types of operations.

Operation

With a typical excavation cycle, the bucket is

positioned high above the material that is being

excavated. The bucket is then lowered down and the

drag rope is drawn so that the bucket is dragged

along the materials surface. Using the hoist rope,

the bucket is then lifted. A swing operation is

then performed in order to move the bucket to the

place where the material is going to be dropped.

The drag rope is then released which will cause the

bucket to tilt, making the material in the bucket

fall down, which is commonly known as a dump operation.

With smaller drag line excavators, the bucket is

thrown by winding up the jib then releasing a

clutch on the drag cable, which swings the bucket

like a pendulum. Skillful operators can make the

bucket land about 1/2 the length of the jib further

away than if it had just been spun or dropped.

Limitations

The limitations of drag line excavators are the

height and length of their boom, as this limits

where the drag line can dump waste material. Being

inherent with their construction, the drag line

is most effective when excavating material

below the level of their tracks. Drag lines

aren't suitable for loading piled up material.

Despite their limitations and high capital cost,

drag line excavators remain very popular with

several mines, due to their very low waste removal

cost, performance, and reliability.

They also have different cutting sequences. The

first is the side casting method which uses

offest benches. This method involves throwing

the overburden sideways onto blasted material to

make a bench.

The second method is a key pass. This pass will

cut a key at the toe of the new highwall and will

also shift the bench further towards the low

wall. This can also require a chopping pass if the

wall is blocky. A chopping pass will involve

the bucket being dropped down onto an angled

highwall to scale the surface.

The next method is the slowest, known as the

blocks pass. This method will however, move the

most material. The blocks pass involves using

the key to access the bottom of the material to

lift it up to spoil or to an elevated bench

level. If required, the final cut is a pull

back, which pulls the material back further to

the low wall side.

For construction, mining, or excavation, drag line

excavators are great to have. They can move even

the biggest of material, which is great for deep

holes in the ground. If you've been looking for a

great way to maximize mining or excavation productivity,

the drag line excavator is just what you need.

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Caterpillar D Series

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 621)
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The CAT (Caterpillar) 420D and 430D backhoe loaders

are the high performance machines in the D series

lineup. The 420D boasts 85 HP and a backhoe digging

depth of 14 feet when equipped with a standard

stick.

The 430D offers 94 HP and a backhoe digging depth

of 15 feet when it is equipped with a standard

stick. By using an extendible stick, you can

push the digging depth of the 420D to 18 feet and

the depth of the 430D to 19 feet, which is very

impressive to say the least.

Both D series machines are available in IT

(Integrated Toolcarrier) configurations for

applications that benefit from a parallel lift

loader linkage and the versatility of quick work

tool changes through the use of a versatile

hydraulic quick coupler. Applications include the

use of pallet forks, material handling arms,

brooms, and even buckets.

The new and improved pilot operated hydraulic backhoe

and IT loader controls will help to ensure smooth,

precise operation with reduced effort on behalf of

the operator. These backhoes use excavator type

joystick controls, and an optional pattern change

valve which allows you to select the patern of

control.

The 205 degree rotation that is offered by the

backhoe bucket linkage will make it easier to dig

vertical walls and clamp material when loading

trucks. The rotation with the D series is 40

degrees more than with the C series. Now, the

backhoe buckets feature a single pin position,

with the bucket link featuring an integrated

lifting eye as well.

The optional quick coupler you can get for the

backhoe will allow fast changes of working tools

for increased versatility and flexibility in

almost all applications.

Both of the D series backhoe loaders use the

turbocharged, direct injection, four cylinder diesel

engine, with a displacement of 4.0 liters. This

engine offers superior lug performance which is

mostly due to the responsive fuel injection

system.

The standard power shuttle transmission provides

four forward speeds and four speeds in reverse

as well. Fully synchromesh in all gears will

permit on the go shifting, while the forward and

reverse electric power shuttle will provide

instant direction changes through powered

clutches.

