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Using Asset Protection

(category: Finance, Word count: 344)
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Asset protection is a means for protecting your valuables from future lawsuits and creditor collection attempts. While many people are looking for a solid way to do this, there are many ways in which they can stumble down this wrong mistakenly. For many, the options that are presented to them are not, by any means, going to work. But, there are asset protection opportunities out there that really do work. The goal is to search out the right ones and make proper use of them. Asset protection is something that many should take advantage of no matter what.

Asset protection can be done in different ways. One such way is through Family Limited Partnerships and Trusts. These are effective ways of protecting assets. But, the problem arises when many assets are taken out. Then you can be back to where you started with judgment creditors reaching them nonetheless. In other words, your assets are still exposed and can be, therefore, attacked by the lawyers against you.

One of the largest mistakes that people make when it comes to asset protection is believing that putting assets in their spouse's name or the name's of their children can help them to protect them more so. This, by all means, does not work. This type of asset protection is worthless as sweeps will happen and this information can be easily found.

One type of asset protection that does work and works well is offshore asset protection trust or APT. In this case, the assets are protected from lawsuits because they are in oversea territories and therefore untouchable in most cases. Of course, it is important to take note of applicable fraudulent transfer rules as well.

Asset protection is offered by many companies. If you are looking for an option that fits your needs the best, make sure that you take the time to sort out the way in which it works and finding the right location for your assets. Asset protection is a fundamentally important aspect that deserves careful protection.

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The Best Savings Account

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The best savings account

Savings accounts are the best idea for putting away a set amount of money each week or month depending on your circumstances. You would be surprised at how quickly this money can add up if you are contributing a set amount from your paycheck every payday.

When shopping around for the best savings account, find one that pays a good interest rate and has a minimal amount for opening the account. A lot of banks only require a dollar to open an account while others may want you to deposit anywhere from 5 dollars to 50.

The convenience of having money automatically withdrawn from your paycheck and placed in your savings account is great for some. However others may not put a set amount in each payday and may want to choose how much they deposit into their savings account.

The best type of savings account will pay a comparable interest rate, be easily accessible to your home or work, will not charge a fee for withdrawals from your account, has on-line availability, and does not require a large deposit to open. If you have a bank account and access it online you should be able to transfer money to and from your savings account. You should try not to transfer from it unless it is an emergency because this defeats the purpose of having the savings account in the first place.

Some types of savings accounts are geared towards the holiday season. This allows you to save money for Christmas. If you start it early enough in the year by the time Christmas rolls around you can have a nice amount for your holiday shopping.

Another type of savings account featured by some banks link your debit card with your savings account. Every time you make a purchase using your debit card the amount is rounded up to the next dollar and the extra is deposited into your savings account. Some of these banks will even match the amount deposited by a certain percentage.

Savings accounts are great ways to start your children out learning how to be responsible when it comes to money. Open a savings account and let them deposit birthday money or Christmas money for themselves. All the change that gets thrown in a jar every day can become a savings account deposit for them. They will love to go to the bank and deposit their own money and in the process you are teaching them the importance of saving.

Another advantage to a savings account is establishing credit. If you borrow money from your bank using the money in your savings to secure the loan, when you pay the loan back you will have established credit with your bank. This can make it easier to get an unsecured loan should you need it.

It is important to have a savings account and add to it regularly. For that unexpected expense that crops up, having the money to cover without having to borrow the money is great. With everything today being based on credit-worthiness, establishing a good relationship with your bank or credit union can make a big difference when it comes to buying a home or a car.

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Simple Ways To Save Money

(category: Finance, Word count: 709)
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Things are so expensive these days. We seem to be hearing, and saying, that a lot lately at the gas pump, in the grocery store and especially when paying bills. But there are simple ways to help save money without making sacrifices in your lifestyle. Small savings can turn into large rewards for little effort.

