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Hemp And Marijuana Eliminating The Confusion

(category: Politics, Word count: 967)
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"Hemp/industrial hemp" and "marijuana" are two distinct varieties of the same plant species. "Hemp" is a fiber crop. "Marijuana" is a drug crop. However, these definitions have become confused in the last 60 years. Recently, a movement has begun to distinguish the terms again. It is important to understand the history of usage of these terms in order to eliminate the confusion.

1600-1930s Hemp's Long History in North America

The word "hemp" has been in the English language for over 800 years. The word "marijuana" is only 100 years old.

From the first settling of North America until the 1930s, "hemp" was the most common term for Cannabis sativa fiber crops. "Marijuana" was never used to describe hemp fiber crops, which were grown for canvas, rope, fuel oil, and paper. "Hemp" fiber crops were historically low THC and completely non-psychoactive.

1930s-1940s Marijuana tax Act confuses "Hemp" and "Marijuana"

In the 1930s, the psychoactive (high-THC) variety of cannabis sativa, imported from Mexico, became common in the southern U.S. It was called "marijuana", a word popularized through the "Reefer Madness" campaign, to distinguish it from the "hemp" fiber crops (which no one ever smoked).

In 1937, the passage of the Marijuana tax Act hopelessly confused the terms "hemp" and "marijuana". For the first time, Congress defined these distinct varieties of Cannabis sativa as being the same. What had been commonly known as "hemp" was now "marijuana".

1950s "Hemp" Crops Become Extinct

In 1957, the last "hemp" fiber crop was harvested in the U.S. Because low-THC Cannabis sativa fiber crops were now extinct, the word "hemp" dropped out of use and was forgotten.

1960s "Marijuana" Legalization Movement Begins

In the 1960s, the psychoactive variety of cannabis sativa ("marijuana") became popular among the counter-culture. The movement to legalize "marijuana" in the 1960s and 1970s did not use the term "hemp" to describe "marijuana".

1985 "Hemp"/ "Marijuana" Movement Begins

In 1985, the word "hemp" re-surfaced in the book The Emperor Wears No Clothes by Jack Herer. This book uncovered information that had been lost for almost 40 years about "hemp's" historical uses as a fiber crop. The book also touted "hemp" as a solution to modern environmental problems.

Because The Emperor was targeted at a "marijuana" movement and since it was not widely known that low-THC varieties of hemp existed in Europe and Asia, it was believed that "marijuana" must be legalized to allow industrial uses of "hemp". And because it was the environmentalists and the counter-culture that began promoting hemp as an alternative fiber crop, they were not taken seriously.

1989 European Farmers Grow "Hemp"

In Europe, some countries (like France and Spain) had never stopped producing "hemp". In 1989, the European Economic Community developed rules to govern "hemp" production that applied to all its member countries. The EEC defined registered seed varieties for low THC "hemp" and methods for testing "hemp" for THC content.

1993-1994 England and Canada Grow "Hemp"

In 1993, England officially recognized the difference between "hemp" and "marijuana", to make its farmers competitive in the EEC. In 1994, Canada, seeing competition from Europe, allowed "hemp" production.

1994 Kentucky Appoints "Hemp" Task Force

In November of 1994, the Governor of Kentucky, seeing competition from Canada and Europe, appointed a Task Force to study the commercial possibilities of "hemp" in his state.

1994-1995 "Hemp/Industrial Hemp" Movement Begins in U.S.

For the first time, farmers, manufacturers, processors, and agricultural researchers in North America began to take a serious look at "hemp" as an agricultural crop and alternative fiber. As well, the "hemp" environmentalists within the "marijuana" movement see that registered seed varieties exist to distinguish "hemp" from "marijuana".

This diverse coalition begins using the word "industrial hemp" (or simply "hemp") to refer exclusively to low-THC non-psychoactive varieties of Cannabis sativa. The goal of the "industrial hemp" movement is to allow legitimate production of "hemp" fiber crops and to explore the environmental benefits of "hemp" as an alternative fiber, pulp, and oil source.

