Martial Art Belt Ranks Where Did They Come From And What Do They Mean
Martial Art Belt Ranks
Where did they come from and what do they mean?
There are many theories why present day martial art schools use belts and sashes as a ranking system and where the concept of using belts came from. We will discuss two philosophies, one that is widely accepted by many practitioners and another that can be considered as a legend, or story that was passed down by your grandfather. Please keep in mind that the belt ranking system has only been around about 120 years. Throughout this article, keep in mind that not all Martial Arts are the same, your school may have a completely different ranking system than discussed here.
One of the most common arguments comes from the founder of modern day Judo, Dr. Jigoro Kano. An educator and sports enthusiast, Dr. Kano used a black belt to represent his dan (highest-ranking) students in his school, the Kodokan. However, he later realized his kyu (lower ranking) students needed an outward tangible object to acknowledge their accomplishments and encourage their efforts. So he implemented the different colors to signify the progress that his kyu made over time.
Eventually, other Japanese martial art styles such as Karate, Aikido, Kendo, etc. incorporated the Judo belt ranking system when Gichin Funakoshi, an Okinawan karate master and considered as the "Father of Modern Karate" demonstrated his martial art style, Shotokan, at the Kodokan.
The other theory, known as "the belt getting dirty" can be considered as a martial arts folklore. When new students started their training they were given the rank of white belt, signifying a birth or beginning. Students were not allowed to wash their belts, therefore the belt would "get dirty" the more they practiced. In time the belt would become black, signifying the amount of time the student spent practicing and typically their level of skill.
As a new student in a martial art, you will most likely be given a white belt at the beginning of your training and will progress through a color system on your way toward a black belt. However, contrary to popular belief, the black belt does not signify the end of your training, but rather the beginning. In most arts, once you earn your black belt you are no longer considered a kyu, you are now a dan.
Dan have their own ranking system known as degrees. You are a first degree black belt when you first attain it, over time you can test for your 2nd degree black belt (or 2nd dan) and so on. Most martial arts consider a 10th degree black belt to be the highest level of mastery.
As you train in a martial art, don't get discouraged if you are stuck on a certain belt for a long period of time. It usually takes many years to progress through the belts and this is actually one of the lessons that participating in Martial Arts will teach you. Progressing through the belts requires a great deal of time, dedication, self-confidence, patience and self-discipline. The skills you learn in your martial arts training will apply to almost every aspect of your life and will help you succeed in areas where you never thought Martial Arts would help.
Everything You Need To Know About Judo Uniforms
Since it was created in 1882 by Kano Jigoro of Japan, Judo has become one of the most popular martial arts in the world. It is quite a rigorous and physically demanding sport, appearing in several major international sports competitions. As a result, when partaking in judo training, it is important that a high quality judo uniform, or gi in Japanese, be worn to avoid tearing and damage.
Judo uniforms are generally constructed out of 100% cotton, bleached white. Cotton is the best choice for breathability. Care should be taken when laundering, as most judo uniforms are not pre-shrunken and will shrink up to a full size from excess heat. Therefore, washing in cool water and air drying is highly recommended to avoid shrinkage.
There are three pieces to the judo uniform: the jacket, the belt, and the pants. The jacket is quilted with a thick pliable collar and wide sleeves. Two short splits are on either side of the hip, which are reinforced with extra cloth. The jacket is secured with a belt, coloured according to level, wrapped tightly around the body and knotted. The pants feature an elasticized drawstring waist with wide legs to allow for movement. In areas where there may be a lot of friction or stress from pulling, reinforcement at the seams and additional padding is vital to prevent damage. These include the shoulders, collar, knees, and crotch of the pants.
The cloth for gi's comes in a variety of weights and textures. For training purposes, judo uniforms are made out of single weave cloth. The appropriate weight for a Judoka (Judo practitioner) is measured in ounces or grams, and depends on their ability and age. Usually, beginners at a younger age opt for lighter weights while older advanced students and instructors choose heavier ones. Weights can vary from 7 ounces or 198.44 grams to 40.57 ounces or 1150 grams.
For competitions, double weave cloth is ideal for judo uniforms, making them thicker and heavier. Judo uniforms for competition use tend to be more durable, and as a result, much more expensive than single weave. While training judo uniforms come in white, competition level uniforms also come in blue.
Higher quality judo uniforms should not weigh down the practitioner and restrict their movement. They should fit loosely and comfortably on the body.
