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What Is The Element Molybdenum Used For

(category: Science, Word count: 425)
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Molybdenum is from the Greek word molybdos meaning "lead like." It is directly mined and is a byproduct of copper mining. It was used very infrequently up until the 19th century when Schneider and Co decided to use Molybdenum as an alloying agent in steel. Today there are many uses of molybdenum.

Molybdenum is still used as an alloy agent in steel. All high strength steel contains from .25% to 8% molybdenum which contributes to the hardenability of the steel. It also improves the strength of steel under high temperatures and improves resistance to corrosion.

Steel with molybdenum is used in architectural applications near the ocean; and in environments where road salts are used and there is heavy industrial pollution. The Petrons Towers in Kuala Lumpur are a great example of the use of molybdenum stainless steel.

Nuclear energy applications also use molybdenum as do many aircraft parts and missile parts. It's a catalyst in petroleum refining; in fact it is one of the most valuable. It is also used as a filament material in electrical applications and on electrodes for glass furnaces that are electrically heated. It is a good lubricant that will work in temperatures much higher than oil without decomposing.

Its uses are actually more in-depth than one might think. You'll find it commonly used within the power industry, chemical processing industry, water industry, and wastewater industry. It is also used in construction, building, and architecture; which one might have guessed considering its association to steel. And you will find it in the food industry which seems a bit unusual.

Molybdenum is used to harden and strengthen cast iron. It accomplishes this by changing the pearlite temperature. The use of molybdenum eliminates the need for special heat treatments.

Molybdenum is also used in nickel based alloys, which includes jet engines. It strengthens the nickel alloy and extends the service temperature. This combination is considered a super alloy. Over 1/3 of a jet engine's weight is made up of this super alloy.

Molybdenum is a silvery white metal that is very hard. However it is more ductile and softer than tungsten. It has a very high melting point. In fact the only other two metals that have a higher melting point are tantalum and tungsten. Its prime use is in the hardenability and tempering of metals such as steel. It is not a product most of us will ever have direct involvement with but we will likely encounter it in a more subtle manner.

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An Overview Of The Sun

(category: Science, Word count: 369)
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The Sun is the centerpiece of our solar system, the gravity force that keeps everything together. Here is an overview of this source of our existence.

An Overview of the Sun

The Sun is a star, one of billions in the known universe. It is similar to other stars you see in the night sky, but is prominent in our lives because we orbit it once every 365 days.

The process pivotal in the creation of the Sun goes on to this very day. Roughly 4.5 billion years ago, a massive gas cloud surrounded by dust began to compress. As one small part gained in density, it started to produce a small gravitational pull. Over time, this sucked the rest of the gas and dust into an increasingly smaller area. Nobody is sure what first set off the gravity movement, but it may have been a supernova.

As the disk of material compressed, it created more gravity and sucked in more material. With spin induced, the disk produced heat. Throw in a bit of helium and trace elements and you have a cauldron that eventually became our Sun.

The actual process that fuels our Sun is called fusion. Fusion is fueled by the elements of the Sun to create what is essentially a ball of plasma. The atomic elements that act as fuel for this process are hydrogen and helium atoms. Hydrogen makes up roughly 74 percent of the mass of the Sun. Helium makes up roughly 24 percent. The remaining one percent consists of trace elements such as iron.

As to pure measurements, the Sun is pretty impressive. It does not have a solid surface, but it is generally considered to have a diameter of 864,900 miles. As a matter of comparison, the Earth has a diameter of some 7,900 miles. Every second, the Sun converts approximately 5 million tons of matter into energy. The outer layer of the sun averages roughly 11,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature at the core of the sun is 27 million degrees Fahrenheit.

The sun is expected to continue to keep burning for another 4.5 to 5 billion years. Break out the sun block!

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Lasik Eye Surgery And The Benefits Of The Procedure

(category: Science, Word count: 380)
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LASIK (Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis) is a common type of eye surgery that many are using to be able to decrease their dependency on glasses and contact lenses.

LASIK is a method of refractive surgery that is a regular procedure, often used for treating nearsightedness. Its popularity is due to the improvement of vision, without the major side effects that other eye surgery methods may produce.