Jan. 1995 Colorado Senator Introduces "Hemp " Legislation

In January 1995, Senator Lloyd Casey (D-Northglenn), made Colorado the first state to attempt to define "hemp/industrial hemp" as distinct form "marijuana" when he introduced the Hemp Production Act. Unfortunately, this bill was killed in Committee due to objections from the federal Drug Enforcement Administration.

Oct. 1995 North American Industrial Hemp Council Formed

In October 1995, the steering committee of the North American Industrial Hemp Council made "industrial hemp" an entirely distinct issue, separate from the legalization of "marijuana".

Jan. 1996 Colorado and Vermont Introduce "Hemp" Legislation

Legislators in two states introduced "industrial hemp" legislation, Sen. Lloyd Casey (D) from Colorado and Rep. Fred Maslack (R) from Vermont.

Jan. 1996 Support for "Hemp" Grows

A strong coalition of diverse organizations now supports "Industrial hemp", including:

American Farm Bureau federation (4.6 million member)

Colorado Farm Bureau

Colorado Department of Agriculture

Colorado State Grange

Kentucky Farm Bureau

Kentucky Hemp Growers Cooperative

Wisconsin Agribusiness Council

Wisconsin Department of Agriculture

International Paper Company

Bolton Emerson Americas

Colorado Environmental Coalition

Oregon Natural Resources Council

HIA (Hemp Industries Association)

North American Industrial Hemp Council

Most, if not all of these groups have specifically stated that they are opposed to the legalization of marijuana. They realize the difference between "hemp/industrial hemp" and "marijuana" and that "hemp/industrial hemp" can be grown safely without affecting "marijuana" laws, production, or use.

Today: Making Progress...

25 of 53 state hemp-related bills introduced since 1995 have passed and overall, 14 states have successfully passed hemp-related legislation. In 2002, hemp bills have been introduced in seven states: Arizona, California, Hawaii, New Mexico, Vermont, Wisconsin and West Virginia. The CA, HI and WV bills have passed, the NM and VT bills have died in committee, and the AZ and WI bills have been held until 2003.

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How Can We Detect And Stop Terrorist Acts From Happening

(category: Politics, Word count: 739)
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How Can We Detect and Stop Terrorist Acts from Happening?

"Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty"

Thomas Jefferson

Knowledge about the terrorist planning cycle is necessary in order to identify the key areas to implement effective counter terrorism measures. It is difficult enough just to summarize this cycle, let alone do something about it. Be that as it may, here are the steps typically involved with this cycle (investigations into terrorist attacks have shown that these steps are typical regardless of the cause).

First there is an original grievance. Grievances are usually localized (food shortage, ethnic tensions, politics, environment, religion and so forth).

The charged emotions associated with this grievance become focused and joined with a more universal common objective that helps vent the charged emotions (e.g. radical Islam's hatred of the western world). The best defense against this step is limiting the ability of terrorists to traverse the globe. Keep the grievances and the emotions that are inflamed by them at the local level. The Privilege of Passage Plan, proposed by author John Errett is one such plan that would nip this step right in the bud.

The next step of the planning cycle is when this larger group starts to act by gathering information. This usually takes place over a significant period of time. No attack on any US facility has ever been done with less than 3 weeks worth of surveillance. This portion of the planning is vulnerable to discovery because very often amateur grassroots operatives are used to gather information. Experts recommend surveillance detection as the best form of defense against this stage.

Step three is picking a target that will create the biggest damage and commotion for the risk involved. Next there will be pre-attack surveillance to determine any missed information, calculate terrorist escape options, target habits and so forth. Usually better trained operatives are used for this stage of planning. Surveillance detection equipment is still beneficial here.

The planning stage of the attack involves getting the equipment (including weapons, false IDs, vehicles and so forth) and highly trained personnel needed to carry out the assault. When all this is done the group will conduct rehearsals to remove any potential glitches. They will need for example to verify information, instruct participants involved and test equipment. They will even try their escape routes. They can tweak their plan by considering any hypothetical scenarios that might occur.

Next the attack plan is implemented. They go to their specific locations and wait for the target to appear if it is a mobile target Continued surveillance by the group will be conducted to determine if the plan is a "go" or not. Unfortunately, if the terrorists get as far as the execution phases the odds of doing harm are in their favor. There is no doubt that first responders need ongoing advanced training to thwart plans at this stage but the best plan is to prevent terrorists from ever getting to this execution stage. The most effective counter terrorism plans will address stages 1 and 2.