Tae Kwon Do Basic Information
What do you know about this Korean form of martial art? In Korea, it is practiced as the national sport, but it provides more than entertainment for those who learn it. Tae Kwon Do is used as a form of self-defense and exercise. Competitors come together in matches, somewhat like boxing, to fight, or spar, with one another. Much training and practice takes place before official sparring matches are held, as the technique is complicated, and competitors must be aware of what types of hits (strikes) are legal and illegal, and how points are awarded.
Tae Kwon Do competitors are required to wear the proper protective gear, and to abide by the rules of the referee who is present during the sparring. There are three rounds in a match. The rounds last for three minutes, and there is a one-minute break between rounds. If, during a round, a competitor is knocked down and is unable to rise before the referee counts to eight, the competitor loses that round, as it counts as a knock-out.
In order to score a point, a competitor must strike his opponent with enough force to abruptly move either his head or his body from where it was before the strike. There are some areas which are considered out of bounds for hits. These include any area below the waistline, and the back of the head and body. The front of the head, the torso and chest are all legal strike zones, and protective gear is worn in these areas to protect the competitors from serious injury. Strikes are delivered both as punches and kicks, with the goal being to knock the opponent out of place or to the ground.
Both power and control are essential to Tae Kwon Do sparring, due to the force required to move an opponent, as well as the specific areas allowed for striking. The competitor must be able to deliver his strike as powerfully and accurately as possible. Much training must take place before the Tae Kwon Do competitor is able to spar with strength and accuracy, and to defend himself from the blows of his opponent.
How To Choose A Martial Art
Once you've decided that you want to start training a martial art, you'll need to decide which one is best for you. Of course, your choice might be dictated by the schools available in your area, but if you're lucky you'll have the choice of at least a few different types. There are many different types of martial arts (and even variations within the basic types) so it's important to make sure that you research the techniques and features to find the best fit for your lifestyle and needs. This general explanation of the six most popular styles in the United States can help you get started on the decision.
It's also important to note that there are as many interpretations of the martial arts styles as there are instructors. Students also interpret the class differently than other students in the same class, so other people's opinions are not always the best determiner of what style you should pursue. While you are trying to find the martial art that's right for you, it is helpful to also try a few classes to get a feel for the style, instructor and school.
Karate can be translated as "empty hand" which means that it is a martial art performed without weapons. While the history of Karate is somewhat vague, its ancient roots have been traced back to China in the 5th century B.C. The more modern form of Karate began in Okinawa, Japan during the late 1700s. There was a weapon ban in Okinawa at this time, so people had to come up with system of self defense that used empty hands - they combined aspects of Chinese martial arts with the Te traditional to Okinawa. By the early 1900s it began spreading throughout Japan. In 1964, the Federation of Karate Organizations was formed as a means to create some continuity for Karate world-wide. Even so, there are many different styles and variations of Karate today.
Karate is a linear martial art. It uses a wide variety of movements: kicks, punches, blocks, strikes, evasions and throws. Training focuses on having a strong offense and puts equal importance on the three areas of the art: basics, sparring and forms.
Martial Arts Definition
Martial Arts are the various forms of self-defense, usually weaponless, based on techniques developed in ancient China, India, and Tibet. In modern times they have come into wide use for self-protection, as competitive sports, and for exercise. Jujitsu teaches skills that enable one to overcome a bigger, stronger opponent. A popular style of jujitsu is aikido, which uses wrist, elbow, and shoulder twists and graceful falls; it is noncompetitive and incorporates various spiritual concepts. Other popular forms of martial arts include kung fu, karate, and tae kwon do, all of which emphasize blows with the feet and the side of the hand, and kendo, in which leather-covered bamboo "swords are used. All styles emphasize allowing ki (cosmic energy) to flow through one's body. This belief in ki connects aikido with t'ai chi ch'uan, a meditationlike discipline that emphasizes slow, graceful body movements. The most popular form of individual exercise in China, t'ai chi is often performed publicly in large groups; it has been claimed to reduce stress and lower blood pressure. Judo, a Japanese sport created in 1882, makes use of jujitsu principles. Capoeira, a dancelike Brazilian discipline, is gaining in popularity.
The Art Of Tai Chi Sparring
Curious about Tai Chi but running short on time and patience to make an in depth research of your own? Here is a simple but accurate article on the topic of Tai Chi sparring. It's organized and easy to digest.
