Adding From Left To Right A Better Way To Add
More than likely, when you learned how to add, you started on the right and moved to the left. If you were adding whole numbers, you added the ones, "carried" if necessary, and repeated for the tens, hundreds and so on. This works well on paper, and it is the most efficient paper and pencil method; however, adding in the other direction has several desirable advantages: the left to right method promotes a better understanding of place value, it can be done mentally with much greater ease, and it does not require that numbers be lined up in a column. Students can learn left to right addition, so they have another method to choose from when presented with addition problems.
Left to right addition involves adding the largest place values first. As you move from left to right, you keep a cumulative total, so it is simply a number of smaller addition problems. To give you an idea of how it works and what it sounds like, consider the example, 677 + 938.
Begin by adding the left most place values. In the example this is 600 plus 900 equals 1500. Add the values in the next place, one at a time, to the previous sum, and keep track of the new sum each time. In the example, 1500 + 70 is 1570, 1570 + 30 is 1600. For students who are more proficient at this algorithm, they don't necessarily think "plus 70? or "add 30." Their thought process, if said out loud might sound like, "600, 1500, 1570, 1600, . . ." Continue adding the values in each subsequent place until finished. The final steps in the example are 1600 + 7 is 1607, 1607 plus 8 is 1615. The sum is 1615.
As you can imagine, students need to be proficient at single digit addition and have an understanding of place value before attempting left to right addition. When they are first learning it, they might try repeating sums as they go along (e.g. 1500, 1570, 1570, 1570, 1600, . . .) to help them retain the newest sums. They might also cross out digits as they are adding. There is no rule about having to add in this way mentally. Students could write down the sums as they proceed.
Left to right addition promotes a better understanding of place value than right to left addition. In right to left addition, single digits are carried or regrouped with little emphasis placed on what the value of those carried digits are. In the example, 1246 + 586, students add 6 + 6 to get 12; they write down the 2 and carry the 1 when they should be carrying the ten. In the next step, they add 8 + 4 + 1 to get 13; they write down the 3 and carry the 1 when they should be adding 80 + 40 + 10, writing the 3 in the tens place (i.e. 30) and carrying the hundred. Essentially, right to left addition excludes vocabulary related to place value. Left to right addition, on the other hand, promotes an understanding of place value as each digit is given its correct value. In the example, the one in the thousands place is one thousand, the two in the hundreds place is two hundred, and so on.
Left to right addition is well-suited to mental addition since the sum is cumulative with no steps in between; in other words, there is nothing for the student to keep in mind except for the cumulative sum. In right to left addition, several numbers must be remembered as the student proceeds. To illustrate this, consider the simple example, 64 + 88. In left to right addition, the sum is simple to find: 60, 140, 144, 152. Only one number had to be remembered at any point. In right to left addition, 4 + 8 is 12, so there are already two numbers to remember: the two in the ones place and the regrouped ten. The next step is to add 60 + 80 + 10 to get 150. At this point, the two must be recalled and added to the 150 to get 152. Although this sounds simple, it becomes more complicated with more digits.
Right to left addition does not require numbers to be lined up in a column, but it is often taught that way because the method tends to ignore place value and relies on a student's ability to line up the place values to compensate. Many errors that students make in right to left addition occur because they don't have a strong knowledge of place value, and they forget or don't realize that like place values need to be lined up. They might, for instance, add a digit in the tens place to a digit in the hundreds place. Another scenario is a sloppy recording of numbers where a digit is mistakenly added to the wrong column. In left to right addition, the emphasis is on finding a certain place value in each number rather than relying on the place values being aligned. Students, of course, need to be able to recognize place value before they can be successful at this method. For instance, they should be able to recognize that the ones in the numbers: 514, 1499, and 321 are in the tens, thousands, and ones places respectively. If they can't, further teaching on place value is required before addition can be taught effectively.
Although left to right addition has several advantages, it isn't suggested that you scrap everything else. Learning a wide variety of addition methods allows you latitude in problem solving situations. By teaching students this method, you give them another option when they are tackling addition questions.
Pittsburgh Public Schools Early Childhood Program Brings Quality To Preschool Education
Educational Program Services
All Pittsburgh Schools Early Childhood Programs cover five days a week, for at least six hours a day. The goal of the program is to ensure that preschool children develop the skills that they will need for attending kindergarten, including self confidence, physical abilities, increased academic awareness, and social interaction.
This free program is open to children between three and five years old. Pittsburgh School Head Start Programs accept children between three and five, while the Pre - Kindergarten accepts children who are three and four years old. Children must be at least three years old by September 1st of the current school year.
