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Excavation-Equipment Articles


Caterpillar D 11

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 453)
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The D-11 from Caterpillar is among the series of

tracked type tractors are among the largest

conventional bulldozers in the world, second to the

Komatsu D575. It comes in two variations, the

standard D-11R and the bigger and heavier D-11R CD.

The D-11 bulldozer is among the upper end of

Caterpillars track type tractors, which range in

power and size from the D-3 (77 HP) to the D-11R

(935 HP).

The primary use for the D-11 is for moving large

quantities of rock, dirt, etc. short distances in

confined spaces. The D-11 is often times used in

quarries. The price, size, power and weight of

the D11 dictate that they are used primarily for

major products. You can normally find the D11

used in forestry, mining, excavation, and quarry

operations.

The D-11 is high known and favored for its amazing

power and ability to rip into the earth, making

them ideal for agricultural and rock ripping type

work. The ripper is the long claw like device

you can find on the back of the D-11. Rippers come

in single shank or in groups of two or more, known

as multi shank rippers. Normally, a single shank

is all you need for heavy ripping work.

The ripping of rock will allow the ground surface

rock to be broken up into small, easy to handle

and transport rubble which can then be removed

so that you can grade the area.

The agricultural ripping feature will allow rocky

or very hard ground to be broken up so that

otherwise unarable land can be put to use with

agricultural applications.

The blade on the front of the D-11 comes in 3

varieties:

1. A straight blade which is short and

has no lateral curve, no side wings, and is ideal

for fine grading.

2. A universal blade which is tall and

very curved, and has large side wings which can

carry more material.

3. A combination blade that is shorter,

has less curvature, and smaller wings on the side.

The nearest competition for the Caterpillar D-11

is the Komatsu D-475. The Caterpillar can best be

distinguished from the Komatsu by the elevated drive

sprocket or high drive system that results in a

triangular, rather than oval, shaped caterpillar

track.

The D-11 is a fine testament to the superb products

Caterpillar offers. They are great for excavation

and clearing dirt, as they can push large piles

of dirt. They are also good for rock, as they can

move even the biggest of rocks from the ground

without breaking a sweat. If you've wanted a

bulldozer with uncanny strength and abilities, the

D-11 is just what you need on your job site.

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Bulldozer

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 612)
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The bulldozer is a very powerful crawler that is

equipped with a blade. The term bulldozer is often

used to mean any type of heavy machinery, although

the term actually refers to a tractor that is fitted

with a dozer blade.

Often times, bulldozers are large and extremely

powerful tracked vehicles. The tracks give them

amazing ground mobility and hold through very rough

terrain. Wide tracks on the other hand, help to

distribute the weight of the dozer over large areas,

therefore preventing it from sinking into sandy or

muddy ground.

Bulldozers have great ground hold and a torque

divider that's designed to convert the power of the

engine into dragging ability, which allows it to

use its own weight to push heavy objects and even

remove things from the ground. Take the Caterpillar

D9 for example, it can easily tow tanks that weight

more than 70 tons. Due to these attributes,

bulldozers are used to clear obstacles, shrubbery,

and remains of structures and buildings.

The blade

The blade on a bulldozer is the heavy piece of

metal plate that is installed on the front. The

blade pushes things around. Normally, the blade

comes in 3 varieties:

1. A straight blade that is short and has

no lateral curve, no side wings, and can be used

only for fine grading.

2. A universal blade, or U blade, which is

tall and very curved, and features large side wings

to carry more material around.

3. A combination blade that is shorter,

offers less curvature, and smaller side wings.

Modifications

Over time, bulldozers have been modified to evolve

into new machines that are capable of things the

original bulldozers weren't. A good example is

that loader tractors were created by removing the

blade and substituting a large volume bucket

and hydraulic arms which will raise and lower the

bucket, therefore making it useful for scooping

up the earth and loading it into trucks.

Other modifications to the original bulldozer

include making it smaller to where it can operate

in small working areas where movement is very

limited, such as mining caves and tunnels. Very

small bulldozers are known as calfdozers.