Tai Chi, also known as Tai Chi Chuan (taijiguan) or Taiji, is commonly translated as Supreme Ultimate Fist and is known throughout the world as a Chinese martial art that combines the principles of self defense with the mental and physical fitness. This art is practiced by millions of people these days for several purposes, including self defense and for its health benefits.
Sparring is involved in basic Tai Chi practice. Tai Chi sparring is in fact one of the most important stages of this ancient martial art. As noted in most resources, Tai Chi sparring is strongly considered as the only way to teach students of the art the importance of self defense, distance and speed.
Tai Chi sparring is practiced at a slow, meditative pace. According to its proponents, the slow and continuous movements are generally designed to impart the powerful physical skills of the sparrer, as well as to stimulate the flow of energy within the body. This slow, meditative pace involved in Tai Chi sparring also helps to develop balance, coordination of breath and movement, concentration and relaxation. Simply, Tai Chi sparring teaches you how to move easily without tension in order that your mind and body can function smoothly. I think this a great health benefit.
There are three major levels of training involved in Tai Chi sparring. The first has something to do with postures; the second with self defense applications; and the third with coordination of breath with movement.
In terms of posture, the Tai Chi sparring training primarily teaches you the right postures. What I am actually talking about here is where exactly to place the hands and feet when sparring. The training also includes the fundamental shape of the movement, including the transitions between these movements. According to some Tai Chi sparring experts, it is through the mastery of the right postures that the student can develop an insight into the nature of flexible strength. This level, however, requires long and diligent practice in order to master.
The next level of Tai Chi sparring involves understanding of the energetic and self defense applications. In the first place, Tai Chi sparring is viewed as an energy exercise. This notion perhaps stemmed from the fact that when practicing Tai Chi sparring, you are calming and energizing your body.
How does Tai Chi do this? First, Tai Chi sparring eliminates the impurities caused by tension, and then it rouses energy to flow through the body. It is this flow of energy that actually cleanses the entire body.
In terms of self defense applications, Tai Chi sparring simply teaches you to understand every move involved in the practice. The general rule here is that every move can be done at three levels, which is high, middle and low. Aside from these levels, the movements can also be performed in five directions, involving left, right, back, forward and center. For many Tai Chi practitioners, it is very vital that every sparrer understand these applications so as to keep movements precise.
Finally, Tai Chi sparring involves coordination of the breath as well as the movements. What is usually considered in training is that you inhale with movements that lift or roll back, and in turn exhale with movements that press or sink. However, it is very important to note that in Tai Chi not every move will require a full breath. The coordination between the breath and movement is something that happens slowly and in unexpected ways. In the end, your body will find its own breathing rhythm.
I hope you enjoyed reading this article. There is, indeed, a lot to learn about this topic, or even a lot to learn about the world. There's always something new to discover!
Martial Arts Home Training Machine
The martialarm is a martial arts home training partner which allows repetitive practice of training techniques and attack methods because it simulates and reacts like a real opponent actually throwing a punch or an enemy in an aggressive guard. As you train on the martialarm it develops these attack techniques and it allows the use of full power in your strikes.
Once you come into contact with the martialarm training partner it will react - it twists and turns up, down, left and right just as a real opponent would. It has internal springs so offers realistic resistence forward and back to the center and is made of solid steel and upholstered for its superb strength.
It's true. The Martialarm provides resistance and reacts like a real partner. The arm can spring out with realistic forward pressure. And if you don't control it properly when you enter its defenses, it WILL strike you back! This is the kind of solo training experienced martial artists have been craving. The constant forward pressure and resistance to the center really opens up the possibilities of your solo training.
And it's only a fraction of the price of the traditional wooden dummy!
The Martialarm is the only martial arts training dummy that offers you complete realism in all your martial arts training in kung fu, karate, krav maga, jeet kune do, tae kwon do, kempo and more.
The martialarm is unlike other training dummies: The wooden dummy has been used for centuries as a solo training tool. In recent years, they've been made available in different materials including plastic. But still they all have one thing in common:
They dont move and they're all static.
The wooden dummy usually costs hundreds of dollars but is still only designed to absorb your blows and improve your form. It doesn't react to your attacks like a real partner would. So even though you get good repetition training, which is okay for getting the basics down, it can be difficult to use and can get boring pretty quickly.