Health Program Services
Children participating in the Pittsburgh Schools Early Childhood Program have access to a variety of health services to evaluate their health needs and identify problems early on. All students entering the program must provide complete medical records, including immunizations. Follow up care on the health condition of the child is provided.
The Pittsburgh Schools Early Childhood Program recognizes the need for mental and psychological assistance to preschool children in order to develop the emotional and social skills necessary for attending school and being successful in school. Parent and mental health professionals work together to recognize the special needs of each child and prepare special courses of instruction or treatment for those children who require special attention.
Children in the Pittsburgh Schools Early Childhood Program receive two meals every day. A nutritionist helps prepare the meals as well as help parents design meal programs that suit the needs of their preschool students. Special services are also provided for students with disabilities involving diagnosis, therapy, consultation, referral, and follow up treatment. A minimum of 10% of the children participating in the Pittsburgh Schools Early Childhood Program must be children with disabilities. Staff and parental counseling is provided to ensure that these children can participate in the program.
Many working parents can take advantage of subsidies for childcare for children that are eligible for the Head Start program. Pittsburgh Schools have developed partnership agreements with a number of child care and early learning agencies throughout the city. These programs provide learning opportunities for children that are similar to the school based programs in the Pittsburgh Public Schools Early Childhood Program. These childcare providers have been screened by Pittsburgh Public Schools and been provided with curriculum, materials, and training to match the school based programs.
The Pittsburgh Public School Early Childhood Program Selection Process
All City of Pittsburgh residents who meet the age criteria are eligible to participate in a lottery for places within various classrooms in the Pittsburgh Public Schools Early Childhood Program. These lotteries will take into account whether children have a sibling who is already attending a Pittsburgh Public School. Children who do have siblings are given priority over those who do not. Many of the special classrooms, such as the one at the Children's Museum will have other conditions to ensure that there is an equal racia
Burn Fat Build Muscle Today
Burn fat build muscle are the twin goals that keep dedicated bodybuilders focused. The major purpose of doing strenuous gym work in the first place is to improve the condition of the body, and reducing the amount of fat you are carrying, and improving your muscle bulk and tone are important parts of this. You still need to understand the theories behind this to effectively burn fat and build muscle.
Don't overlook cardio. It is a vital part of the twin goal of burn fat build muscle. When you develop a regular lifting routine, you will probably end up with an increased food intake. This is helpful in maintaining a strong and muscular body, but if your goals are to achieve health and definition as well, you need to do cardio to get rid of excess carbs and fat. You can do this by simple running or skipping.
One often overlooked method to help you burn fat/build muscle is to occasionally lift different amounts of weight. The fundamental principle is still to lift the largest weight possible without inducing strain, but an occasional lessening of the weight can have a different kind of benefit. If you lift lighter weights weekly you will be exercising different parts of the muscle. Doing a lot of reps with less weight will burn off a lot of fat, and give your muscles a better tone and appearance.
One of the most effective ways to burn fat - build muscle simultaneously is to make use of circuit training. You won't find this at every health and fitness establishment, but take advantage of it if you do have access. If you have a running track, and weight lifting equipment in the center, you can keep switching from one to the other. Start by running, and then move in to the center and lift weights, and keep repeating the routine. You will find this extremely exhausting, but it will help you burn fat/build muscle together, and if used properly, will get you into the best condition possible.
It is incredible how often this last tip is overlooked even by people who are deadly serious about bodybuilding. Take care over the make up of your daily food intake, and you will see a dramatic improvement in your results. Taking in less fat will give you less to burn off, and increased protein will help muscles repair and build following work. Burn fat + Build muscle = less work, and I'm sure you would like faster progress with less strain!
Working out effectively will always produce better results than blindly lifting weights, so take on board the advice in this article and burn fat and build muscle. Check out the links below for some more great tips, and good luck!
Burn Fat And Gain Muscle
Burn fat and gain muscle - it isn't as hard as you might think. You can train your body to burn excess calories instead of storing them as fat, and you can exercise to build up your muscles. With the right techniques, it is easy, so here we show you the best ways to burn fat and build muscle.
The very first technique you need to learn in learning how to burn fat and build muscle is to train your body to burn off excess fat. The human body is intelligent to the degree that it watches the calories coming in, and the activity burning them up. It doesn't have any idea what future calorific intake will be, so it tends to store excess calories as fat. Exercise is what your body needs to keep the fat burning off. Simple running, swimming or cycling will stimulate the body to burn off fat.
