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How To Overcome Nervousness When You Speak In Public

(category: Leadership, Word count: 406)
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Even if the speech you have is already prepared and you know everything about it, public speaking can be difficult. Many people are very nervous when they speak in public. Here are some tips for you to overcome your nervous feelings when you speak in front of many people.

Preparing your presentation

1. Center on yourself. Try practicing standing properly - with your feet under the hips directly. This position is the best and most stable for speaking in public. Rehearse this position with somebody or in front of your mirror.

2. Your shoulders should be relaxed. The muscles in the shoulders support directly your larynx, so it has a fast effect on your voice. Shoulders should be rolled out.

3. Warming up the voice. You should treat all your presentations as if they were performances. Prepare yourself by rehearsing. Deeply breathe into the bottom part of the lungs. You feel your rib cage is expanding slightly higher than the navel. You should thrice sigh. Sighing is your signal to the body that everything is okay and it is just perfect to relax. Then make a siren sound, starting from a high note to a lower note at the bottom part of the voice range you have. With enough practice, you will be able to find the low note connecting to the place located right above the navel. This is the natural voice pitch that you have.

Managing meeting skills

1. Directing your voice. Every time you speak, imagine that each word you say is like a beam of laser traveling from your mouth to the end person listening to you. Practice this outlook to be able to reach to many people at the same time.

2. Directing your thoughts. Pay attention to your thoughts, especially their beginnings and endings. Make your communication complete and fully rounded.

3. Diction as well as articulation. Convey clearly your message.

During questions

1. Give yourself time and space in breathing.

2. Before answering, slightly breathe out first. When you are flustered or nervous, you usually take in more additional air than you need, and you hold onto that air while you try to think. However, this is not helping you. Usually, this method causes you to panic. Remove this habit by breathing air first before you speak, allowing you to relax and thoughts to come in clearly and more logically.

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How To Delegate One Key Step Towards Leadership

(category: Leadership, Word count: 1526)
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You've made an unusual discovery - there's not enough time left at the end of the day. The corollary, of course, is your list of important things to do never gets smaller. In any company, the CEO's to-do list has the potential to grow infinitely.

What's a senior executive to do?

This is not simply a personal problem. Your company's future depends on what you do next. As you drive your organization beyond its current plateau, you must change the way you relate to your work. There are three stages to making the transition from chief-cook-and-bottle-washer (CC&BW) to CEO (source of the management and direction of the business). They are:

* Understanding your highest value contribution to your company and focusing on that role.

* Recognizing your position as a leader and owning the job.

* Delegating everything else, and holding others accountable.

Previous articles, Time Well Spent, deals with transition one; Visions of Leadership addresses transition two. This article examines the problem of delegation - giving the work away.

The Issue

You have doubtlessly concluded your next level of company performance requires a managerial change. And hopefully, you have realized the changes necessary are with you. As CEO (or, on a divisional or departmental level - senior executive) your jobs include holding the vision; inspiring your senior management and your staff; fostering key relationships with customers, vendors, investors and the public, etc.

You now need to let go of some cherished things like product design, hiring, perhaps day-to-day sales - many things you handled in the past, often out of necessity - and focus yourself on your role as CEO. What about all these things you used to do? Delegate them. Assign the job to someone else. This doesn't sound like a big deal, why write a whole article on it?

Do you delegate? Of course you do. But do you delegate the important things? The things you "know" you could do better? The things you are "best" at? Probably not. The question is, should you?

Your highest value contribution

Think about your highest value contribution to your company. Which of your activities generate the most revenue, profit, market share, etc.? Where do you get the most bang for the buck? Like most chief executives, your greatest leverage is in mobilizing the forces around you - your senior staff and your employees, plus key customers, prospects and vendors. Everything else becomes secondary to that in terms of impact.

So the answer is yes. You should give away even the things you are "best" at. And then make sure they are done right. Make sure they are up to spec and delivered on time.

The cost of holding on

Now, the thorny part. Many executives refrain from delegating responsibilities they've labeled "critical". They fear the job won't be done correctly. Or no one else can do it as quickly, and it won't get done on time. Or the right attention won't be paid. Or something. Or something else.