Why Some Martial Artists Improve Faster Than Others
As martial artists, we all know this. Your martial arts instructor probably hammers the point home in class on a daily basis. Unfortunately, there are only so many classes in a week and this can limit your learning and progress.
You want to get better - fast. And you're willing put in your time with home training. But solo training can only take you so far because it lacks the interaction that only a partner can provide.
Owning a Martialarm gives you an interactive training partner 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. It's there for you all day, every day, whether you want to train after midnight or at the crack of dawn.
With its sturdy construction, it'll take everything you've got, so you won't have to hold back! So give your little brother a break from the bruises. He's probably tired of being your practice dummy anyway!
Your Own Personal Training Partner - Hangs Right on Your Wall!
The traditional wooden dummy is quite bulky and requires a big chunk of space to set it up properly for training. That's fine if you have a big training hall, but you probably don't have that much space to devote to your training.
The Martialarm fits into even the smallest training areas.
With its compact design, it's easy to make space for it, even if you live in a tiny bachelor's apartment! Or if you have a training hall, the Martialarm is small enough for you to put up a bunch of them so more students can benefit from training with them.
It's very easy to set up and it hangs conveniently on your wall, ready and waiting for your next urge to train.
How Often Do You Hear Yourself Saying: "I'll Get Back Into Training Next Week..."?
Many people give up on their martial arts training because it stops being fun. The reason why this happens is because they're not being challenged enough so it becomes repetitive. Dont become an ex-martial artist statistic.
Break through your training block!
Add an exciting new dimension to your training that will bust through your boredom and make your martial arts training exciting again!
The Martialarm will give you the active, dynamic training workout that will renew your interest in the martial arts.
9 Reasons to Buy the Martialarm today!
1 A wooden dummy can cost over $1000. The Martialarm, on the other hand, available now at the discounted price of $399. That's nearly a $600 savings!
2 If you want your martial arts school to boom, try putting up a few Martialarms. Everyone will want to try it out! Martial arts schools everywhere are reaping the rewards.
3 Training with the Martialarm regularly will not only get you in shape, it'll help you get the cut look you've always wanted!
4 The Martialarm is the only training dummy that moves and twists - up, down, left and right - just like a real opponent would! It can spring forward and it does strike back! It's the most effective training tool for wing chun, jeet kune do or kung fu since the wooden dummy.
5 The Martialarm is your 24/7 training partner. If you want to train at 2 in the morning, it's there for you!
6 You don't have to worry about injuring anyone. If you need to relieve some tension take it out on the Martialarm. It can take it!
7 The Martialarm comes with a 30-day money-back guarantee. If you don't love training with it after 30 days, we'll refund your money minus shipping.
8 Just learned a new technique but have no one to practice it on? The Martialarm will not only be there but will show you if it works.
9 You can learn new martial arts skills by watching the Martialarm videos. You'll learn what you need to defend yourself and your loved ones. And by training regularly, you'll get results in no time!
Top Reasons To Try Martial Arts
Just about everyone knows about the popular martial arts, such as Karate, Tae Kwon Do, Kung Fu and Tai Chi...some people have even thought about trying out a class. Bt have you ever actually done it? Do you need a reason?
Just about everyone has thought about taking up a martial art at some point in time. Maybe as another way to stay in shape. Possibly as a means to protect yourself from the school bully. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of reasons why people choose to take up an art, but I want to take a second to outline what I feel are the most important reasons to at least try a martial art. Maybe it's for yourself, maybe it's for your children...whatever the reason, all martial arts contain a unique wealth of knowledge and discipline that you simply can't get anywhere else. My hope is that this article will inspire you to get out of your chair and into a school to see what martial arts is all about.
As you train in martial arts, you will notice a lot if improvements, such as your physique, balance, awareness, flexibility, and many other physical and mental characteristics. Martial Arts will teach you how to combine these capabilities and use them to succeed in competitions, attaining higher belts, building friendships and protecting yourself if necessary. The more you can do, the more confident you will be.
One of the most common reasons to study martial arts is to learn how to defend one's self. A number of schools may dedicate class time and/or offer a scheduled class that strictly goes over self defense tactics. Also, depending on the MA style or school, self defense can be a large part of the curriculum, which can be beneficial to those interested in "applicable arts" (arts you can use in everyday life) as opposed to "traditional arts".