History

The first types of bulldozers were adapted from

farm tractors that were used to plough fields. In

order to dig canals, raise earth dams, and partake

in earthmoving jobs, the tractors were equipped

with a thick metal plate in the front. Later

on, this thick metal plate earned the name blade.

The blade of the bulldozer peels layers of soil

and pushes it forward as the tractor advances.

The blade is the heart and soul of the bulldozer,

as it was the first accessory to make full use

for excavation type jobs.

As the years went by, when engineers needed

equipment to complete larger jobs, companies such

as CAT, Komatsu, John Deere, Case, and JCB started

to manufacture large tracked earthmoving equipment.

They were very loud, very large, and very powerful

and therefore earned the nickname "bulldozer".

Over the years, the bulldozers got bigger, more

powerful, and even more sophisticated. The

important improvements include better engines,

more reliable drive trains, better tracks, and

even hydraulic arms that will enable more precise

manipulation of the blade and automated controls.

As an added option, bulldozers can come equipped

with a rear ripping claw to break up pavement or

loosen rocky soil.

The best known manufacturer of bulldozer is CAT,

which has earned a vast reputation for making

tough and durable, yet reliable machines. Even

though the bulldozer started off a modified farm

tractor, it rapidly became one of the most useful

pieces of equipment with excavating and construction.

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Excavation

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 488)
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Excavation is most commonly and best known for a

technique within the science of archaeology. The

individual types of excavation are known simply

as digs to those who participate, with this being

an over literal description of the process. An

excavation concerns itself with a specific

archaeological site or connected series of sites,

and may be carried on over a number of years, since

the work is normally seasonal.

Within the industry of excavation, many more

techniques may be utilized, with each dig having

its own particular features that may necessitate

differences of approach. Resources and other

practical issues don't allow archaeologists to carry

out excavations whenever and wherever they choose,

as many known sites have been deliberately left

alone and non excavated.

Initially, excavation involves the removal of any

topsoil that is uncovered by machine. What is

dug up may be examined by a metal detector for stray

finds but unless the excavation site has remained

untouched for a long period of time, there is a

small layer of modern material on the surface that

is of limited archaeological interest.

In rural areas, any type of archaeological features

should be visible beneath the surface. With

urban areas, they may be thick layers of human

deposits and only the uppermost will be visible to

the naked eye. With either case, the first task

is drawing a scaled site plan that will show the

edges of the excavation.

This plan can be composed using tape measures, or

as it is more common these days, an electronic

total station. A grid is normally set up, to

divide the site.

Excavation is also useful for digging out houses

and trenches. When clearing dirt out for roads

or sub divisions, excavation is what takes care of

things. Even though there are a few means, the

term excavation is used anytime that the earth or

dirt is disturbed.

Heavy machinery is also very common with excavation,

such as excavators or backhoes. Excavating crews

run the equipment and dig up soil and rocks for

whatever the purpose may be. Excavators are the

most used machinery, as they can move a lot of dirt

in a little bit of time.

Anytime you are taking part in excavation, you should

always use common sense and be safe. If you plan

to get down into a hole or trench, you should always

use a trench box. Even though the hole may not

be that deep, excavation sites can always cave in

and at that point - things are very dangerous and

possibly even deadly.

For digging up rare artifacts or putting in houses

or roads, excavation is something that has been around

for years and years. There is a lot to learn with

excavation, as you'll need to know how to run

machinery, shoot grade, and how to properly dig

holes and trenches so they won't cave in.

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Compact Excavator

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 468)
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The compact hydraulic excavator can be a tracked or

wheeled vehicle with an approximate operating weight

of 13,300 pounds. Normally, it includes a standard

backfill blade and features an independent boom

swing. The compact hydraulic excavator is also

known as a mini excavator.

A compact hydraulic excavator is different from other

types of heavy machinery in the sense that all

movement and functions of the machine are accomplished

through the transfer of hydraulic fluid. The work

group and blade are activated by hydraulic fluid

acting upon hydraulic cylinders. The rotation and

travel functions are also activated by hydraulic

fluid powering hydraulic motors.