Give it up! The growth of your organization will be stifled to the extent that you hold on to critical functions. Your company will suffer in the exact areas where you think you are the expert!

Product design? You hold up the development of a key component, because you are the expert, yet you are away at a customer meeting. Staffing? Two engineers can't be hired because you haven't signed off and are out of town at a meeting with investment bankers. Sales? Negotiations on an important deal are held up because you are in Asia meeting with a vendor.

You become the choke point on each of these vital functions. And you feel - of course - "I have to be involved." No you don't. To the exact degree you have not developed your staff to assume these functions, the growth of your company will be retarded.

Aside from fear the job won't be done as well, there is another, more insidious reason senior executives (particularly entrepreneurs) do not delegate. If you aren't doing the "important" stuff, you become redundant. Dead weight. Overhead. If you have a great VP of Sales, or a Chief Technologist, what will you do?

You feel this way because you haven't completed transitions one and two: you haven't taken the trouble of understanding how you personally create value in your company, and you haven't fully assumed the role of leader. Once you make these transitions, you won't have time for the rest. Delegation, not abdication.

Many executives delegate like this. They say, "John, would you take on this project? It has to be done by next Thursday. Thanks." That's it. Then, when the job comes back incomplete, they are infuriated. What happened? They left out accountability. They neglected the structure for making sure things happened according to plan.

There are five components to successful delegation.

1. Give the job to someone who can get it done.

This doesn't mean that person has all the skills for execution, but that they are able to martial the right resources. Sometimes the first step in the project will be education. Maybe your delegate has to attend a seminar or take a course to get up to speed.

2. Communicate precise conditions of satisfaction.

Timeframe, outcomes, budget constraints, etc.; all must be spelled out. Anything less creates conditions for failure. It's like the old story about basketball - without nets the players don't know where to shoot the ball.

3. Work out a plan.

Depending on the project's complexity, the first step may be creation of a plan. The plan should include resources, approach or methodology, timeline, measures and milestones. Even simple projects require a plan.

4. Set up a structure for accountability.

If the project is to take place over the next six weeks, schedule an interim meeting two weeks from now. Or establish a weekly conference call, or an e-mailed status report. Provide some mechanism where you can jointly evaluate progress and make mid-course corrections. This helps keep the project, and the people, on track.

5. Get buy in.

Often timeframes are dictated by external circumstances. Still, your delegate must sign on for the task at hand. If you say, "This must be done by next Tuesday," they have to agree that it is possible. Ask instead. "Can you have this by Tuesday?" To you this may seem a bit remedial, but the step is often overlooked. Whenever possible, have your delegate set the timeline and create the plan. You need only provide guidance and sign off. As General Patton said, "Never tell people how to do things. Tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity."

If you skip any one of the above steps, you dramatically reduce the likelihood things will turn out the way you want them to. On the other hand, if you rigorously follow the steps, you greatly increase the odds in your favor. Isn't this more work than doing it myself, you ask. No - it isn't.

The time it takes to

1) establish the goals,

2) review the plan, and

3) monitor the progress,

is not equal to the time it takes to execute. That is how you gain leverage. This is how you multiply your efforts.

(Occasionally it does take longer to communicate something than to do it yourself. Delegate it anyway. The next time will be easier.)

Above, I've referred to projects. This is not to say delegation is reserved for discrete tasks and problems. You also delegate ongoing functions. The process is the same in each case.

As an exercise, ask yourself, what am I unwilling to delegate? Make a list of the reasons why not. Identify the best person in your organization - not you - to take on this project or function. Then call a meeting. Begin the meeting with step one, above.

If there is no one to whom you can give away key functions, you have to look carefully at your staff situation. It may be time to hire the right people. If you don't have the revenues to support the staff additions, consider what is restraining your growth.

Review your relationship with your assistant or secretary. Have you let them take on there fair share of the workload? Are you giving them sufficiently sophisticated work to do? Are they ready to upgrade?

Some situations call for you to dive back in. Perhaps you are the only one in your company with some particular technical knowledge, or your insight will accelerate the design process, or you have the long-standing relationship with a vendor or customer. Go ahead, dive. Do your thing - briefly, complete the project and resume your leadership position.