Finally, after the damage has been done, there is usually an escape plan with the

exception of the fanatic (who even then may have second thoughts and try to escape). The terrorists will now want to use media coverage to further their political or religiously goals. This is why terrorist groups claim responsibility for their own attacks and sometimes even for attacks that they did not do as well. Very often the terrorists' plan includes having someone film the attack or the immediate aftermath of the attack so that it can be released to the media.

Today the reality of radical Islam is not "if" terrorists will attack the Western World, it is when (see the internet video "Obsession").

We must detect them and stop them in their initial phases of their planning process. We must stop them from organizing their local grievances and moving them across international borders. We must be determined to detect them before they have opportunity to cause terror. This is a responsibility that all nations share. All nations must be vigilant prepared and held accountable for issuing passports to known terrorists. This is not a matter that law enforcement and the intelligence services can do alone. We are a global community and must all join hands to affect, detect and stop terrorism.

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Iran Builds Support Among Muslim Nations

(category: Politics, Word count: 415)
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The U.S./Israel coalitions have been at odds with the Iranian government over Iran's nuclear program. Diplomatic efforts have soured over the U.S. Israeli belief that Iran is trying to develop nuclear weapons. Iran contends that the nuclear program is to make energy and resents any interference from countries deemed hostile to their cause. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad states that he is willing to talk about the program to anyone except Israel who has keeps "bombs over our head".

Iran has won support among many Muslim Leaders for his uranium enrichment program. Members whom Mahmoud Ahmadinejad spoke with included prime ministers from Indonesia, Pakistan, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia, Egypt and Bangladesh.

Although the meeting held on the island of Bali was to discuss ways to boost economic and political cooperation, alleviate poverty, restructure debt the discussion quickly swayed to Iran's stand off with Israel and the U.S. "Our people need to do more to help one another," and that Islamic countries should work together to increase the development of renewable and alternative energy resources stated Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhovono

To add to the complicated conflict an anonymous UN inspector pushed his political agenda by indicating that traces of highly enriched uranium of bomb making quality were found at a research center that works with the military. The statement was quickly rebuffed by an agent from the International Atomic Energy Association who clearly indicated that no such "high grade" uranium was found. He also went on to state that the uranium that was found was well below bomb making quality.

The European Union posted on their websites that their ministers were prepared to support Iran's nuclear energy program if international concerns could be resolved. Such a decision would further leave the U.S. and Israel at odds with the rest of the world.

Since the years of sanctions on Iraq, and the subsequent invasion that went against the grain of the international community, the U.S. and its close ally Israel have been further alienated from having a dominate opinion in international affairs. Due to the miss information handed to the public through traditional media sources such as CNN (hence the recent growth in alternative news sources) American's have been in great support of Israel. In blind furry politicians make decisions to support their ally without consideration to the validity, political fall-out or long term ramifications of doing so. Honesty, integrity and forethought should be considered before making international policy.

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How Taxing Utilities Can Keep Governments In Check

(category: Politics, Word count: 546)
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Under free market, all companies can talk all they want that all the stuff they put there is for my own good. However, if the product is overpriced or if it doesn't serve my interest to get the product, I just don't buy it.

No companies, full with corruption and inefficiency, will last in the market, unless it is governments companies.

The same mechanism doesn't apply to governments program.

Indonesian governments build airplanes. It doesn't make business sense. Then every one is required to buy air plane stocks. Then governments sell the planes to Indonesians' airways companies.

Bad business gets smaller, smaller, and gone. Bad governments business gets bigger and bigger. There is no check and balance mechanism whatsoever to ensure that when governments spend money the money worth spending.

When governments build public school, people simply says that it benefits the people. Yet, how do we know that the benefits worth the cost? Governments' public school can be plagued with corruption and efficiency. What are the intensives that the school boards will care about the kids' interests when deciding curriculum?

Recently we heard costly debate on whether evolution or creationism that should be taught in school. Face it. Do we care? Most of us would rather learn business or economy so we can make big bucks.