With the eye being one of the most sensitive areas of the body, it might be somewhat surprising to learn that the LASIK procedure is relatively simple. In fact it's not uncommon for those patients that have undergone the procedure to be working again the following day.

The eye is firstly washed out with a solution to numb the area. The next step is to hold the eyelids open using clamps. This will prevent blinking. After the solution begins to take effect, the surgeon will make an incision in the cornea. Once enough tissue is removed using the laser, the surgeon can then close where the incision is made, and the procedure is complete.

The benefits of LASIK eye surgery is there for all to see (excuse the pun!). Thousands of people have undergone the procedure, but for some the apprehension to go through with eye surgery may be attributed to the main benefits not being made clear, which are mainly two-fold:

1) The possibility to live life without the need for glasses or contact lenses.

2) An increase in the quality of vision.

The cost of having LASIK eye surgery performed can vary. The price depends on factors such as the equipment used for the surgery and also the testing carried out before the procedure. You may find that different providers will perform different levels of testing, so ensure that you research into different providers and find out what is included in the price. Of course you cannot put a price on your vision, but there is certainly no harm in discovering which provider offers the required features in the quoted price. One point that must be considered though is to find a surgeon that has experience with the procedure. Do not simply opt for the cheapest as they may not necessarily be the best.

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We Don T Know What We Are Talking About Nobel Laureate David Gross

(category: Science, Word count: 827)
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Last December ('05), physicists held the 23rd Solvay Conference in Brussels, Belgium. Amongst the many topics covered in the conference was the subject matter of string theory. This theory combines the apparently irreconcilable domains of quantum physics and relativity. David Gross a Nobel Laureate made some startling statements about the state of physics including: "We don't know what we are talking about" whilst referring to string theory as well as "The state of physics today is like it was when we were mystified by radioactivity."

The Nobel Laureate is a heavyweight in this field having earned a prize for work on the strong nuclear force and he indicated that what is happening today is very similar to what happened at the 1911 Solvay meeting. Back then, radioactivity had recently been discovered and mass energy conservation was under assault because of its discovery. Quantum theory would be needed to solve these problems. Gross further commented that in 1911 "They were missing something absolutely fundamental," as well as "we are missing perhaps something as profound as they were back then."

Coming from a scientist with establishment credentials this is a damning statement about the state of current theoretical models and most notably string theory. This theoretical model is a means by which physicists replace the more commonly known particles of particle physics with one dimensional objects which are known as strings. These bizarre objects were first detected in 1968 through the insight and work of Gabriele Veneziano who was trying to comprehend the strong nuclear force.

Whilst meditating on the strong nuclear force Veneziano detected a similarity between the Euler Beta Function, named for the famed mathematician Leonhard Euler, and the strong force. Applying the aforementioned Beta Function to the strong force he was able to validate a direct correlation between the two. Interestingly enough, no one knew why Euler's Beta worked so well in mapping the strong nuclear force data. A proposed solution to this dilemma would follow a few years later.

Almost two years later (1970), the scientists Nambu, Nielsen and Susskind provided a mathematical description which described the physical phenomena of why Euler's Beta served as a graphical outline for the strong nuclear force. By modeling the strong nuclear forces as one dimensional strings they were able to show why it all seemed to work so well. However, several troubling inconsistencies were immediately seen on the horizon. The new theory had attached to it many implications that were in direct violation of empirical analyses. In other words, routine experimentation did not back up the new theory.

Needless to say, physicists romantic fascination with string theory ended almost as fast as it had begun only to be resuscitated a few years later by another 'discovery.' The worker of the miraculous salvation of the sweet dreams of modern physicists was known as the graviton. This elementary particle allegedly communicates gravitational forces throughout the universe.

The graviton is of course a 'hypothetical' particle that appears in what are known as quantum gravity systems. Unfortunately, the graviton has never ever been detected; it is as previously indicated a 'mythical' particle that fills the mind of the theorist with dreams of golden Nobel Prizes and perhaps his or her name on the periodic table of elements.