The only point to delegating something is if it frees you for things which create greater value for your company. Don't give away the hiring function if you are spending your time fiddling with the corporate web site. Don't hire a Sales VP, if you are spending your time on purchasing. The greatest leverage you have is in leading your company. Lavish your time on that.

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Effective Leadership For 21st Century Organisations

(category: Leadership, Word count: 549)
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Traditional leadership

Traditional leadership styles from the 19th and 20th Centuries tended to involve strict hierarchies, superiority, winners and losers. To lead, people felt the need to prove they are better than everyone else. Leadership was about "power" and its abuse, loneliness and affectations. In the latter part of the 20th Century, there was a gradual decline in hierarchies which is evermore the case in the first decade of the 21st Century.

So how does this impact business? What does it suggest about leadership and success in the twenty first Century? Facets of leadership in the 21st Century. From our experience, successful businesses (be they high quality start-ups or companies looking for rapid growth), recognise new values essential to their success. It is "out with the old" and in with:

"flat structures";

inclusive management style that involves all people in the organisation, not just senior management;

openness and transparency;

genuinely equal opportunities, regardless of race, ethnic origins, religion, gender, sexual orientation, disabilities etc.;

empowering - i.e. committed to empowering each and every member of the team.

Enlightened leadership

21st Century leadership is not about bullying and high-handedness or even intellectual or financial superiority. It is about playing to strengths, working around or minimising weaknesses, authenticity and not being fazed by challenges. Above all, it is about being straight in communications both internally and externally.

Powerful language

The new style is about "can-do" mentality and about avoiding disempowering language. Words such as "I'll try to" or "I need you to..." and other indirect language undermine the communication: "trying" to do anything is preparing for failure, not taking personal responsibility for causing something to happen. Using language that suggests there is another reason for why someone should do something rather than simply that you want them to do it makes people look weak so, "needing" someone to do something is in fact rarely authentic - and should normally be replaced by "I want you to do X please" or some equivalent straight communication.

"Walking the talk"

Last but not least, leadership in the 21st Century is about "walking the talk" of the organisation. However, the organisation first needs to be clear about what it is "talking" about before it can walk it and then it needs to make sure that it is consistent in everything it does: this is anything from internal relations (with colleagues) through to external relations with customers, suppliers and the public at law.

Making it "real"

We believe that law is the "glue" of society, the structure behind relationships that either has them work or not. A leader has to make sure that all of his/her relationships work. Where the relationships are recognised as being important to the organisation (and we cannot conceive of an organisation where they are not), special attention needs to be paid to making sure that all documented relationships are consistent with the values of the organisation and the style of leadership. Are your communications straight, open, honest and fair? When did you last look at your employment contracts, shareholder's agreements, terms of business, web site terms, partnering agreements and purchase contracts? Are they consistent with who you say you are? http://www.kaltons.co.uk

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Factors That Cause Public Speaking Anxiety

(category: Leadership, Word count: 478)
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In a survey done by Dr. Laurie Rozakis, author of Idiots Guide to Public Speaking, it was found that many people are scared to speak before a group. It is the number one fear among Americans, "-and the number 6 is fear of death," according to Dr. Rozakis.

Even the most experienced speaker gets anxious when speaking in public. However, this fear can be controlled so that you can put your fear to your advantage. This topic teaches us why people are nervous when speaking in front of a crowd and how you can conquer your fear.

FEAR OF THE AUDIENCE

People are afraid of rejection by their audience. Thus, many are terrified of speaking in public for fear of being criticized by the crowd for how they look or how they deliver their speech. On the contrary, audiences are very understanding about the speaker's problem with stage fright. You become more nervous when your fear of the audience increases.

Below are some strategies that can help you overcome your fear of the audience.

> Choose a topic that you like and you are familiar with. The more comfortable you are about your chosen topic, the more confident you are in facing your audience.

> Concentrate on your topic. Focus on your topic and not on yourself. When you start to think of your subject matter and not yourself, your fear of speaking will likely decrease.