I took graduate level Math classes straight without prerequisites and got As easily. Do I need to pay expensive teachers? Different kids have different needs and capability that properly harvested can really cut down costs of education. How do governments' regulated system adapt to it?

However, the harm of governments' program can be greatly reduced by requiring anyone that uses it to pay for the utility. That way, if governments build a pyramid and no body visits it then we know that its money wasted.

The list can go on and on. Currently poor people use bikes and the rich use car. Yet governments pay to build roads. The usage of roads is proportional to the usage of gas. There will be less cars and more bicycle if governments tax gasoline and use the money to build roads. That way, people that work at home (like me) and save a lot of cash hence getting rich faster. The only time people will buy car is if it worth's to pay for the car and the road.

The exception to this principle is on business with economic of scale. Some Nobel winner, like John Nash, argues that deviation from competitive equilibrium is inefficient and encourages governments to actively split monopoly, or even create public monopoly. Some like Milton Friedman argues that even though it is true that some economic of scale is un-efficient. However, there's nothing you can do about it. After all, the only naturally occurring worldwide monopolies nowadays are diamond monopolies, which will be toppled if it goes too much. The market failures fail to exceed typical governments' failure.

Hence, I have no strong opinion.

If our country is full with corruption then cost for governments' failure is huge. So market mechanism is the way. If corruption rate is relatively low, we may be able to play around safely with some governments' intervention. Watch out for what Friedman says.

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Big Government Is Bad Government

(category: Politics, Word count: 571)
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As we move into the 21st century Western democracies are more and more becoming involved in the trivia of people's lives. All governments, no matter what their political leaning seem to be under the impression that they know what is best for each and every one of us. Instead of involving themselves in the great issues of the day they are increasingly legislating on details about how we conduct our lives on a daily basis. Instructing us on what generally we cannot do. Western societies are as a result becoming more and more restrictive. Vocal and active minorities have more and more influence over the legislators.

The vast majority of the populations are apathetic and hold no strong views one way or the other therefore the governments continue to march on eroding away at our liberties. The most worrying aspect of all of this is that the excuse used each time is that it is done for the benefit of all.

Government leaders are constantly heard to say or intimate that we know what is best for you because we can see the bigger picture, we understand all the issues. So they invade Iraq, ban fox hunting, ban smoking bring down the time limit on abortions. All have different reasons. Iraq and the reasons for invasion are still unclear; banning fox hunting because it is cruel; banning smoking because it is unhealthy; changing the time limit for abortions on moralistic grounds dressed up with medical science.

I would presume that this interference in our everyday lives is because the politicians can think of no big issues any more. All the great reforms have been carried out in the past.. Now we can only tinker at the edges whilst half the world spirals into chaos. Smoking in public places is banned in many countries because its effects on public health are too costly to the health services. Will eating in a public place be outlawed? Will failure to take adequate exercise be a punishable offence? Will being over a certain weight incur a massive fine? Obesity and its effects are far more costly on health services than those of smoking and alcohol combined.

Why is it that governments think that they must spend their entire time in office creating new laws?

Much of the legislation going through the UK parliament at the moment is modifying previous Acts of Parliament in order to make them better, more effective less costly and so it goes on. Why are they so inept at getting it right the first time?

Something major happens such as an outrageous event and we immediately have to have new laws and introduce more restrictions. Soon it seems we in the UK will have to have ID cards which we will have to purchase at great expense despite the fact that we do not want them. However ID cards will solve all our problems, criminals will always be tracked down and fraud will become a thing of the past. Terrorism will still happen but at least we will catch them afterwards because they will all have ID cards.

Perhaps governments should go on an extended holiday, have a break from all that hard work of thinking up new laws and they can then sit back and watch us plunge into chaos with a knowing smile and a final 'told you so, we know what's best'.

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Top 8 Des Bonnes Raisons De Jouer Au Casino

(category: Politics, Word count: 167)
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Lors de multiples discussions, il en est ressorti que ce qui motive une personne a jouer de plus en plus au casino et autres jeux d'argent est son rapport a la vie.