Start with the small things. Eat out less, stay home more often. Invite your friends over for a potluck supper and rent a movie. You are still able to enjoy entertainment at half the cost of going out to eat and then to the movie theatre. My friends and I rotate whose house we will go to every weekend. Giving the house a thorough company-coming-over cleaning is then limited to once a month.

There are many, many ways to save money when shopping for your children. Their clothing can be purchased at a consignment or thrift store for half of the original cost. Many clothing items may even still have their tags, especially baby clothes. Set up a clothing swap with your friends who also have children. You may find that they can hand down clothes to your child that will be eventually handed down to their even younger child.

All children like to draw; the evidence is displayed on refrigerators across the land. Have you noticed that your office paper has been quickly disappearing? This phenomenon of missing printer paper can become expensive. Recycle your office paper for artwork. Or even re-use the paper grocery bags, they're free!

Babysitting costs can add up. But you have to get away every once in a while. Try rotating sitting with your friends. We keep the kids on Friday night while our friends go out. They keep our kids on Saturday night while we go out. It reduces the cost of our night out on the town.

Speaking of those weekend trips out, don't go crazy! It can be so very easy to spend a lot of money on the weekends. You've worked hard all week, and now you deserve to have fun. While that may be all so true, you might not be thinking about your overall budget. Plan activities that don't cost anything. For example, instead of spending the weekend at the local amusement park, go to a new park and ride bikes through the trails. Picnics, hikes and scavenger hunts cost very little, while they create wonderful memories for your family.

When it comes time to purchase new appliances, look for the energy saving appliances. When you have to run several loads of laundry a week, you want to use as little electricity as possible. On nice days, hang your wash outside instead of using the dryer. Not only will you save money, but it can be a nice escape from your daily routine. Look at all of your appliances, and see how you can save money by using them smartly. You can turn your refrigerator down in the cooler months. Insist that no one is to stand in front of the fridge with the door open for more than fifteen seconds. Electric bills can add up quickly, so eliminate the waste of electricity by turning off lights when you leave the room.

One of the biggest ways that money is lost is through mismanagement. Credit cards may help you make ends meet, but if you can't pay the entire balance at the end of the month they will cost you money. Interest charges and minimum payments can stretch out a small amount of money into a long payment period. Every month, you are losing money to interest. Overdrafting your bank account is another example of lost money. Even though you have overdraft protection, it will cost you in the long run. If you are charged $25 every time you overdraft, and you overdraft four times a month, you have lost $1200 a year to fees. What could have been purchased with that money? What would that money be in twenty years if you had invested it wisely?

There are ways to save money. It may seem as though a little bit here and there isn't worth the effort, but believe me - pennies can turn into mountains.

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Innovative Home Loans

(category: Finance, Word count: 493)
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The rising trend towards interest in real estate has seen introduction of many creative home loan plans. These plans make the loaning process convenient along with providing many kinds of facilities encourages consumers to obtain the facility.

This article will discuss at length two of such kind of creative home loan plans that are getting good appraisals from people.

1.Home loan for first time buyers

2.Green home loan

Home loan for first time buyer is a very flexible plan that suits completely to your requirements of budget. It is hassle free and very convenient. Though the knowledge about this plan is still not widespread.

This plan is aimed for young people who earlier could not get into the real estate market because of huge prices. The person in this group is young, so at the beginning of his career. Though at this stage his salary is comparatively less but he has good future prospects. It is at this idea the lenders aim at. The people in this group are those with increasing purchasing power capacity. So it is beneficial from market point of view to tap them now itself.

Now analyzing the benefits from buyer's point of view. The target group is young people, most likely still paying off their student loans. At this stage it is almost impossible for them to even think of buying a home. This plan makes it possible for them to buy their " dream house".

There are sets of parameters, qualifying which one is eligible to take first time buyer home loan. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development is giving states and municipalities money to distribute to low- and moderate-income families to put toward their down payment or closing costs each year. Prospective homeowners can obtain up to $15,000 for a home loan.