But back to the historical record. In 1974, the scientists Schwarz, Scherk and Yoneya reexamined strings so that the textures or patterns of strings and their associated vibrational properties were connected to the aforementioned 'graviton.' As a result of these investigations was born what is now called 'bosonic string theory' which is the 'in vogue' version of this theory. Having both open and closed strings as well as many new important problems which gave rise to unforeseen instabilities.

These problematical instabilities leading to many new difficulties which render the previous thinking as confused as we were when we started this discussion. Of course this all started from undetectable gravitons which arise from other theories equally untenable and inexplicable and so on. Thus was born string theory which was hoped would provide a complete picture of the basic fundamental principles of the universe.

Scientists had believed that once the shortcomings of particle physics had been left behind by the adoption of the exotic string theory, that a grand unified theory of everything would be an easily ascertainable goal. However, what they could not anticipate is that the theory that they hoped would produce a theory of everything would leave them more confused and frustrated than they were before they departed from particle physics.

The end result of string theory is that we know less and less and are becoming more and more confused. Of course, the argument could be made that further investigations will yield more relevant data whereby we will tweak the model to an eventual perfecting of our understanding of it. Or perhaps 'We don't know what we are talking about.'

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Eugenics And The Future Of The Human Species

(category: Science, Word count: 1966)
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"It is clear that modern medicine has created a serious dilemma ... In the past, there were many children who never survived - they succumbed to various diseases ... But in a sense modern medicine has put natural selection out of commission. Something that has helped one individual over a serious illness can in the long run contribute to weakening the resistance of the whole human race to certain diseases. If we pay absolutely no attention to what is called hereditary hygiene, we could find ourselves facing a degeneration of the human race. Mankind's hereditary potential for resisting serious disease will be weakened."

Jostein Gaarder in "Sophie's World", a bestselling philosophy textbook for adolescents published in Oslo, Norway, in 1991 and, afterwards, throughout the world, having been translated to dozens of languages.

The Nazis regarded the murder of the feeble-minded and the mentally insane - intended to purify the race and maintain hereditary hygiene - as a form of euthanasia. German doctors were enthusiastic proponents of an eugenics movements rooted in 19th century social Darwinism. Luke Gormally writes, in his essay "Walton, Davies, and Boyd" (published in "Euthanasia Examined - Ethical, Clinical, and Legal Perspectives", ed. John Keown, Cambridge University Press, 1995):

"When the jurist Karl Binding and the psychiatrist Alfred Hoche published their tract The Permission to Destroy Life that is Not Worth Living in 1920 ... their motive was to rid society of the 'human ballast and enormous economic burden' of care for the mentally ill, the handicapped, retarded and deformed children, and the incurably ill. But the reason they invoked to justify the killing of human beings who fell into these categories was that the lives of such human beings were 'not worth living', were 'devoid of value'"

It is this association with the hideous Nazi regime that gave eugenics - a term coined by a relative of Charles Darwin, Sir Francis Galton, in 1883 - its bad name. Richard Lynn, of the University of Ulster of North Ireland, thinks that this recoil resulted in "Dysgenics - the genetic deterioration of modern (human) population", as the title of his controversial tome puts it.

The crux of the argument for eugenics is that a host of technological, cultural, and social developments conspired to give rise to negative selection of the weakest, least intelligent, sickest, the habitually criminal, the sexually deviant, the mentally-ill, and the least adapted.

Contraception is more widely used by the affluent and the well-educated than by the destitute and dull. Birth control as practiced in places like China distorted both the sex distribution in the cities - and increased the weight of the rural population (rural couples in China are allowed to have two children rather than the urban one).

Modern medicine and the welfare state collaborate in sustaining alive individuals - mainly the mentally retarded, the mentally ill, the sick, and the genetically defective - who would otherwise have been culled by natural selection to the betterment of the entire species.

Eugenics may be based on a literal understanding of Darwin's metaphor.