Webster defines self-discipline as the "correction or regulation of oneself for the sake of improvement". Whether it be trying to make a high school team or meeting company deadlines, once you learn the focus necessary to succeed in Martial Arts you can apply it to the rest of your life. Success is mental, and Martial Arts will teach you the self discipline necessary to succeed at anything you put your mind to.
Martial arts does require a lot of hand, foot, eye, and mental coordination, but all of this is developed over time. If you consider yourself as an uncoordinated person, training in the martial arts will help you grow those skills. You'll be amazed what your body is capable of doing! Even if you are a natural athlete, standing on one foot, while kicking with the other, and blocking with your hands is quite difficult and involves coordination.
Martial Arts does not have to focus only on fighting or self defense as some styles are based more on fitness. Tae Bo and Tai Chi are two examples of this. However, those with an interest in the fighting & self-defense aspects of Martial arts will find their fitness levels quicly increasing as training not only develops various muscle groups, but flexibility and balance as well. One's level of fitness can be just as important in winning a match as one's skills and abilities.
Most people don't know that this is an excellent way to spend time together with your family! Some martial art schools allow families to train together and others separate classes by age groups. Regardless of how classes are segregated, families find themselves enjoying the time spent together. It is not unheard of having a family all test together for various ranks and black belts.
Meet New People - Martial Arts is for everyone...
Many martial art schools structure their classes into three age groups: Kids - usually ranging from about 5 to 11 years old, Teens - 12 to about 16 or 17, and Adults - usually starts at 18, but some schools make exceptions when necessary. Some schools also offer a "Little Dragons" program geared towards the 4 - 6 year old crowd. Age groups are then broken down into belt ranks allowing you to train with people that are relatively of equal skills and age. Often times people who begin martial arts together will develop a bonding friendship and even obtainin their black belts at the same time because they pushed one another during their tuff times.
The Philosophy Of Samurai Swords
Decorating your 21st century interior in a Japanese manner has become very popular. The Japanese artifacts, like the samurai swords, are proof of great taste not only because of their eye catching colors and shapes but because they hold a lot of meaning. They represent moral values like patience, discipline, honor, loyalty and determination. The modern world has forgot some very important codes, but their symbols still exist as a reminder in the Japanese works of art that distinguish some homes or offices.
The samurai swords, for example, are very used objects of decoration. People who appreciate martial arts or the Japanese life style often hang them on walls. Owning samurai swords means you appreciate Japanese history and the virtues that this object stood for in an antique society. For those of you with the good idea of buying samurai swords here are some hints about these beautiful and meaningful objects and their philosophy. Knowing how they are made and their value will make them more treasured decorating objects.
The value of the samurai swords comes not only from their handcrafting, but also from the fact that they are a symbol of the worrier. The samurai swords define power, duty, responsibility, self-defense and ethics. The samurai swords were weapons used by a class of people who cherished their freedom above all and defended it with great skill. The samurai swords were used in hand to hand combat which was a very demanding perhaps the most, form of combat. Having to fight with a sharp weapon required skill of body and mind, abilities, reflexes and technique. Only through a lot of practice, exercise and patience one could become able to handle the samurai swords in order to protect the code of honor.
The Samurai (knights-retainers) were also called Bushi (warriors) and their most treasured weapons were the samurai swords. They considered the swords a part of themselves and sometimes believed the swords were the soul of their worriership. They gave their samurai swords names and awarded them medals. Some samurai worriers even died trying to retrieve their treasured samurai swords for their Shogun (the most powerful samurai worrier for a period). Bushido means Way of the Warrior and the heart of the Bushido philosophy, which lead their beliefs and conduct, is freedom from fear. This meant they had no fear of dying. They were able to use their peace of mind to give themselves power to serve their master faithfully to the death. Therefore, duty and loyalty were a great part of their philosophy. Their way of life ranked them at the top of the social hierarchy in Japan for hundreds of years until 19th century.
Artisans of ancient time put a lot of thought in the creation of samurai swords. They had to create weapons that were not too heavy to handle, nor too rigid to brake off. They discovered sharp samurai swords, used against an armor, broke and that samurai swords made of soft steel were flexible and light. So, they considered the most appropriate weight for samurai swords would have been around 2-3 pounds. However, to create such samurai swords would have meant a lot work.