These simple forms of exercise are the best starting point for a system to burn fat and gain muscle. As a complement to this, you will want to start eating as healthy a diet as possible, and you will need to add some resistance training to your program. The most effective form of resistance training is with weights. Weights increase the muscle mass, and this in turn leads to an increase in the speed at which calories are burned. Combine this with the reduced calories from your improved diet, and you should see a dramatic improvement in your health.
At this stage, you can increase your food intake. You should see quick results from the previous step, as your muscles get bigger and your waist gets smaller. This is exactly the result you want when you burn fat and gain muscle. Eventually you will reach a stage where your metabolism will be trying to burn off fat and grow muscles, but the difficulty lies in the body's natural tendency to burn muscle. Sometimes when you are hungry on waking, that is a symptom of your body burning muscle instead of fat.
As you progress, you will need to step up your cardio and weight training. The weights you use will need to increase in weight constantly, as your body adjusts to each new level. When you can lift a weight for 8 reps with no obvious difficulty, you can then add to the weight and keep the pressure constant. At this stage, you can also add protein supplements. These can help you burn fat and gain muscle by repairing the muscle quickly. Protein is the nutrient which aids muscle repair, and this stimulates growth as your training program continues.
The most crucial step in learning to burn fat and gain muscle is to train your body, first to burn fat, and then to sustain muscle growth. Check out the links below for a free review of the best burn fat and gain muscle guides.
How To Build Leg Muscle
Learning to build leg muscle can be more difficult than learning about biceps, which the beginner seems obsessed with. If you have the desire to build a balanced healthy and strong body, then leg work will form a crucial part of that. Here we show you how to build leg muscle.
There is really no secret to knowing how to build leg muscle - it is the same theory that applies to any other muscle. The only problem most bodybuilders have is not taking enough notice of their legs during workouts. It goes without saying that if you put all of your attention on your arms, and ignore your legs, you are never going to have the ideal physique which bodybuilding can create.
Another important step in learning how to build leg muscle is learning to vary your training program. Thigh muscles and calf muscles can display a lot of strength very quickly, so there is no need for them to grow as much to give you that strength when you are training. To really work such large and strong muscles, you will need to keep your workouts very intense, and it will also benefit you to change your exercise program from time to time, working different parts of the muscle.
Don't worry about those exceptional individuals who get easy gains. There seems to be somebody in every gym who will gain results much easier than everyone else, mainly because of genetics. As these genetics cannot be replicated, there is no point in worrying about it, and it will certainly be self defeating to try to compare yourself with these people. If you want to build leg muscle, you will need to work within your own genetics!
Develop your blood supply channels. In learning how to build leg muscle, don't overlook the importance of getting an adequate blood supply to the area you are working. This is something which long standing bodybuilders know well. They will have spent many hours building large veins through which blood will flow to the muscles as they are being worked. Aspiring bodybuilders will have to be diligent in developing to this degree. It will not be easy, but if you resist the temptation to go easy and keep working, you will find that it becomes progressively easier to work your muscle groups. This means that the channels are being developed.
These are the basics you need to know in order to build leg muscles.
San Diego Schools Choice Program Means More Opportunities For Students But More Work For Parents
More than one-third of the students in the San Diego schools were enrolled in the Choice Program for the 2005-2006 school year. The program gives parents the ability to transfer their children from their assigned school to one that offers more academic opportunities or specific school attributes. The program offers six methods of eligibility.
Program Improvement School Choice. Children assigned to San Diego schools that have failed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) academic standards may apply to better-ranked San Diego schools. Students applying for transfer under this program generally receive a higher priority than others and receive free transportation. If in the future the assigned San Diego schools pass the NCLB standards, parents may choose to move their children back to the assigned schools or continue in the new schools.
Magnet Schools Program. These San Diego schools are each based upon a theme, such as performing arts, with the curriculum centered around it. Though they provide all the state required basics, students can immerse themselves in the particular subject; whereas in other schools, the theme may only be offered as an elective class or two. Magnet schools are designed to attract a diverse cross section of students from throughout the city. Free transportation is provided to students who live outside a specific mileage range. Acceptance priority is given based upon:
Spanish For Beginners Pronunciation
We all find it hard when starting a new language, and one of the trickiest things can be pronunciation. What we will do is give you a quick run through of the rules and how they apply them to Spanish words
Welcome to Spanish for beginners, a pronunciation guide, the first thing we are are going to look at is the Spanish Alphabet.
a b c ch d e f g h i j k l ll m n ń o p q r s t u vx y z
Firstly we can see that there is on w, but we do have three new letters that are not in the English alphabet, ch, ll and ń. Lets start with the vowels.