> Say to yourself: "I am the BOSS." Trust in your capability of delivering your speech. Showing that you are in charge decreases your fear and increases your confidence in facing the situation.

> Don't think of your audience as a threat. Bridge the gap between your audience and yourself. Analyze carefully to establish rapport. You should consider age, gender and their level of expertise. Remember to analyze your audience.

FEAR OF FAILURE

There are two ways to win over your fear of failure.

> Picture yourself succeeding. If you think that you will stutter in front of many people, chances are you will stutter. But if you visualize yourself delivering your speech well, then, you will.

> Face your fear. You cannot overcome your fear unless you show it and admit that you are afraid of it.

FEAR THAT YOUR SPEECH IS A BAD SPEECH

> Write well. Take time to write your speech. Review it and rewrite if necessary. If you are confident with your speech, the less terrified you will be about speaking in public.

> Practice and ask for suggestions on how you can improve your speech. Ask a friend of relative to act as your audience. Once you have delivered your topic, ask for their feedback. Don't be afraid to hear about what they will say. Their feedback can give you insight on what is good or bad in your speech.

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Effective Listening

(category: Leadership, Word count: 331)
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All too often we are far more enthusiastic about talking than we are listening. Yet it is so vital if we are to communicate effectively. Most break downs in relationships are caused because people talk at each other without really making contact. Unless someone hears what has been said including the subtext the words have little value.

When we are actively listened to we feel valued and are far more likely to engage in negotiation and compromise.

Listening is about far more than words. Watching facial expression and body language is often a far more accurate barometer than the words that are being used.

Nice things being said where the smile doesn't reach the eyes is an obvious example.

To be an effective listener it is vital that you listen actively.

10 tips to becoming a more effective listener

Make eye contact.

Read the body language of the talker. Are they relaxed, anxious, angry? Extremes are easy to recognise but often the message is much more subtle

Mirror the talker's body language- subtly, a gentle dance rather than a caricature.

Show that you are listening, nod, make appropriate responses

Ask relevant questions, ask them to clarify if you are not clear about their meaning

Summarise: so what you are saying is..........

Use open ended questions, the who, what, where, when,

Be careful of the tone of your voice when you respond or ask questions. It is all to easy to come across as judgemental or as an interrogator from the Spanish Inquisition

Use empathy. Acknowledge difficulties, but be careful not to fall into the trap of going into anecdotes from your experience. " I sense that you are finding this rather difficult" rather than "Oh I know, it happened to me but mine was bigger, more difficult etc"

Take a real interest, if you are simply going through the motions the lack of sincerity will be obvious to others. Leave your ego behind, concentrate on the other person.

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I Wish It Could Have Been Otherwise

(category: Leadership, Word count: 1448)
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This was written for an academic journal about people with disabilities and what that means concerning their parent-child relationships.

As far back as I can remember, I have been hearing voices. It started when I was just three months old. I remember lying on my back in a cold sweat, undergoing nicotine withdrawal (as I found out decades later), my smoking mother having switched from breast-feeding to bottled formula. Gasping for breath, I heard my father yelling at my sister in the next room. She was wetting the bed every night, and my father was extremely upset. I couldn't understand at all, and was preparing to scream aloud.

Suddenly a voice went off in my head, saying "If you scream, something very bad will happen to you." Since I was only a baby, it wasn't in words, but I could hear the voice. I screamed anyway, and my mother came in, swooping me out of the crib into her loving arms. I heard my father's yelling increase, and the sounds of my sister being spanked. It was so awful I can recall it even now, though I know that seems utterly impossible.

I grew up clumsy, anti-social, unable to communicate well. And the voices continued. I was watching TV once, "The Green Hornet" show, and I felt something spit very hard between my legs, going straight up my private parts. It was horrible. But I never told my parents about any of these things, keeping it all quietly to myself as the other kids taunted me, making fun of how weird and unusual I was, unable to keep up with them except in my schoolwork. There, I excelled. But for many years I spoke to no one, crying to myself even in the classroom, my body twisting up into awkward shapes uncontrollably. My mother noticed this, but we never saw a doctor about it. Instead, she sought out psychological counseling for me when I entered my teens. This did me no real good.