There were many methods used to handcraft samurai swords. Some used the repeated and tiring process of heating and folding of steel. The blades had to be polished afterwards carefully and the smiths engraved their signature on their work of art. The samurai swords were proof of great handcrafting skills, which meant that the person who created them possessed some unique virtues. Like for any art object, to create samurai swords meant to put soul in your creation, to invest patience and will together with intelligence to obtain the best results possible. A lot of artists worked on their detailed ornaments of the hilt, on their handle bindings and sheaths and the results were samurai swords worth being worn by worriers.
These virtues have been forgotten as the modern society no longer cares, respects or praises the military man as much as in the past. The samurai were (and still are) highly appreciated figures of history. The samurai swords were priceless and were identified with the worrier class. Made from the heat and pounding of skilled smiths, the samurai swords brought honor and the spirit of the true worrier to those who carried them. Because of this, many modern people buy samurai swords as a reminder of that time and those values. Samurai swords decorate today's homes, as symbols, for those who know what true beauty means virtue and honor.
Reload this page to get new content randomly.
Time-Management | Loans | Credit | Weather | Finance | Weddings | Trucks-Suvs | Home-Family | Cars | Self-Improvement | Reference-Education | Insurance | Vehicles | Mortgage | Home-Improvement | Gardening | Society | Parenting | Debt-Consolidation | Womens-Issues | Relationships | Acne | Interior-Design | Nutrition | Fashion | Baby | Legal | Religion | Fishing | Clothing | Holidays | Product-Reviews | Personal-Finance | Auctions | Communications | Misc | Supplements | Marriage | Currency-Trading | Politics | Goal-Setting | Taxes | Ecommerce | Movie-Reviews | Recipes | Traffic-Generation | College | Cooking | Computer-Certification | Success | Motivation | Depression | Stress-Management | Site-Promotion | Outdoors | Home-Security | Book-Reviews | History | Entrepreneurs | Hair-Loss | Yoga | Consumer-Electronics | Stock-Market | Email-Marketing | Article-Writing | Ppc-Advertising | Science | K12-Education | Crafts | Environmental | Elderly-Care | Fitness-Equipment | Cruises | Coaching | Domains | Spirituality | Mens-Issues | Happiness | Leadership | Customer-Service | Inspirational | Diabetes | Attraction | Security | Copywriting | Language | Data-Recovery | Muscle-Building | Aviation | Motorcycles | Coffee | Landscaping | Homeschooling | Ebooks | Cardio | Psychology | Celebrities | Pregnancy | Ebay | Mesothelioma | Extreme | Ezine-Marketing | Digital-Products | Fundraising | Martial-Arts | Boating | Divorce | Book-Marketing | Commentary | Current-Events | Credit-Cards | Public-Speaking | Hunting | Debt | Financial | Coin-Collecting | Family-Budget | Meditation | Biking | Rss | Music-Reviews | Organizing | Breast-Cancer | Creativity | Spam | Podcasts | Google-Adsense | Forums | Ethics | Buying-Paintings | Gourmet | Auto-Sound-systems | After-School-Activities | Adsense | Dieting | Education | Dance | Cigars | Astronomy | Cats | Diamonds | Autoresponders | Disneyland | Carpet | Bbqs | Dental | Criminology | Craigslist | Atv | Excavation-Equipment | Buying-A-boat | Auto-Responders | Auto-Navigation-Systems | Autism-Articles | Atkins-Diet | Aspen-Nightlife | Fruit-Trees | Credit-Card-Debt | Creating-An-Online-Business | Breast-Feeding | Contact-Lenses | Computer-Games-systems | Colon-Cleanse | College-Scholarship | Golden-Retriever | Anger-Management | American-History | Bluetooth-Technology | Alternative-Energy | Closet-Organizers | Elliptical-Trainers | Electric-Cars | Black-History | Air-Purifiers | Diesel-Vs-Gasoline-Vehicles | Christmas-Shopping | Choosing-The-Right-Golf-Clubs | Dental-Assistant | Decorating-For-Christmas | Beach-Vacations | Cd-Duplication | Bathroom-Remodeling | Bargain-Hunting | Candle-Making | Backyard-Activities | Auto-Leasing | Skin-Cancer | Recreational-Vehicle | Mutual-Funds | Boats | Leasing | Innovation | Philosophy | Grief | Colon-Cancer | Prostate-Cancer | Dating-Women | Audio-Video-Streaming | Forex | Digital-Camera | Cell-Phone | Car-Stereo | Car-Rental | Running | Sociology | Multiple-Sclerosis | Leukemia | Dogs | Ovarian-Cancer