Most types of compact hydraulic excavators have

three assemblies - house, undercarriage, and the

work group.

House

The house structure contains the compartment for

the operator, engine compartment, hydraulic pump

and also the distribution components. The house

structure is attached to the top of the undercarriage

via swing bearing. Along with the work group, the

house is able to rotate upon the undercarriage

without limit due to a hydraulic distribution valve

that supplies oil to the undercarriage components.

undercarriage

The undercarriage of compact excavators consists of

rubber or steel tracks, drive sprockets, rollers,

idlers, and associated components and structures.

The undercarriage is also home to the house

structure and the work group.

Work group

The work group consists of the boom, dipper or

arm, and attachment. It is connected to the front

of the house structure via a swinging frame that

allows the work group to be hydraulically pivoted

left or right in order to achieve offset digging

for trenching parallel with the tracks.

Independent boom swing

The purpose of the boom swing is for offset

digging around obstacles or along foundations,

walls, and forms. Another use is for cycling in

areas that are too narrow for cab rotation. Another

major advantage of the compact excavator is the

independent boom swing.

Backfill blade

The backfill blade on compact excavators are used

for grading, leveling, backfilling, trenching,

and general dozer work. The blade can also be

used to increase the dumping height and digging

depth depending on it's position in relation to

the workgroup.

The most common place you'll find compact excavators

is in residential dwellings. When digging phone

lines or other things, these pieces of equipment

are very common for getting between houses. Due

to their small size, they can fit almost anywhere.

Over the years, the capabilities for compact

excavators have expanded far beyond the tasks of

excavation. With hydraulic powered attachments

such as breakers, clamps, compactors and augers,

the compact excavator is used with many other

applications and serves as an effective attachment

tool as well. Serving many purposes, the compact

excavator is a great addition to any job that

requires the use of machinery.

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Case Cx330

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 645)
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As you may know, the CX330 is the upgrade to the

9050B model from Case. The CX330 is quite an upgrade,

being much bigger than the 9050B.

In standard form, the CX330 is almost 5,000 pounds

heavier than the 9050B. This added weight comes

from a larger counterweight and from a redesigned

carbody that will now completely enclose the swing

system.

These added pounds will also contribute to the boost

in the CX330s over-front capacity, and in combination

with higher hydraulic pressures the travel circuit,

give the excavator a very impressive 16% boost in

draw bar pull, which means more power for negotiating

poor underfoot conditions and very steep grades.

In addition to the new features, the CX330s digging

linkage has been enhanced in many ways. The boom

and arm, deeper in cross section to accommodate

higher digging forces, now incorporate V-groove

type welds that are placed by robots and 100 percent

ultra sound inspected.

The boom foot and boom to arm pivots use improved

bushings, new plated pins, and new dust seals that

combine to make a more durable and easier to take

care of assembly. The newly hardened chrome pins

will also contribute to the overall digging linkage

durability.

Even though the basic 6 cylinder, 8.3 liter engine

in the CX330 has been used in Case products since

1985, continual refinement over the years has

changed nearly 85% of the original engine's part

numbers. The CX330 features 259 net HP with an

air to air intercooler and a free breathing 24 valve

cylinder head.

The electronic logic that controls the new engine's

fuel system tracks the machine's operating parameters

and keeps the system continually armed to respond

instantly and precisely to the fuel requirements of

each individual cylinder. The total electronic

design of the engine will also eliminate cable

and step motor controls from the fuel system, with

a large gain in reliability.

Even though modest changes in the CX330s digging

linkage geometry will contribute to the higher

forces of digging, the big guns here are the

refinement of the trench with it's open center

hydraulic system. The main pressure in the

implement circuit is up almost 8%, with the hydraulic

cylinder diameter up 7% as well.

Hydraulic power

The increase in hydraulic power combines with the

more efficient linkage geometry to yield almost

20% more bucket digging force and 15% more arm

force. With 19 more HP, the CX330 can drive it's

main hydraulic pumps with much better force. In

addition, the new pumps will produce about 6% more

flow for increased hydraulic speed at much lower

system pressures.