Pour ces dernieres, la vie elle meme est un jeu. Respirer est un jeu,sortir hors de chez soi est un jeu, bref, meme le quotidien est un jeu. mais le casino, quant a lui, nous offre des sensations uniques car les paris ne sont, contrairement aux mouvemet quotidiens,bases que sur le fruit du hasard. Le casino procure a l'homme une montee d'adrenaline hors norme. Le risque est donc plus fort.

Ainsi, de cette etude. il en est ressorti les resultats suivants:

Le temps des vacances:

Ces 10 dernieres annees, Las Vegas est devenue l'endroit populaire pour jouer en famille car a la mise en place de systeme de resort et d'attractions familiales.

Pour gagner et devenir riche :

De toutes personnes interview

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Is China S Economy Growing Too Fast

(category: Politics, Word count: 324)
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The President of China - Hu Jintao, announced Sunday that the economy grew faster than expected - 10.2 percent in the first quarter of 2006 compared with one year earlier, but said the government was concerned about overly rapid growth. Chinese leaders have warned repeatedly that rapid growth could spark inflation or leave the country littered with unneeded factories and luxury apartments, causing problems for banks that financed them. "We do not seek high-speed economic growth," Hu Jintao said during a meeting with a former Taiwan opposition leader in Beijing.

The Premier Wen Jiabao and other members of the State Council, or Cabinet, on Friday called for the policy changes after examining data on money supply and investment in buildings, factories and other fixed assets.

China plans to reduce its GDP from an annual average of 9.5 percent in the past 25 years to 7.5 percent in the next five years from 2006 to 2010 by improving economic quality and making domestic consumption the major driving force for economic growth.

Hu Jintao announced first quarter growth figures during a meeting with former head of Taiwan's Nationalist Party Lien Chan carried live on state-run television. China issued new rules allowing mainland tourists to visit Taiwan, continuing Beijing's efforts to court the disputed island with economic overtures, but it was unclear when any Chinese tourism to the island would start.

China announced possible aviation, agriculture and finance concessions to Taiwan at an economic forum in Beijing attended by Chinese Communist officials and Taiwanese opposition politicians. However Taiwan must accept it belongs to "one China" as the precondition for talks, Hu Jintao told Lien Chan, the former chairman of Taiwan's main opposition Nationalist Party, who led the delegation of business leaders and party officials to the two-day forum. Chinese President Hu Jintao says new talks with rival Taiwan should begin as soon as possible to maintain peace in the region.

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Insurance 101 Undermining America For The Good Of Americans

(category: Politics, Word count: 1218)
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Insurance is like a myth. From one small seed of truth, a fairytale the size of 1000 giant sequoias has sprung up. Reality is blocked from view. Surely, you've noticed all the giant, sequoia-like buildings are owned by banks and insurance companies. Where do they get all that money? How much money do the executives make? Who pays for it all? Grab a mirror. "Magic mirror on the wall, who's the biggest sucker of them all? What's that you said? The Masses!"

Insurance is yet another unquestioned social reflex. You just buy it. You must. The banker insists you have to purchase insurance or you don't get the loan. Your government orders you to buy auto insurance at any cost. Hence, it must be really good for you. Hell, why not stock up on some of the non-mandated insurances as well? You can't have too much of a good thing. Can you?

Somewhere in the dark, murky corners of our minds we hide our thoughts. Like The Emperor's New Clothes, no one screams out, "But he has nothing on!" or "Hey, this is just bullshit!" You are not alone in the darkness. We all think it. So you are no longer scared to speak, here are some of those secret thoughts voiced out loud for the first time:

1) If I speak out against insurance, I will be jinxed. My home will surely burn to the ground and I will look like a moron.

2) If I speak out against insurance, some pecker-head who heard me will have an accident and sue me because folks are not responsible for their own choices.

3) Insurance is betting against myself. Why would I bet against me?

4) If insurance companies must charge such high premiums because they're losing so much in payouts, how do they afford all those big buildings?

5) What do insurance companies sell? Air? Promises they intend to deny via small print? Contracts? Wouldn't I rather buy an IHOP franchise with that money?

6) If government represents the people, why do they make me, a people, a criminal when I cannot afford auto insurance to get to work and feed my family?