Spanish For Beginners - Pronunciation - The Vowels
Unlike English vowels, Spanish vowels only have one sound.
a is said as in cat, not as in say.
e is said as in beg.
i is said as in feet, not as in sit.
o is said as in not, not as in note.
u is the exception, it has two options! it is said as in cool, unless it is between a g and an i, or a g and an e, then it is silent, even then if it has two dots over it
Work Experience Degree Get What You Deserve
I lost track of how many bags of Doritos I've eaten this week. If I sat up and looked underneath me, I bet I could get a lot better of an idea. Ah, but I don't really want to do that. I'm really comfortable. In fact, I've been comfortable for...god, I guess four or five years now. Its not that bad, sometimes friends come by and my mom has called me before too. Although I do have one regret. Probably my only issue with my life dedicated to the ultimate acquisition of sloth (really I like to think of myself as a Western monk), is that I've acquired virtually no skills or experiences whatsoever, work or life derived. Normally I wouldn't consider this a problem. That drastically changed when I heard about work experience degrees.
A work experience degree is a college degree that you can earn by using your knowledge and skills and experience instead of going to the classroom and laboratory and learning these things by experts, academics, professors and intellectuals. You may be thinking that even having a degree is something that wouldn't appeal to me. Normally, you'd be right. But, through the work experience degree method, obtaining a degree is completely congruent with my life philosophy.
For those of you who are crying, "FOUL!" Quiet yourselves. This isn't one of those "diploma mills" that just doles out undeserving degrees to any fool that fills out the online application. I'm talking about utilizing your native understanding of Spanish to pick up a Spanish 101 course credit. I'm talking about bring using a painting you did to grab yourself a little intro to art credit. Get the picture? That boring seminar on new methods in bookkeeping that your job sent you to just earned you credits in accounting.
This is legitimate, is reasonable and its respectable. The more knowledge you have gained in your jobs, travels and general life, the more college credits you'll have with the work experience degree. There are several institutions that can help you with this, but the Thomas Edison State College is one of the best. This is because it has no restrictions on the number of credits you can acquire through work experience. So, for those of you that have done more in your lives than me (which should be just about all of you...if not call me, we'll hang out), start making your experience work for you. Go get started on your work experience degree.
Ten Easy Ways To Help Kids Learn A Brain Based Learning Strategy That Really Works
Susan's a math whiz and Caleb's an artist extraordinaire. That's, great but wouldn't it be better if Caleb could improve in math and Susan could develop some artistic skills? They can and it's easy.
Researchers have recently discovered that whole-brain learning or brain-based learning is an efficient and effective learning strategy that helps kids (parents and teachers, too) learn anything easily without struggling.
One feature of brain-based learning involves using both the right side and the left side of the brain. Although nobody is just left brain or just right brain, most of us have a dominance.
Susan's math aptitude means she is probably left-brain dominant, and Caleb, the artist, has a right-brain dominance.
Learning to read and write requires using both sides of the brain. So does learning math and even doing art. In fact, doing just about anything well, including thinking clearly, and even problem solving, involves using the right and left hemispheres of the front part of the brain.
How do you accomplish this? Easy. Just move across the center mid-line of your body. Every time you move your right arm to your left side or your left arm to your right side, you're crossing the mid-line and improving learning, thinking, and problem solving. Now you're using brain-based learning.
Works for kids. Works for you. Try these parenting tips and teacher resources today.
1. Give yourself a big hug.
2. Tell kids the only rule is to cross the mid-line of the body, right hand to left side, left hand to right side. Now let them invent ways of doing this.
3. Dance the hula. Or twirl a hula hoop.
4. Take a Brain Boosters TeleClass. Sign up at www.brainboostersforyourkids.com Or a Brain Gym class. Sign up at www.BrainGymClasses.com
5. Do the twist. (So you weren't dancing in the 50s and 60s? Ask somebody to show you how to twist or get a dance video.) Twist with the kids while you listen to some old Chubby Checker songs.
6. Rake some leaves with your kids, making sure you're raking off to the side instead of straight in front of you.
7. Play a board game. (Use your right hand to move your piece when it's in the left corner and vice versa.)
8. Practice using your non-dominant hand to reach for things on the opposite side of your body. Even writing and drawing with your non-dominant hand helps. (You'll get better with practice.)
9. Do Yoga and Tai Chi. Lots of moves cross the mid-line.
10. Cross your ankles and arms in front or in back when you're doing jumping jacks. Kids can usually do this. If you can't, try it in a swimming pool.
This brain-based learning strategy really isn't all that complicated. Lots of everyday kinds of activities get the whole brain active. Sitting around watching TV, however, isn't one of them! You and your kids have to move around and cross your mid- line. It's fun.
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