One can choose among the following options-

1.Low Down payment

2.Deferred payments

3.Subsidized interest rates

4.Offer grants.

To avail the benefit of these home loan options seek for relevant information, which you may get from-

1.National Council of State Housing Agencies' Website at ncsha.org

2.Check with your community development office and get the complete details

3.Church leadership - they can assist with house loan facilities for the community.

4.Opt for Local first time homebuyers counseling services education classes. They will give you practical information.

There are various programs for assistance of first time buyer's. To mention a few-

1.Wells Fargo - this organization assists in home loan for public servants and military men. It offers 100% financing on a single-family home, condominium, co-op, or multi-unit property.

2.Washington Mutual - it offers deferred payment and low interest facilities to buyers.

3.The Neighborhood Assistance Corporation of America- this is a non-profit organization providing counseling to avail financial assistance.

These plans are a great guide to first time buyers. Though these plans provide all the information but precaution is the best methodology to follow while planning to buy a new house.

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Accounting All Businesses Need One

(category: Finance, Word count: 455)
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As business becomes more and more global, and complexities continue to emerge, certain fields have gained prominence in today's career market. One of these is accounting. Accounting is a very conceptual career or task, more a question of information handling than any hands-on approach to product development. However, as trends change, accounting is becoming a little more diverse and less just a question of 'crunching numbers'.

These days, there are specific kinds of accountants who do separate jobs as part of a given company. There are accountants who monitor spending and resource use; these are called 'audit' accountants. Then there are other professionals who use accounting information to guide procedures and to facilitate decision-making, and these are referred to as 'management' accountants.

One could say that while audit accountants are involved in book-keeping history, management accounting is a process of looking to the future to try to foresee events and plan for these in terms of a company's resources. 'Ledgers' and classic ideas of accounting belong more to audit accounting, while management accounting deals directly with the machinery of a firm. Both positions require people skills and analytical skills; both types of accountants need to know how to use computers. Spreadsheet software like Microsoft Excel is popular in keeping accounting information available in a flexible format.

As to the issue of how the two are related, audit accounting is often considered more essential to small businesses. A small business may not need any more oversight than the owner or general manager can provide, but someone always had to keep the books. Also, in management, the old adage may apply that 'too many cooks spoil the broth'. Management accounting seems to be a more useful role in large companies that need many consultants to micro-manage a variety of projects.

In general, accounting is becoming a popular career choice. Some may shy away from it due to an aversion to how accountants have been described in the past. Some people 'don't like numbers' and consider accounting work to be unbearably dry or tedious. Others, however, have already completed their degree to become a CPA (Certified Public Accountant) and these may find themselves well placed in high-profile audit accounting positions. For others, management accounting provides a new look at a classic career.

Either way, the study of this valuable field can be a good way to get into a certain kind of company. many companies are hiring temporary accountants, and the abundance of opportunities means that employers and university graduates may be able to find each other through the phenomenon of accounting, as the majority of businesses turn their efforts toward the study of resource allocation, asset management, or more simply, crunching numbers.

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Debt Relief Promises May Really Be Offering Bankruptcy

(category: Finance, Word count: 247)
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Consumer debt is at an all-time high. What's more, a record number of consumers, more than 1.5 million in 2004, are filing for bankruptcy. Whether your debt dilemma is the result of an illness, unemployment, or overspending, it can seem overwhelming. In your effort to get solvent, be on the alert for advertisements that offer seemingly quick fixes. And read between the lines when faced with ads in newspapers, magazines, or even telephone directories that say:

"Consolidate your bills into one monthly payment without borrowing"

"STOP credit harassment, foreclosures, repossessions, tax levies and garnishments"

"Keep Your Property"

"Wipe out your debts! Consolidate your bills! How?

By using the protection and assistance provided by federal law. For once, let the law work for you!"