The 2002 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica has this to say:

"Darwin's description of the process of natural selection as the survival of the fittest in the struggle for life is a metaphor. 'Struggle' does not necessarily mean contention, strife, or combat; 'survival' does not mean that ravages of death are needed to make the selection effective; and 'fittest' is virtually never a single optimal genotype but rather an array of genotypes that collectively enhance population survival rather than extinction. All these considerations are most apposite to consideration of natural selection in humans. Decreasing infant and childhood mortality rates do not necessarily mean that natural selection in the human species no longer operates. Theoretically, natural selection could be very effective if all the children born reached maturity. Two conditions are needed to make this theoretical possibility realized: first, variation in the number of children per family and, second, variation correlated with the genetic properties of the parents. Neither of these conditions is farfetched."

The eugenics debate is only the visible extremity of the Man vs. Nature conundrum. Have we truly conquered nature and extracted ourselves from its determinism? Have we graduated from natural to cultural evolution, from natural to artificial selection, and from genes to memes?

Does the evolutionary process culminate in a being that transcends its genetic baggage, that programs and charts its future, and that allows its weakest and sickest to survive? Supplanting the imperative of the survival of the fittest with a culturally-sensitive principle may be the hallmark of a successful evolution, rather than the beginning of an inexorable decline.

The eugenics movement turns this argument on its head. They accept the premise that the contribution of natural selection to the makeup of future human generations is glacial and negligible. But they reject the conclusion that, having ridden ourselves of its tyranny, we can now let the weak and sick among us survive and multiply. Rather, they propose to replace natural selection with eugenics.

But who, by which authority, and according to what guidelines will administer this man-made culling and decide who is to live and who is to die, who is to breed and who may not? Why select by intelligence and not by courtesy or altruism or church-going - or al of them together? It is here that eugenics fails miserably. Should the criterion be physical, like in ancient Sparta? Should it be mental? Should IQ determine one's fate - or social status or wealth? Different answers yield disparate eugenic programs and target dissimilar groups in the population.

Aren't eugenic criteria liable to be unduly influenced by fashion and cultural bias? Can we agree on a universal eugenic agenda in a world as ethnically and culturally diverse as ours? If we do get it wrong - and the chances are overwhelming - will we not damage our gene pool irreparably and, with it, the future of our species?

And even if many will avoid a slippery slope leading from eugenics to active extermination of "inferior" groups in the general population - can we guarantee that everyone will? How to prevent eugenics from being appropriated by an intrusive, authoritarian, or even murderous state?

Modern eugenicists distance themselves from the crude methods adopted at the beginning of the last century by 29 countries, including Germany, The United States, Canada, Switzerland, Austria, Venezuela, Estonia, Argentina, Norway, Denmark, Sweden (until 1976), Brazil, Italy, Greece, and Spain.

They talk about free contraceptives for low-IQ women, vasectomies or tubal ligations for criminals, sperm banks with contributions from high achievers, and incentives for college students to procreate. Modern genetic engineering and biotechnology are readily applicable to eugenic projects. Cloning can serve to preserve the genes of the fittest. Embryo selection and prenatal diagnosis of genetically diseased embryos can reduce the number of the unfit.

But even these innocuous variants of eugenics fly in the face of liberalism. Inequality, claim the proponents of hereditary amelioration, is genetic, not environmental. All men are created unequal and as much subject to the natural laws of heredity as are cows and bees. Inferior people give birth to inferior offspring and, thus, propagate their inferiority.

Even if this were true - which is at best debatable - the question is whether the inferior specimen of our species possess the inalienable right to reproduce? If society is to bear the costs of over-population - social welfare, medical care, daycare centers - then society has the right to regulate procreation. But does it have the right to act discriminately in doing so?

Another dilemma is whether we have the moral right - let alone the necessary knowledge - to interfere with natural as well as social and demographic trends. Eugenicists counter that contraception and indiscriminate medicine already do just that. Yet, studies show that the more affluent and educated a population becomes - the less fecund it is. Birth rates throughout the world have dropped dramatically already.

Instead of culling the great unwashed and the unworthy - wouldn't it be a better idea to educate them (or their off-spring) and provide them with economic opportunities (euthenics rather than eugenics)? Human populations seem to self-regulate. A gentle and persistent nudge in the right direction - of increased affluence and better schooling - might achieve more than a hundred eugenic programs, voluntary or compulsory.