The new PCS (Pro Control System) will manage the

hydraulic system and interface with the 6TAA-830

engine, and does it with more electronic genious

than the 9050B did. Similar to the 9050B, the

CX330 does have manually selected working modes,

although it departs from previous designs by adding

a new automatic work mode. By working in the

new automatic mode, the CX330 can analyze load

demands and operator input at the joystick, then

adjust the engine and hydraulic pumps to balance

power and speed with efficiency and even with the

economy.

Other PCS features include a high speed assistance

system, which will speed up boom and arm functions,

and an automatic power boost system as well. The

power boost system will increase main pressure by

10% for 8 seconds if the implement system reaches

the standard relief pressure for more than 1 second

in tough digging conditions.

With everything the CX330 from Case offers, it's

truly the best excavtor in years. Case has outdone

themselves this time, doing their part to make

excavating both fun and exciting. If you've been

looking for the perfect upgrade from the 9050B, the

CX330 is all that and a bag of chips.

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Trenching And Plowing Equipment

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 502)
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When trenchers were first introduced to the residential

and commercial contractors, they rapidly became the

backbone of the crew. The time and labor trenchers

saved when they replaced the pick and shovel was

simply incredible. The contractor was able to double

the number of jobs his crew could complete in the

same amount of time - or less.

The standard types of trenchers, whether dedicated

units or attachments, they are versatile machines

for contractors to have with them on the job. They

can be used for many different purposes, from digging

valve box holes to trenches for drain pipes. In

areas that contain rocky soil, large roots, or

other problems where the other machinery can't access

the soil, the trencher will minimize downtime that

was once spent digging by hand.

The many types of vibratory plows will offer even

more labor saving options. These plows eliminate

the hand labor of having to lay the pipe and

backfilling on numerous jobs. Even though vibratory

plows have taken their market share and are great

for pulling pipe, trenchers are still very important

for many different types of applications.

The impressive company Bobcat offers three different

trenching attachments that are designed for use on

the smaller skid steer loaders. The attachment

models LT102, LT203, and LT304 all have digging

depths from 2 - 4 feet.

Mini trenchers

The mini trenchers have been re-designed and

finely tuned from the same concept that made standard

trenchers so popular. As the name suggests, they

are lightweight, with the largest models weighing

less than 400 pounds. They are also compact,

allowing you to put them in the back of an average

pickup truck.

They will also dig a trench around 4 inches wide,

and up to 13 inches deep, neatly laying the soil

on side of the trench. Without any trouble at

all, you can cover pipe with the backfill, leaving

a barely visible seam in the soil.

With time being money, these types of mini trenchers

are the answer when working in tight or small areas,

or on jobs that have a lot of trees or shrubbery.

Mini trenchers have a turning radius of less than

two feet and they will easily fit through most

garden gates. Jobs that would normally need a lot

of manual labor will now save you a lot of time

and man power.

If you do construction or excavation work, even

gardening, you'll find trenching and plowing

equipment to be essential to your work. If you've

never used these types of equipment before,

you'll be amazed at just how much time you can

save.

If you are just starting up your business, you'll

find this type of equipment to be just what you

need. You won't need a lot of labor with a trencher,

as you can do most of it yourself. For saving

time, money, and effort, trenching and plowing

equipment is the way to go.

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Skid Loader

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 657)
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The skid loader is a rigid frame, engine powered

machine with lift arms that are used to attach a

wide variety of labor saving tools or attachments.

Skid loaders are normally four wheel drive with

left side drive wheels that are independent of

right side drive wheels. With each side being

independent to the other, the wheel speed and

direction of rotation of the wheels will determine

which direction the loader turns.

Skid loaders are capable of turning in their own

tracks, which makes them very maneuverable and

valuable for jobs that require the use of compact,

agile loader.

Unlike conventional front loaders, the lift arms

lay beside the driver with the major pivot points

located behind the shoulders of the operator. Due

to the operator being in close proximity to moving

booms and buckets, earlier models of skid loaders

weren't as safe as conventional front loaders,

particularly during entering and exiting.