While the ads pitch the promise of debt relief, they rarely say relief may be spelled b-a-n-k-r-u-p-t-c-y. And although bankruptcy is one option to deal with financial problems, it's generally considered the option of last resort. The reason: it has a long-term negative impact on your creditworthiness. A bankruptcy stays on your credit report for 10 years, and can hinder your ability to get credit, a job, insurance, or even a place to live. What's more, it can cost you attorneys' fees.

Advance-Fee Loan Scams

These scams often target consumers with bad credit problems or those with no credit. In exchange for an up-front fee, these companies "guarantee" that applicants will get the credit they want

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New Wave Of Contactless Payments Speeds Up Profits

(category: Finance, Word count: 888)
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Contactless payments create a whole new field of payment options for merchants. Contactless payments are quick, simple and pave the way for greater profits. A smart computer chip, with data and an antenna is embedded into a credit card, debit card or fob. When the card or fob is tapped on a radio frequency reader, the reader sends out a radio signal that activates the card, the information on the card is read and the payment is processed without a signature for purchases less than $25.00 with no chargebacks to the merchant.

"Merchants don't need to worry about compatibility with their present systems or security" said, Mohamed Khan, President and Founder of ViVOtech, Santa Clara, Calif.-based developer of contactless software, transaction management systems and readers.

"We have been working closely with processors, card issuers and terminal providers to create an open system using the IS0 14443 standard. It uses secure encryption technology. The contactless card doesn't leave the customers' hands therefore it is more secure and there's no skimming of data," assured Kahn who sees contactless as a great opportunity for merchants to increase revenue. He envisions contactless payments as a replacement for cash because they are faster, more convenient and cost less due to less shrinkage and less labor involved.

There are two types of contactless readers available: Peripheral Contactless Readers (PCRs) that plug in to existing POS terminals, and Integrated Contactless Readers (ICRs) that replace traditional readers and offer both magnetic-stripe- and contactless-reading capabilities. Merchants can purchase either type of reader. The PCRs usually cost around $150. Some merchant service providers such as Acies, however, are offering deals competitive plans and free readers with terminals.

David Robertson, Publisher of The Nilson Report (Carpinteria, Calif.) estimates that there are 12 million contactless cards currently in circulation in the U.S. He predicts that first contactless successes will be at the brand name retailers and then merchants in the areas where cards are deployed will follow suit when their customers ask to use their contactless cards.

Customers are asking for contactless in the New York Metro area where many cards have been "dropped," says Oleg Frier CEO and President Acies, Inc, a New York City-headquartered national payment processing and financial services provider. Other areas where there are substantial contactless readers and cards include Atlanta, Philadelphia, Denver, Dallas and Orlando, says Khan.

Studies show the speed and added value of contactless payments because typically when someone does not pay with cash the amount of the transaction increases. Visa trials showed their contactless card transactions were 25% faster than cash. MasterCard PayPass trials showed an increase in transaction amounts and 12 to 18 second reductions in payment times for drive-thru transactions. Aite Group reports that CVS, the drug store chain, has found the average contactless transaction takes 12.5 seconds, versus 26.7 seconds for magnetic-stripe card payments and 33.7 seconds for a cash transaction.

Merchants who have a small time frame to service customers, such as fast food restaurants, coffee houses, movie theatres, drug stores, convenience stores and drive-thrus can benefit greatly from contactless payment methods. McDonald's, AMC Theatres, CVS, Meijer, Duane Reade, Regal Entertainment, Ritz Camera, Arby's, Cold Stone Creamery, Eckerd, Carl's Jr., Good Times Burger, KFC, RaceTrac, Subway, Sonic (Drive-In Restaurants) and Walgreens have installed contactless readers. Convenience stores are gearing up to accept contactless payments. Contactless readers are being installed in 5,300 7-Eleven stores and 350 Sheetz stores. WaWa markets is installing over 2000 readers in its 540 stores co-branded with a credit card and loyalty program.