That eugenics presents itself not merely as a biological-social agenda, but as a panacea, ought to arouse suspicion. The typical eugenics text reads more like a catechism than a reasoned argument. Previous all-encompassing and omnicompetent plans tended to end traumatically - especially when they contrasted a human elite with a dispensable underclass of persons.

Above all, eugenics is about human hubris. To presume to know better than the lottery of life is haughty. Modern medicine largely obviates the need for eugenics in that it allows even genetically defective people to lead pretty normal lives. Of course, Man himself - being part of Nature - may be regarded as nothing more than an agent of natural selection. Still, many of the arguments advanced in favor of eugenics can be turned against it with embarrassing ease.

Consider sick children. True, they are a burden to society and a probable menace to the gene pool of the species. But they also inhibit further reproduction in their family by consuming the financial and mental resources of the parents. Their genes - however flawed - contribute to genetic diversity. Even a badly mutated phenotype sometimes yields precious scientific knowledge and an interesting genotype.

The implicit Weltbild of eugenics is static - but the real world is dynamic. There is no such thing as a "correct" genetic makeup towards which we must all strive. A combination of genes may be perfectly adaptable to one environment - but woefully inadequate in another. It is therefore prudent to encourage genetic diversity or polymorphism.

The more rapidly the world changes, the greater the value of mutations of all sorts. One never knows whether today's maladaptation will not prove to be tomorrow's winner. Ecosystems are invariably comprised of niches and different genes - even mutated ones - may fit different niches.

In the 18th century most peppered moths in Britain were silvery gray, indistinguishable from lichen-covered trunks of silver birches - their habitat. Darker moths were gobbled up by rapacious birds. Their mutated genes proved to be lethal. As soot from sprouting factories blackened these trunks - the very same genes, hitherto fatal, became an unmitigated blessing. The blacker specimen survived while their hitherto perfectly adapted fairer brethren perished ("industrial melanism"). This mode of natural selection is called directional.

Moreover, "bad" genes are often connected to "desirable genes" (pleitropy). Sickle cell anemia protects certain African tribes against malaria. This is called "diversifying or disruptive natural selection". Artificial selection can thus fast deteriorate into adverse selection due to ignorance.

Modern eugenics relies on statistics. It is no longer concerned with causes - but with phenomena and the likely effects of intervention. If the adverse traits of off-spring and parents are strongly correlated - then preventing parents with certain undesirable qualities from multiplying will surely reduce the incidence of said dispositions in the general population. Yet, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. The manipulation of one parameter of the correlation does not inevitably alter it - or the incidence of the outcome.

Eugenicists often hark back to wisdom garnered by generations of breeders and farmers. But the unequivocal lesson of thousands of years of artificial selection is that cross-breeding (hybridization) - even of two lines of inferior genetic stock - yields valuable genotypes. Inter-marriage between races, groups in the population, ethnic groups, and clans is thus bound to improve the species' chances of survival more than any eugenic scheme.

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The Basics Of A Remanufactured Engine

(category: Science, Word count: 420)
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Even if the commercials seen on TV might make you believe that an engine can run forever, that is not really true, any engine wears out eventually. The engine under the bonnet of your car is composed of many moving parts that are projected to work together and harness the internal combustion power under those brutal conditions. When the engine fails, a good idea would be to think about a remanufactured replacement engine.

A remanufactured engine can be a way to keep driving your trusty car even after an engine failure. Before making a decision whatever you want a remanufactured engine installed or not you must make sure the rest of the vehicle is in good condition, as well as other systems on the vehicle. If you replace the engine on a car that has a damaged fuel of cooling system then that would be a very time consuming and expensive mistake if not correct. If your vehicle is in good shape, or you have recently made an investment in major components on the car and the engine died, then a remanufactured replacement engine is the option you need to choose.

Rebuilt engine is a very relative term; slip-shod methods of rebuilding the engine can not be trusted when it comes to rebuilding the engine. If you want your engine to be properly rebuilt you need to make sure the job is done by professional machinists. Not everybody has the capital to purchases the proper machines and equipment required to correctly remanufacture an engine and the skills that are required are not easily learned. If the engine is correctly rebuilt it might even be better than the original one.