7) How much in dollars and perks do insurance lobbyists put into the pockets of politicians?

8) Do I really need trip-cancellation insurance? Why would I buy a dream trip, and then bet on my canceling it at the last moment?

9) If I put all the money I spend on insurance into the bank or toward building success, how much money would I have for coping with my problems on my own terms?

10) If I buy the extended warranty, will I remember I have it or be able to find it when my widget explodes?

11) Shouldn't companies make quality widgets that last three years in the first place?

12) And finally, did Jennifer Lopez really insure herself for hundreds of millions of dollars? What? She is already rich. The agent who sold this policy is phenomenal.

Yes, we all know the system is way out of hand! The blame lies with insurance companies, greedy bankers, spineless politicians and with the Masses unquestioningly supporting these absurdities. Every frivolous lawsuit provides government an excuse for mandating people be protected from themselves via costly insurances and removal of individual freedoms.

Before long, we will be required to carry Coffee-Burn riders on auto insurance and Cell- Phone-Earring-Tear addendums on HMOs. These days Sleeping Beauty would have sued the castle owner (a.k.a. Dad) for that prick on the finger, lost wages from the coma and for trauma from the scar. Uninsured sewing needles would be outlawed throughout the kingdom.

With a system this out of control, how do you protect yourself? You cut the fat. Quit betting against yourself. Think about all those different types of insurance. Stop buying out of reflex and decide for yourself what you can kick to the curb. Consider the variety out there and what you truly must have.

Life Insurance is for betting you will die such a loser that you can't pay for your own funeral or leave your kids any inheritance. Extra Car Insurance-How much you betting that you will crash? Not to mention, homeowner's, mortgage, trip cancellation, emergency evacuation, unemployment, boat, credit card, business interruption, earthquake, disability, dental, smoker, expatriate, backpack traveler, winter sports, flood, warranty and health insurance. The list goes on.

Here is a new monument to the ludicrous: Terrorist Insurance. It's even pushed at Art Gallery Owner's in isolated communities of the Northern Great Plains. And, why not? No doubt Osama is crouching in an Afghan cave right now, plotting to rid the world of those pesky Remmington Cowboy bronzes.

Insurance agents prey upon these new fears like snakes on wounded mice. Apparently, companies want to terrorize you into buying coverage. Another possibility is a rebel SCUD aimed for Mount Rushmore may slam into a Canada Goose and go askew. It sucks when this happens! No doubt your goat ranch in Chug Water, Wyoming is in eminent danger from this likely chain of events. Perhaps, you should add a specific 'Unpasteurized-Cheese Addendum' to your Terrorist Policy. Call your agent today and ask them. See if they will sell you one.

The odds of you dying of a mosquito bite are better than the odds you will die at the hands of a terrorist. Well, crap! The government better permit companies to require we all carry Mosquito Insurance. Maybe you can get a DEET discount! Better still; why not turn over all our bothersome responsibility, like freedom and privacy, to the Feds. Then good ol' Uncle Sam can protect citizens from the winged menaces that haunt our very souls.

Congress could raise taxes to fund Bug Inspectors. Their job would be to comb through your private life, home and property looking for freestanding water. They would not look for anything else (roll eyes here). Still cancer and glaucoma patients might want to keep the baggies away from the birdbath.

Speaking of cancer, the Air Force could spray us all from above with a perfectly "safe" mixture of insecticides called Agent Tan. Coincidently, that day your governor vacations far away. Is there anybody in his or her right mind who would elect an insurance salesman to public office? Of course, both politicians and insurers are selling you hot air, so perhaps it is a match made in H...

A very few insurances are worth buying, such as liability insurance for cars and real estate. Once you have something to lose, it's a sure bet some lazy troll with an entitlement-mentality will try to sue you. In this case, you want the giants on your side. Insurance companies provide lawyers to run evil little trolls back under their bridges.

Insurance prices in America are out of control. The wide range of insurance the bureaucracy would have us believe we cannot live without is genuinely insulting. Buying all the coverage companies would have you believe you need wastes thousands of your dollars each year. Look over policies and eliminate what you can. Insurance is just legalized gambling. If you are betting against yourself, how can you take a gamble on yourself? Pursue your dreams instead!