Card associations are also gung-ho for contactless payments.

"It takes a village to launch a new technology, at Visa, we have an absolute commitment to assure success of contactless payments," said Elvira Swanson, Visa spokeswoman. Visa, with four million Visa Contactless cards in circulation, offers collateral materials, online demos, and merchant support teams to help educate merchants.

"This is the real thing. Contactless is beyond the 'chicken and egg' concept stage now, when you look at how many financial institutions have made the decision to offer contactless and the number of national merchants accepting it," said T.J. Sharkey, Vice President, Business Development, U.S. Acceptance, MasterCard International. MasterCard is supporting contactless in many ways. Merchants who accept contactless payments are listed at the MasterCard Web site where there are demonstrations on how their Tap N Go, PayPass cards work. Television commercials illustrating their PayPass cards are airing nationally.

Banks issuing contactless cards include Citibank, MBNA, HSBC (debit cards), JP Morgan Chase, Key Bank (debit cards) and Citizen.

There have been several pilot contactless programs in sports stadiums including San Francisco, Seattle, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. Recently, another form factor of contactless has been added into the mix, with the trial of NFC (Near Field Communications) contactless payments from cell phones at the Philips Arena in Atlanta. Season ticket holders with Chase-issued Visa credit accounts and Cingular Wireless accounts can make contactless payments by simply holding their Nokia mobile phones equipped with Philips' NFC semiconductor chips and ViVOtech software near one of the 150 terminals. NFC is compatible with ISO 1443 readers has other features such as the ability to transmit a coupon to a reader.

"Contactless payments are the wave of the future and will change the way the world pays for purchases," Khan said enthusiastically.

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Monumental Life Insurance A Company Worthy Of Investment

(category: Finance, Word count: 556)
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There are so many life insurance companies out there to choose from nowadays that there are literally hundreds of different companies who offer life insurance. This is great as it gives people a variety and choice, and allows them to make a decision on the best possible supplier to meet their needs. However, there are some drawbacks to having a wide range and vast selection to choose from, that sometimes it can become intimidating and often overwhelming for an individual to be able to make a decision and pick one single life insurance company.

Monumental Life Insurance

Monumental Life Insurance is definitely one insurance company that should be considered as a leader in their market. The Company is a member of the AEGON Insurance Group, which is an international group that has a number of pension, insurance, and financial services organizations - and it also presently ranks as one of the largest insurance services groups throughout the globe.

Other than the Monumental Life Insurance Company, there are many other life insurance companies that one may choose from; it is important to be aware of all the options that are open to you before any decisions are made on any one particular company and policy.

Other Companies

Besides the Monumental Life Insurance Company, one of the best life insurance companies around is the London Life Insurance Company. They are a renowned world leader and provider of life and health insurance, as well as retirement and investment plans, and mortgages for your home - covering a lot of financial services products. The company offers a wide range of different financial products and services, and most help meet the needs of differing individuals throughout the world.

In terms of insurance, this organisation helps people plan on meeting their needs of the future, this can be establishing a career, or trying to start a business or family and London Life Insurance have a lot of different policies for individuals to choose from that ill be right or you.

By having the right life insurance cover and protection policy allows an individual person to feel whole lot safer and provides them with peace of mind, especially since they are aware that when they die they will become a financial burden on their family, by passing on all of the costs to their family and these not being covered by anything. However, by having one of these policies, their family will be given a lump sum from the life insurance policy towards paying the costs of the funeral and other expenses, this is relieving to all of those involved.

When you go about choosing life insurance cover, you should take this process with great sincerity; although there are many different good life insurance companies around, there are many other companies that are cowboys and the important thing here is that you are able to spot them from the rest. You will want to steer clear of these bad apples, and not enter into business with them. If you take your time and put effort into researching this process ad getting the best possible outcome - a great life insurance policy or plan that you are looking for - then you will have accomplished what many others have too.