The auto shifting feature will automatically

shift between second gear and the highest gear

selected for ease of operation. The auto shift

feature has five forward and three reverse gears,

with a transmission kick switch on the lever of

the loader control.

With D series loaders, you'll also have the choice

of standard two wheel drive or all wheel drive,

which you can engage easily on the go, under

heavy load, by pressing a switch that is located

on the front console.

The D series loaders from CAT are very fast and

versatile as well, as they will move faster than

most types of backhoes on the market. The

diesel engines are very fast, while the machine

has enough traction and control to keep you

moving even in wet or muddy conditions.

The variable load sensing hydraulic system will

adjust the flow and pressure of the machine to

meet the demands of work with an increased

pressure of 3,300 PSI. The hydraulic system is

tuned to work efficiently with the engine, and

it provides full hydraulic force to the working

tool on hand at any engine speed you desire.

Unlike other backhoe loaders, the D series will

reduce demands on the operator, cut fuel consumption

in half, reduce wear on the engine, and allow

for quieter operation. To make a long story

short - the D series from CAT are among the best

backhoe loaders that money can buy - bar none.

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Easy Site Prep

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 624)
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Site prep is the best term that is used to describe

the operations necessary to make raw land ready

to accept improvements such as buildings, parking

lots, roads, and other amenities. Once the project

has been completed, the site prep is invisible.

The term site prep is a broad term that can include

several different tasks, such as clearing and

grubbing, soil erosion, sediment control, storm

drains, water and sewer pipes, topsoil stripping,

rock removal, underground utility, and several

other tasks.

Soil erosion and management

To protect the quality of the water, soil erosion

and sediment control measures are vital. With

most locations, storm water permitting is

required. All erosion and sediment control

measures and devices must be in place and inspected

before the first tree drops or first shovel full

of dirt is removed.

The designs for storm water management systems

are becoming more and more complex. The detension

basins have complex and spiraling side slopes

and bottoms that have almost flat grades.

Clearing

The limits of clearing can be marked with a GPS

dozer. By following the outline of the display

in the cab, the bulldozer can cut a path through

the wooded area so other equipment will have a

clear line to go by.

The traditional method used to clear debris, such

as burning, is rapidly fading away. The air

pollution standards will prevent any type of

burning of most areas across the United States.

Site prep made easy

Depending on the job site, what you have to do will

vary greatly. With excavation, what is needed to

complete a job is as different as night and day. No

matter what type of work you are doing, it will

almost always require the use of heavy machinery.

Clearing lots for houses, grading roads, laying

pipe, fixing water leaks, and digging foundations

are just some of the most common tasks found with

the art of excavation. To do this type of work,

it takes a special individual as work is outdoors

year round, meaning that you freeze in the winter

and burn up in the summer.

Laying pipe is a task that takes skill. You first

must dig the trench for the pipe, making sure that

the elevation is right, and that the pipe will meet

the specifications listed in the blueprints. There

are several different types of pipe that needs to

be layed, including water, sewer, and storm drains.

When you first begin your job, you'll need to have

the proper permits from the area that you are going

to be disturbing the ground in. Once you have

the proper permits, you can begin your work. With

some jobs, you'll need to document on paper just

how much land you disturb each day.

Sometimes with excavation, the job site and plans

will call for ponds or temporary ponds. This can

be fun to do, although you have to be careful as

well. Very common with sub divisions, ponds are

something that take a lot of skill to dig right.

Manholes are something else that you will encounter

as well. You can use machinery to set them in place,

although they will need to go a certain way. The

easiest way to put them in place is by using an

excavator, as you can lower it down and have a

couple of workers set it in place.

Anytime you are working on an excavation site, you

should always be careful and make sure you do things

by the book. There are always rules and regulations

that you need to follow. Excavation is a very fun

trade, although you'll need to be well versed with

following plans, running machinery, and having fun

outdoors.

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