Skid loaders today have fully enclosed cabs and

other safety features that will protect the operator

from injury. Just like other front loaders,

the skid steer can scrape material from one

location to another, carry material in a bucket,

or load material on a truck or a trailer.

Operation

A skid loader can sometimes take the place of a

large excavator by digging a hole out from the

inside. The skid loader will first dig a ramp

that leads to the edge of the hole. Then, the

loader will use the ramp to carry material out

of the hole.

The skid loader will then reshape the ramp by

making it steeper and longer as the excavation

gets deeper. This method is very useful for

digging under an overhead structure where the

overhead clearance doesn't allow for the boom of

a large excavator, such as those situations where

you are digging a basement under a house.

The bucket of most types of skid loaders can be

replaced with several specialized buckets or

attachments, many of which are powered by the

hydraulic system of the loader.

History

The first 3 wheeled front end loader was invented

by two brothers, Cyril and Louis Keller in their

machinist shop in Minnesota back in 1957. The

Kellers built the loader to help a nearby farmer

clean turkey manure from his two story barn. The

light and compact loader, with the rear caster

wheel, was able to turn around within the length

of itself, while performing the very same tasks as

conventional front end loaders.

Down the road, the Melroe manufacturing company

in Gwinner ND, purchased the rights to the Keller

loader in 1958 and hired the brothers to continue

their loader invention. Resulting from the

partnership, the M-200 self propelled loader was

introduced at the end of 1958.

The loader featured two independent front drive

wheels and a rear caster wheel, a 12.9 engine and

a 750 lb lift capacity. Two years later, they

ended up replacing the caster wheel with a rear

axle and introduced the M-400 loader, which was

the first four wheel skid steer loader in the

world.

In 1962, the Bobcat name was added to describe

the key features of the machine - touch, agile, and

quick. The M-440 was powered by a 15.5 HP engine

and offered a 1100 lb rated operating capacity.

In the mid 1960s, the skid steer loader progressed

with the introduction of the M600 loader.

Years later, the Bobcat skid steer loader experienced

quite a few changes, including the development of

a hydrostatic drive system, enforced cab structures,

radius and vertical lift arm configurations,

deluxe instrumentation, and even heating and air

conditioning.

In addition to the rubber tire skid loaders of today,

there are now all-wheel steer loaders and even

compact track loaders. Compact track loads offer

less ground disturbance and feature better traction

and control in soft, muddy, wet, and even sandy

ground conditions.

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Drag Line Excavator

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 611)
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Drag line excavator systems are heavy machinery that

is used in civil engineering, surface mining, and

excavation. With civil engineering, the smaller

types are used for road and port construction. The

larger types of drag line excavators are used in

strip mining operations to extract coal. These are

among the largest types of mobile equipment and

weigh upwards of 10,000 tons!

The drag line excavator bucket system consists of

a large bucket that is suspended from a boom. The

bucket is moved by a number of chains and ropes. The

hoisting rope, which is powered by either a large

diesel or electric motor, will support the bucket

and hoist coupler assembly from the boom. The

drag rope on the assembly is used to draw the bucket

assembly horizontally. Through skillful maneuvering

of the hoist and drag rope, the bucket can be

controlled for many different types of operations.

Operation

With a typical excavation cycle, the bucket is

positioned high above the material that is being

excavated. The bucket is then lowered down and the

drag rope is drawn so that the bucket is dragged

along the materials surface. Using the hoist rope,

the bucket is then lifted. A swing operation is

then performed in order to move the bucket to the

place where the material is going to be dropped.

The drag rope is then released which will cause the

bucket to tilt, making the material in the bucket

fall down, which is commonly known as a dump operation.

With smaller drag line excavators, the bucket is

thrown by winding up the jib then releasing a

clutch on the drag cable, which swings the bucket

like a pendulum. Skillful operators can make the

bucket land about 1/2 the length of the jib further

away than if it had just been spun or dropped.