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Wyoming Could Play A Key Role In U S Nuclear Future

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Will the Wyoming Uranium Province Rival Canada's Athabasca or Australia's Northern Territories?

"Geology is 90 percent terminology and 10 percent science," laughed Ray E. Harris, one of Wyoming's leading geological theoreticians, having been with the Wyoming Geological Survey since 1982. He died on March 7th. Two weeks earlier, we met with and interviewed Mr. Harris. Everyone we met in Wyoming, and who was interested in uranium mining, had, at one time or another, passed through his office, which was adjacent to the University of Wyoming in Laramie.

Ray Harris traveled the world, investigating and studying uranium deposits. He was well versed on the geology of every significant uranium deposit on earth and was also involved in the exploration, development and mining of uranium. In a Geological Survey of Wyoming Public Information Circular, published in 1986, Ray Harris presented a unique, and possibly controversial, thesis, "The genesis of uranium deposits in Athabasca, Canada and Northern Australia - Wyoming exploration significance." In his introduction, Harris wrote:

"Wyoming has some uranium occurrences in geological environments similar to those of Australia and the Athabasca Basin, and appears to have the potential for a uranium deposit similar in magnitude to those deposits."

Harris acknowledged in his paper, "Reported reserves for these two regions are 436,360,000 tons of U3O8, or one quarter to one third of the noncommunist world's proven reserves." At the same time, the total 1982 U.S. uranium reserves at $30/pound stood at 203,000 tons. Wyoming's piece of that mineable pie stood at 32,700 tons. His was a bold statement, open to debate it not outright dispute and dismissal.

Perhaps there may be truth in Harris' claim. In 1981, E.S. Cheney published an article in American Scientist, entitled "The Hunt for Giant Uranium Deposits," where he explained a giant deposit would contain more than 100 million pounds of recoverable U3O8. But can the parts amount to more than a single giant uranium deposit? William Boberg in his 1981 article, "Some Speculations on the Development of Central Wyoming as a Uranium Province," published in the Wyoming Geological Association Guidebook, wrote, "The Wyoming Uranium Province consists of several uranium districts (Gas Hills, Shirley Basin, Crooks Gap, Red Desert, Powder River Basin and Black Hills) each of which is made up of a few to numerous individual uranium deposits. In Part 2 of this Wyoming Series, uranium savvy Senator Robert Peck speculated there were "50 to 60 million pounds of recoverable uranium in the Gas Hills proven by previous drilling."

Warren Finch in U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin #2141 (1996, US Government Printing Office, Washington), wrote in his paper, entitled "Uranium Provinces of North America - Their Definition, Distribution and Models," that "... provinces are identified by the distribution of major uranium clusters, generally of a size of 500 tons and more U3O8..." Since January 1970, when S.H.U. Bowie described how to go about defining uranium provinces and searching for major uranium deposits in a paper he presented tot the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, geologists have been eager to compare similar geological settings between geographically diverse uranium deposits, and more accurately define uranium provinces.

Ray Harris wrote in his previously quoted article, "There are no producing ore bodies in the United States similar to those of the Athabasca Basin and Northern Australia, but two deposits, not currently being mined, may be of similar genesis. These are the deposits near Chatham, Pittsylvania County, Virginia, and at Copper Mountain, Fremont County, Wyoming." (Editor's Note: According to the Strathmore Minerals website, the company's Copper Mountain property, previously drilled by Anaconda Uranium Corp through 1997, lists an historical contained resource of more than 38 million pounds of U3O8. Strathmore has not done sufficient work to verify this resource estimate.)