One day, a nice lady coach who had seen me jogging around the high school track asked me to join the girl's track team. I did, and this began a partial recovery from my disabilities and social awkwardness. I made friends, and even came in second in one of our races. By the time I entered college I was pretty much normal, though often subject to strange feelings and occurrences, and occasional voices in my head. But still disturbed and given to crying fits, I dropped out of college, taking off hitch-hiking to blindly find my own haphazard way of living. I ended up in Washington State, where I found work as an attendant for the disabled. I met John Tyler, a most amazing man with polio who taught me that disability is not the end of your life, but the beginning, and I made friends with other disabled people.

For the first time in my life, I was happy; I blossomed with joy, no longer alone and afraid. I even married the most wonderful man in the world, Ron Schwarz, the son of Austrian Jews who had fled Hitler's Holocaust; he had severe multiple sclerosis and used an electric wheelchair. We could not consummate our marriage, but we were deeply in love just the same. We all lived happily at Center Park, the first major apartment building in the country built specifically for people in wheelchairs and for all kinds of disabled people to abide within its beautiful walls independently. I met every sort of disabled person imaginable, including the deaf/blind, learning all about the various disabilities. But my sweet husband Ron finally died of cancer in February of 1985, two short months after my dearest friend John Tyler, my mentor and savior, unhappily succumbed to pneumonia.

Working just a few more years for the disabled, I stressed out, unable to work anymore, and in the middle of this, 1986, I had an incident where I tried to hurt myself by falling off a window ledge, ending up hospitalized and on several mental health medications. Previously in 1982 I had been diagnosed as depressed, but had not stayed on medications. Now I was forced to do so, until I finally had myself taken off them again. I went on struggling for years until I met Remigio, my present husband, in a certified nursing class in 1990. I went back to work for a disabled lady, Carrie, again at Center Park. Remigio and I lived with her there until she gave up her battle to live independently and moved to a nursing home, where she died.

I and Remigio, constantly arguing due to my mental disability, married and moved into our own apartment. As he couldn't take the constant quarreling, he took me to a psychiatrist friend of his, and once again I was put on strong medications. These hurt me physically, and in 1997 I finally came down with a severe physical disability, chronic dystonia/dyskinesia of my left arm and head. We are presently treating this by reducing my psychiatric medications and using natural therapeutics. But I still constantly turn to the left, having to struggle to right myself at all times; my left arm sticks straight out, and it's very difficult to bend it, or even type.

Yet I had already set myself up years ago in business as a freelance writer, copy editor, copy writer, ghost writer and website designer under the name Rainbow Writing, Inc. I have my own website, several of them in fact, and am listed within several Internet writing agencies. I work ten to twelve hours a day, almost seven days a week, getting there by taking frequent breaks. I am just starting to make some money at this, and was recently hired as a full-time ghost writer by The Floating Gallery of New York City.

It's a daily struggle, and my left arm feels like it's going to break off my body at the end of my challenging day. But it keeps me busy, and I truly love my work. Many people have said I am blessed with extraordinary skill and talent, and I try to go a little further and learn a little more each day.

Remigio, a former psychiatric aide, certified nurse aide, and Doctor of Osteopathy, is a Godsend. I love him as much as I loved Ron, in spite of my mental problems, which are starting to finally alleviate under Remigio's constant care and loving support. And in 1994, we were blessed during Christmas, the same season that John Tyler died, with a beautiful little daughter, our sweet and loving Angela. Due to my disability, she suffered some psychological trauma, such as during the times I attempted suicide, but although partly severely disabled herself from this, she is healing and pulling through, excelling academically and socially in ways I never was able to learn. She is a dream come true.

If I could have written something for my parents, or told them something when I was growing up, I would have told them to not fear my special challenges. I would have asked them to read about people with disabilities, which my mother did a little, reading about an anti-social little boy when she sent me to counseling. I did not even know about disabilities when I was growing up, so I would have asked them to have taken a greater role in my upbringing, as they were often rather aloof and distant. They didn't seem to realize that my problems were not all my own fault, but the fault of fate and my unknown, undiagnosed, untreated mental, social and physical problems.