The engine removal and replacement is not an easy job and a proper facility and experience are required. If the engine comes with a warranty then you'll need to make sure that proper installation and break-in procedures are followed to validate and stay in compliance with the warranty. Cleaning and checking the reused components is a must. The oiling system of the engine must be primed properly before staring. There are many variables that if not checked and done properly might spell the end of the engine before it even gets a chance to start, such an example is a loss in oil pressure.

If you choose to install a remanufactured engine in an otherwise good vehicle, it will provide years of uninterrupted service at a very low cost compared to purchasing a new vehicle.

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Help Teach Teens Math Counts Every Day

(category: Science, Word count: 712)
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Many parents may admit math was not their favorite subject in high school. Many may also admit that math now plays an important role in their lives and careers-and will be necessary for their own children's futures.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, by 2014, 6.3 million jobs will require science, engineering or technical training-24 percent more than in 2004. These statistics show that today's middle and high school students will need a strong math background to be competitive in the job market.

Spending time with teens to make math relevant to them now can help them build strong math competencies to achieve success later. So how can parents engage their teens in math-focused activities that both can enjoy?

Here are tips to help parents capture their teens' and preteens' interest and make math matter in many ways, through encouragement, entertainment and empowerment.

Make It Real

Leading by example is a powerful influencer. Showing how math is used everyday can help teens understand its importance to their every day lives outside of the classroom. Are you cooking dinner tonight? Have your teen measure out the ingredients and ask questions on measurements if a recipe was doubled. Need to pay the bills? Have them do the math to calculate balances and budgets. Ready to purchase your teen's first car? Sit down with him or her to figure out financing, insurance rates, monthly gas expenses and maintenance costs.

Turn On The Television

Use examples from TV and movies to show how math can be entertaining and exciting. One program that mixes entertainment with education is "We All Use Math Every Day™," which provides free lessons based on the math used to solve crimes in CBS' hit series "NUMB3RS" on Friday nights. More than 28,000 teachers around the nation have signed up for this program for high school students developed by Texas Instruments in partnership with CBS and in association with the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM).

Order a pizza, tune into the show with your teen, and discuss how math helped solve the crimes to make a Friday TV night that's both fun and educational. If your child's teachers aren't using the classroom activities, encourage them to do so. Visit numb3rs for details, as well as more parenting tips from education experts.

Take A Trip

Many popular tourist attractions also help stimulate young minds. When traveling on a family vacation or simply exploring the sights in your own town, visit math and science exhibits in museums, learning centers, colleges or zoos to show how math relates to teens' interests and hobbies.

When on vacation, ask your teen to create the day's agenda, calculate the shortest walking or driving routes to visit the attractions, or figure out currency exchange rates.

Test The "Truth"

Beyond balancing a checkbook, math teaches analytical and problem-solving skills that are necessary throughout life. Showing teens how to challenge what they are told by analyzing facts and figures in the media and on the Internet will teach them to test statements and think beyond conventional wisdom. Go through the newspaper or online news sites and discuss articles or current issues of interest to your teen. Challenge them to re-create the statistics used to support each side of a debate, or to double-check the charts and graphs for accuracy.

Take the Maximum

Helping teens plan their math education early on can make an impact on their educational and career opportunities later in life. The requirement for a strong math background is no longer just for engineers and scientists, and parents must plan ahead to ensure that their teens are prepared, no matter what career they choose.

Just like English and reading, math coursework builds on concepts learned in earlier grades. Teens need to take a math class every year from middle school through graduation to ensure the most opportunities remain open to them later in life. Know what math courses the schools offer and encourage teens to take classes that challenge them every year, regardless of their school's minimum requirements.

By working with teens to show how math is relevant every day, parents can help ensure their children's personal and professional success in the future.