Harris explained that a high-grade uranium deposit in the United States, of geological similarity to an Athabasca Basin grade deposit, could not be quickly ruled out. He cited the Chatham, Virginia uranium deposit, grading four pounds per ton of ore, and which he believed might contain 30 million pounds of uranium oxide. He wrote, "... the setting is similar to non-conformity uranium deposits... on first glance, it seems to have formed similarly to the Athabasca and Northern Australian deposits." Unfortunately, the Virginia legislature voted to ban uranium mining, which offers a temporary setback on this deposit. That is not the case in mining-friendly Wyoming, where in Part One of this series, the state governor is urged companies to bring uranium projects and money to his state.

Wyoming's Geology Potential for U.S. Utilities

It is known that Wyoming has multiple roll-front uranium deposits in its sandstones. A pro-mining state, prolific numbers of roll-front uranium deposits, and a rising spot uranium price in a uranium bull market all combine to make Wyoming the U.S. center for in situ leach mining (ISL), also known as solution mining. However, as Ray Harris had suggested during our interview there may be larger uranium source, possibly one that may be competitive with Athabasca Basin or Northern Australia. It is a premise he had argued in the 1980s, in the previously quote work, and again in 1993, Harris' paper, entitled "Geological classification and origin of radioactive mineralization in Wyoming."

In his 1986 work, Harris concluded, "Given the impressive length of exposure, the relatively shallow subcrop depths of favorable nonconformities in Wyoming, and the great amounts of uranium available for mobilization, a nonconformity-related uranium deposit should exist somewhere in Wyoming." One possibility, as Harris suggested, may be in Fremont County's Copper Mountain area. Harris wrote that at the Copper Mountain area, "Uranium occurs in fractured and faulted Precambrian rocks and in the nonconformably overlying Eocene Tepee Trail Formation. The uranium occurrence is subeconomic but of promising grade and size." He added, "The uranium is spatially related to fractures and subsidiary faults associated with the Laramide North Canning fault. Rocky Mountain Energy Company has conducted detailed drilling on the North Canning deposit."

Harris explained that mineralization occurs in the Precambrian granite and enclosed metasediments. The mineralization is said to be primarily low-temperature pitchblende and coffinite. Harris compared the North Canning deposit to nonconformity- related uranium deposits. He wrote, "It is likely that the deposit formed by processes similar to those that operated in the Athabasca and Northern Australian regions." We checked with David Miller of Strathmore Minerals (TSX: STM; Other OTC: STHJF) about their Copper Mountain holdings. He responded by email, "We own all the federal minerals in the area that covered uranium mineralization: about 75 percent of the gross uranium resources. The Canning Deposit is owned about 60 percent by us and 40 percent by Neutron. Strathmore Minerals has around 100 mining claims in the area."

The source of Wyoming's roll-front uranium deposits are open to debate and have yet to be clarified. In 1981, William Boberg wrote, "The major deposits of Wyoming occur in the Lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara Group of the Black Hills, in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin, in correlative Eocene sandstones in all of the major uranium districts." Warren Finch later described Wyoming's roll-fronts, in his previously quoted work, "The predominant type of uranium deposit is the roll-front sandstone deposit in Tertiary continental fluvial basis developed between uplifts. These ore deposits were formed by oxidizing uranium-bearing ground waters that entered the host sandstone from the edges of the basins. Two possible sources of the uranium were (1) uraniferous Precambrian granite that provided sediment for the host sandstone and (2) overlying Oligocene volcanic ash sediments." Ray Harris appeared to lean more toward the former. William Boberg has argued more toward the latter explanation for a uranium source.

Boberg wrote, "It appears that currently available evidence is in support of a hypothesis calling for combined sources of Precambrian granites and volcanic ash falls which produce a unique, uranium-rich, ore-forming liquid that invades very porous and permeable young sediments to form large altered tongues and discrete deposits in a geologically short period of mineralization." It has been calculated that a typical altered "tongue" would take 700,000 years to form; a typical roll-front uranium deposit could be formed over 50,000 years.