Limitations

The limitations of drag line excavators are the

height and length of their boom, as this limits

where the drag line can dump waste material. Being

inherent with their construction, the drag line

is most effective when excavating material

below the level of their tracks. Drag lines

aren't suitable for loading piled up material.

Despite their limitations and high capital cost,

drag line excavators remain very popular with

several mines, due to their very low waste removal

cost, performance, and reliability.

They also have different cutting sequences. The

first is the side casting method which uses

offest benches. This method involves throwing

the overburden sideways onto blasted material to

make a bench.

The second method is a key pass. This pass will

cut a key at the toe of the new highwall and will

also shift the bench further towards the low

wall. This can also require a chopping pass if the

wall is blocky. A chopping pass will involve

the bucket being dropped down onto an angled

highwall to scale the surface.

The next method is the slowest, known as the

blocks pass. This method will however, move the

most material. The blocks pass involves using

the key to access the bottom of the material to

lift it up to spoil or to an elevated bench

level. If required, the final cut is a pull

back, which pulls the material back further to

the low wall side.

For construction, mining, or excavation, drag line

excavators are great to have. They can move even

the biggest of material, which is great for deep

holes in the ground. If you've been looking for a

great way to maximize mining or excavation productivity,

the drag line excavator is just what you need.

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Cranes

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 592)
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A crane is a tower or derrick that is equipped with

cables and pulleys that are used to lift and lower

material. They are commonly used in the construction

industry and in the manufacturing of heavy equipment.

Cranes for construction are normally temporary

structures, either fixed to the ground or mounted

on a purpose built vehicle.

They can either be controlled from an operator in

a cab that travels along with the crane, by a push

button pendant control station, or by radio type

controls. The crane operator is ultimately responsible

for the safety of the crews and the crane.

Medieval cranes

Cranes of the Middle Ages were used to build the

cathedrals of Europe. The crane was fixed on top

of a wall as it was being constructed and was

powered by men that ran inside of two large wheels

on each side. Cranes were also used in medieval ports

and in shipyards.

Mobile cranes

The most basic type of crane consists of a steel

truss or telescopic boom mounted on a mobile platform,

which could be a rail, wheeled, or even on a cat

truck. The boom is hinged at the bottom and can

be either raised or lowered by cables or hydraulic

cylinders.

Telescopic crane

This type of crane offers a boom that consists of

a number of tubes fitted one inside of the other.

A hydraulic mechanism extends or retracts the

tubes to increase or decrease the length of the

boom.

Tower crane

The tower crane is a modern form of a balance

crane. When fixed to the ground, tower cranes

will often give the best combination of height and

lifting capacity and are also used when constructing

tall buildings.

Truck mounted crane

Cranes mounted on a rubber tire truck will provide

great mobility. Outriggers that extend vertically

or horizontally are used to level and stabilize

the crane during hoisting.

Rough terrain crane

A crane that is mounted on an undercarriage with

four rubber tires, designed for operations off

road. The outriggers extend vertically and

horizontally to level and stabilize the crane when

hoisting. These types of cranes are single engine

machines where the same engine is used for powering

the undercarriage as it is for powering the

crane. In these types of cranes, the engine is

normally mounted in the undercarriage rather than

in the upper portion.

Loader crane

A loader crane is a hydraulically powered articulated

arm fitted to a trailer, used to load equipment

onto a trailer. The numerous sections can be

folded into a small space when the crane isn't in

use.

Overhead crane

Also refered to as a suspended crane, this type

is normally used in a factory, with some of them

being able to lift very heavy loads. The hoist is

set on a trolley which will move in one direction

along one or two beams, which move at angles to

that direction along elevated or ground level

tracks, often mounted along the side of an assembly

area.

In the excavation world, cranes are used to move

equipment or machinery. Cranes can quickly and

easily move machinery into trenches or down steep

hills, or even pipe. There are many types of

cranes available, serving everything from

excavation to road work.

Cranes are also beneficial to building bridges or

construction. For many years, cranes have proven

to be an asset to the industry of construction

and excavating. Crane operators make really good

money, no matter what type of crane they are

operating.

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