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Political Ideologies Pacifism

(category: Politics, Word count: 886)
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For pacifism one agrees tipologia of opinion, in ideological kind, founded on the conviction that the conflicts between various be communities(, etnie, etc.) or between various factions to the inside of the same community, they must be resolved without to resort to the military crash.

Therefore, the refusal, for most categorical, expressed from the supporters of the pacifism regards the war, that is that organized litigation between etnie or states or cultures, lead with the force, for economic reasons, acquisition of territory, obtaining of superiority or dominion, or other reasons, and that it comes fought from various individuals from those who decide it, and - for the great part - endured from still various persons. On all the other shapes of violence it would have to stop case for case, with the risk to generalize and therefore to banalize the concept. In so far as, it is well to avoid to carry out an any parallel between the interpersonal situations of war and conflicts, aspect, this, rather misleading within the arguments on the opportunities of the several strategies of conflict resolution. The only found likeness between a war conflict and an interpersonal one resides in the ascertainment that - as in international politics - the greater part of the interpersonal conflicts is not resolved at all with the violence, but in pacific ways (to pact to accept to consider the threats pacific means).

In other words, not only the pacifist thinks that the peace is a better option from the point of view moral: egli/ella he thinks that it he is also functional, that is - banally - that convene more, if the objective is to resolve a conflict.

An other element important to consider is the variety and the degree of effectiveness of the pacifist strategies of fight: it is not rare opinion that, to part celebre the example of Gandhi, not is important examples of efficient pacifism. In truth, the picture is very different, and touches circumstances and contexts many several for times and ways (some scattered examples:

During II the World war, to the next day of the German occupation of Norway, the schools opposed not violent resistance to the nazis. The Germans imposed they didactic charter in 1941: teaching struck, supports to you from parents, pupils and from the churches. More than thousands teaching they were it arrests and it sendes to you to you in the concentration camps, in the north of the country. Hundreds were tortured, but least they will yield. In the 1942 it arrests to it to you came rilasciati and that same autumn the schools reopened without the nazi programs.

In Denmark, always during nazism, when the racial laws were proclamate, all the people it was opposed. When the order was given to write "Jude" on the display windows of the Hebrew storees, all the traders - also the not Hebrew ones - wrote. When it was sets up the yellow star to the Hebrew, all the population, to begin from the king, made equally. To the end, Denmark can boast the percentage and the number of Hebrew deports to you in the lower concentration camps of II the world war.

During XIX the century, inHungary dominated fromAustria, the churches protestants endured a hard repression. To the processes against bishops and shepherds it arrests, the students made solidarity manifestations to you, in total Hush and dressed of black. The entire people made nonviolent resistance for independence of the country. They were boycotts the products to you Austrians; nobody paid the taxes. In 1866, the emperor Francisco Giuseppe introduced the military conscription for the war against the Prussia: nobody was introduced. In 1867, Hungary obtained independence.

Always in XIX the century, Norway obtained independence from Sweden with exclusively not violent means, above all for the fundamental mediation of subsequently the Prize Nobel Fridtjof Nansen.

The cited examples belong to situations substantially already hasty, that the not ago justice to the pacifism idea therefore as would go understanding, that it adds, to the attempt to resolve conflicts already starts to you, two main contexts:

Those in which not violent means (diplomacy, manifestations, deal and quant' other to you) have avoided ' in via preventiva' that a situation fell. This portion of events goes considered the greater force of the pacifism, even if less eclatante;

those in which the use of the war the example Israel - Palestine has been demonstrated incapable to resolve the conflict( are sin too much paradigmatico), putting more than other to knot the complex net of economic interests that wheel around the war industry.

The tension between supporters of the peace and supporters of the armed conflict today is replaced from a shape of apparently more tenuous contrast, but in truth much similar one. To prettamente dialectic level, the old figure of ' guerrafondaio' is probably passing to the end of the Second World war, replaced from that thinnest one of the supporter of the badly necessary one, that is of who it thinks that determined situations they catch up a such state of deterioration from painfully being able to be resolved () only with an armed conflict. The contesa intellectual it today seems to carry out itself on this land.

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