I would tell the parents of children with similar disabilities to mine to pay more attention to their children, never blaming them for their problems, listening to them carefully and never comparing them to normal children, which shames them and only makes matters worse. I would tell them to read books about children with disabilities, and to enter any organizations for such children, exposing their own child(ren) to other, similarly-burdened children so they would have a peer group, which I did not have until adulthood.

I believe they would feel more accepted and normal that way, and a lot happier than I ever was. It would be a much more fun, healthy, and productive life for them to be surrounded with other disabled children, and to develop a healthier, more normal attitude about themselves and their disabilities. Above all, it would help to stress their abilities and cultivate their happiness, both within their families and in society at large, as they learn and grow.

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King Quotes Garner Inspiration

(category: Leadership, Word count: 591)
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Here is a small trivia challenge for you. Who said, "Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere"? If you guessed Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. you would be correct.

However, you may not have heard this next quote. Doctor King said, "He who passively accepts evil is as much involved in it as he who helps to perpetrate it. He who accepts evil without protesting against it is really cooperating with it."

That is a powerful wake up call. Reading it brings to mind a human rights tragedy happening right now.

Many Falun Gong practitioners are struggling to obtain one of the most precious of all human rights. That is the freedom to believe what they choose in the space between their ears.

Here is a not so trivial question. Who is withholding that right from them?

If you answered, "the Chinese Communist Party", right again! With their track record of killing those who support democracy and those who support other freedoms, it wouldn't have been hard for you to guess.

What is amazing about the Falun Gong practitioners is that much like Ghandi and Dr. King, they believe in the way of peaceful non-violence. These noble men and women are working towards that precious freedom without hate and without physical conflict. Many have lost their lives in attempting to do so.

Between the torture and killings that are rarely reported in the world's media, the price paid so far has been extremely high. Your heart aches upon thinking of those who have endured so much torture and for those who have paid the ultimate price to obtain freedom. Yet, the struggle is not won and continues right at this moment.

Admiration for those who remain firm in the face of such terror is boundless. The courage to endure when confronted with some of the extreme tortures thrust upon them is the stuff that only the greatest are made of.

It makes one shudder to contemplate being forced to live in a cage that is too small to stand up and too narrow to sit down. The enormous horror of living in that situation day after day strikes at the very depth of the soul. Everyone should be fully aware of what is happening in China today.

The plight of the Falun Gong practitioners is a noble one, deserving of support. Without freedom, quality of life is diminished to a shadow of what it should be.

In response to their enormous suffering and equally enormous endurance, visit the Faluninfo website to more fully understand the tragedy and learn what you can do to help eliminate the continued suffering of these brave hearted men and women.

Here are two more Dr. King quotes. "In the End, we will remember not the words of our enemies, but the silence of our friends" and "The time is always right to do what is right".

The power to make a difference is in your hands. To support the just and good is a choice. And the choice you make may be remembered throughout history.

A simple action to take is to call the Chinese Embassy in New York or Chicago and say three simple words, "Stop the Persecution". They will understand exactly what you mean even if they pretend not to.

The New York Embassy phone number is: 212-868-7752 (US).

The Chicago Chinese Embassy phone number is: 312-803-0098 (US).

When the horn of freedom is sounded in times of need, men and women of the highest character heed the call.

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An Effective Style To Use In Public Speaking Audience Participation

(category: Leadership, Word count: 449)
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An effective public speaker should be able to utilize devices that will be able to capture the attention of the audience. One effective means for them to give you that much needed interest is this: get them to go on stage. Make them participate. When someone is on stage and he or she happens to be a member of the audience, the rest will almost always stay attentive. Why? Because they would like to see what you will be doing to one of them. Also, because they are thinking they could be up there themselves and so to save their precious egos from embarrassment they at least need to know what is going on.

No matter how good or excellent you are as a presenter or as a public speaker, nothing beats the excitement of getting someone to be on stage who really should not be there in the first place. What is going through their minds at that moment when you pull an unsuspecting someone from their complacency is that, "Oh my god, what if the speaker selects me to go up there next? What am I going to do?" Then later, "I need to pay attention to this." A little bit later as you go through your presentation, the audience will then most probably think, "What point is he/she making?" And then as you take your point across, the audience will then get to think, "Now I get it." Because you made them pay attention, you have forced them to listen and respond to your statement in the privacy of their minds.