Boberg speculated it was the numerous and extensive uranium-enriched ash falls from Middle Eocene volcanism, which was responsible for these deposits. He wrote, "Of greatest importance is the fact that a series of volcanic events from a variety of extrusive centers began about 50 million years ago generating tremendous volumes of ash, which was distributed across Wyoming and adjacent states for greater than a 40-million year span of time."

His explanation of the volcanic ash provides a valuable insight into how Wyoming's uranium deposits were formed:

"The volcanic ash, when flushed by the first rainfall, produced a unique fluid, which was acidic and charged with ions. The chemical reaction of the buffering on this fluid on contact with the Precambrian granites, the ash and other rocks brought the pH back to approximately neutral but leached additional uranium from the granites and probably the ash. The high rainfall and climate assured a steady supply of dissolved oxygen to the fluid resulting in the formation of a unique, oxidizing, uranium-enriched fluid, which entered the unconsolidated, reduced sediments oxidizing them and carrying the uranium to the eventual maximum extent of oxidation."

Boberg explained the development of the roll-fronts, writing, "Fluid flow through the very porous and permeable sediments would be relatively fast allowing for the development of large oxidized tongues with the young sediment as well as scattered uranium deposits at the redox (oxidized reduction) interface within approximately a million years. Deposits formed near the granitic highlands would be larger and of higher average grade because of the proximity to the dual source of granite and ash."

J.D. Love's uranium discovery in Tertiary sandstones, in 1951, was a near-surface roll-front type of redox deposit. A roll-front deposit follows a sinuous linear trend, often C-shaped. Colorado and Utah miners began calling the cross-sectional configuration a "roll" in the early 1940's. Roll-fronts occur in sandstones, bordered above and below by less permeable shales. In Wyoming, the "rolls" are bordered by altered and unaltered sandstone. It is generally concave from altered ground and convex into unaltered ground. Harris' idealized roll-front uranium deposit would have "uranium concentrations decrease abruptly away from the concave boundary, and concentrations gradually decrease away from the convex boundary in reduced rock."

Uranium is not always present everywhere along a roll front. It may be unevenly distributed and there are often other elements, such as vanadium, selenium, molybdenum, copper, silver, lead and zinc. Geologists look for where coarse-grained sandstones grade into finer grained or clay-bearing equivalents as indicators for uranium ore. As uranium geologists know with roll-front deposits, it may be mined as long as it is below the water table. Once deposits are brought above the water table, the uranium concentration can be eroded and severely modified.

It is not the roll-front uranium deposits, which interested Harris, but the tabular redox uranium occurrences found in many parts of Wyoming. He found those most prominently in the Cretaceous Inyan Kara Group in the Black Hills. Harris explained, "The uranium mines in New Mexico and many other parts of the Colorado Plateau are also tabular deposits." The tabular bodies, Harris noted, describe their irregular tabular form, and are found parallel to bedding, dissimilar to roll-front mineralization, which crosses bedding. Harris believed some of the tabular bodies in Tertiary rocks were "the limbs and detached limbs of roll fronts left in less permeable rocks at fluvial channel margins." He also said that tabular bodies could be preserved in oxidized rock due to high concentrations of other rock, such as coal or pyrite.

In any event, Harris agreed with other geologists that Wyoming is a uranium province with uranium occurring in nearly all major time divisions in the state. He concluded, "Uranium was available for mobilization during every major weathering period related to the nonconformities." In our final minutes together, he was convinced that many of the uranium development companies should sink more funds into exploration and find the elephant uranium deposits, which he pointed out in three different parts of uranium. To his way of thinking, that was more exciting that the simple ISL extraction of uranium from previously drilled areas. As with others interviewed, few of those areas will hold surprises, but instead offer the steady, cash-producing uranium extraction that help develop budding companies. That's what U.S. utilities, and utilities from other countries, are eagerly seeking right now. Wyoming uranium could fuel many of the U.S. nuclear reactors as more companies commence ISL uranium operations.

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