However, there are those extremely shy and very sensitive members of the audience who might withdraw from going through the rest of your presentation if they hear you will be calling on them up on the stage. The objective is to gain an audience and not to lose any of them.

Make it clear prior to your asking someone to come up on stage with you that you are asking for a volunteer and that no one will be forced if they do not want to. Notice that if the majority of your audience are shy, once you finally get someone to be on stage, all of them will almost always heave a sigh of relief that you would actually feel a breeze pass you by, really.

Another way to get the audience to participate as well as pay attention is by giving them due recognition. Try to acknowledge a single member of the audience for a specific achievement or a moment of a good performance, or also acknowledge a group of the audience.

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Public Speaking Lessons

(category: Leadership, Word count: 777)
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The benefits of communication are evident from the least sophisticated creatures to the most advanced as in humans.

Perhaps, among the creatures especially endowed with the power of communication, humans make use of them more intensely and with a purpose that each speech made has had some effect on the people who hears them.

Not only do humans use communication in everyday survival but uses it for a variety of reasons. It is used to inspire and to deliver important messages in a well-structured and equally measured manner.

Public Speaking

In a recent survey, more than 90% among the 1000 American individuals interviewed are afraid of hosting a speaking engagement. 20% of them have at least done such acts and never want to do it again while 75% commented that there are people who are endowed with such skills and that public speaking should be reserved solely to them.

In a monologue lecture, one has to inform, influence, and convince people. This can only be done through the use of speech that is well crafted, revised and edited.

The above criteria can only be met if the speaker has a main purpose in mind, a tool to convey the very same purpose with a full consideration of the recipient audience.

In order for your speech to become as effective as you want it to be, you have to consider the four elements of the above activity, and tailor activities and strategies that will effectively drive your audience into believing everything you have to say.

Who/whom - Your audience is your best resource when considering in what manner you would want to conduct your speech. You should deliberately come up with a verbal address that is appropriate to your audience. Consider their age, level of education, place in the society, and your level of relationship with them.

Ron Kurtus, an experienced speech master, commented that your first and primary purpose of speaking is to communicate ideas that you think your listeners would like to hear; something that they want to internalize and be part of their lives and something which can they can use for their daily living and gain rewards along the way.

What - Your topic will provide you an effective idea and help you develop a talk which is most appropriate, timely and equally-relating to your listeners and spectators. Your topic can be as complicated as you want it to be as long as your audience is aware of the main topic at hand.

When - As you go along making your speech, you may want to ask yourself if the subject of your talk is timely or something which your audience could probably relate to.

You do not want to explain the science behind Alzheimer if you are talking to business folks who are looking for ways on how they can develop a procedure for managing their business and get warranted results.

In a sense, one has to consider if one has the opportune time to talk about things to their audience that will make a direct impact on how they view the world and the concepts surrounding your topic.

How - As today's world becomes a place for entertainment, people expect their speakers to be lively and use strategies that will arouse their interest and help them better understand the complexities by which your topic is founded.

Dr. Stephen D. Boyd says that a 20 or 200 person audience is similar in terms of maintaining their interest on what you have to say. Speakers battle on the external factors which play in getting the attention of your listeners.

Listeners expect their client speaker to speak with vigor, humor, vitality, confidence, and animation. This can be in the form of creating something catchy like a surprising and unusual story, an unbelievable figure and/or your personal experiences.

If you are tired and emotionally stressed, your listeners can feel it. It is evident in your voice, in your actions and the way you move your hands and body. You will be physically restricted and repressed and could hardly do more to stir excitement among your audience.

While these and other factors affect the way you conduct your speech, it is important to follow several recommendations that will help you combat the consequences of your audience finding out your true physical state.

Vary your pace of speaking

Pause to make a point

Demonstrate gesture that is relevant to the idea that you are trying to point out

Employ facial expressions

Make sensible and purposeful movements

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