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The Bio Ethanol Fuel Dilemma A Qualitative Research

(category: Science, Word count: 395)
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Bio-fuels are non-fossil fuels, produced from agriculture sources, residues, and waste. Bio-ethanol refers to ethanol produced from crops (e.g., corn-ethanol and sugar-ethanol) and from waste (i.e., biomass-ethanol). "The motivation for developing bio-ethanol as a transportation fuel is based on concerns about energy security, environmental quality, economic competitiveness, and stabilization of the agricultural sector." (National Research Council [NRC], 1999, p. 6) Brazil's three-decade experience in sugarcane-ethanol is considered a success by its government, although criticized by some researchers (Pimentel, 2001; Pimentel et al., 2002). Corn-ethanol production in North America is highly controversial; its cost, its energy balance, and its socio-economical effects are strongly debated between researchers. Biomass-ethanol, produced from farm and municipality waste is still in its early technological and industrial development. This quantitative research presents and analyzes the arguments, and concludes with recommendations for the short- and the long-term; recommendations that are best suited? for North America and that take into account all the aspects presented in this research paper.

Corn-ethanol is not expected, and will never replace the fossil-gasoline consumption in North America, but could only be an alternative for up-to-fifteen percents at most: "increased production of ethanol from corn is a low-risk, viable short term solution" (Herwick & Wheeler, 2005, p. 28). Biomass-ethanol, in contrast to corn-ethanol, could be "an effective strategy for displacing petroleum.... Ultimately, producing ethanol from biomass will be more cost effective and necessary to achieve significant volume.... In total, 66B [billion] to 107B gallon of ethanol could be produced annually from [all sources of] biomass: it would be sufficient to support E60 to E70 [i.e., 60 to 70 percent of liquid fuel consumption], [and] displace approximately half of the petroleum used" (Herwick & Wheeler, 2005, pp. 27-28). Nevertheless, the technology for economical production of biomass-ethanol is still in early development, and President George W. Bush's pledge, in his January 29th, 2006, State of the Union Address "to fund the research on cutting-edge methods of producing [biomass] ethanol" (Energy Policy Act, 2005; U.S. Energy Bill, 2005) is key to achieving the goal of producing 7.5 billion gallons of bio-ethanol in 2015.

Addressing the problem of energy crisis in general, the 2005 symposium concludes that "the reality is that we can no longer just drill our way to global energy security. We must innovate our way to energy security

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Cassini Confirms Enceladus Plume Responsible For E Ring Of Saturn

(category: Science, Word count: 501)
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The Cassini-Huygens exploration of Saturn, a seven-year joint venture of NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency, is realizing more surprising discoveries. In addition to discovering that Cassini is geologically active in contrast to its nearby neighbor Mimas, Cassini has now proven that it is Enceladus indeed that is responsible for the E ring of Saturn. The E ring of Saturn is Saturn's broadest, faintest ring.

Enceladus is a small moon 314 miles across that so bright it reflects nearly one hundred percent of its heat. For this reason, it is a very cold moon, with a temperature of near minus 330 degrees Fahrenheit. Its orbit is influenced under the large gravitational pull of Saturn as well as the gravitational influence of large nearby moons Tethys and Dione. Previous voyages by Voyager as well as Cassini have shown it to be a moon having sharp geological contrasts over its surface for a moon of such small size.

It has long been speculated that Enceladus has somehow been responsible for the E ring of Saturn. An ice particle stream propelled by water vapor was first detected through the use of the High Rate Detector (HRD) of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) on Cassini's approach of 286 miles in July. However it was not confirmed until November 26, 2005 when Cassini made the closest approach of any of Saturn's moons yet. This orbit of 109 miles used infrared detection to confirm the ejection of ice particles in a plume from the south pole.

This plume of ice particles confirms a theory proposed that Enceladus is a source of the fine ice particles responsible for making up one of Saturn's rings, the E ring. The E ring is composed of ice particles near the 3 micron range. The average size of particles emitted by Enceladus is in the 10 micron range. However, this theory is still consistent because the largest particles are believed to be too large to escape the moon's gravity. The medium-sized particles probably leave the atmosphere but are pulled back before fully escaping. Only the finest, tiniest particles of the plume make it out to form the E ring.

Enceladus is very similar to a comet in the way it ejects ice particles. The difference lies in the fact that in a comet the ice is warmed by sunlight. The source of Enceladus's heat is largely unknown. Some sort of internal mechanism, possibly a tidal force or a radioactive mechanism, is creating an enormous amount of heat for such a small moon. This is the wonderful unsolved mystery behind Enceladus, and the ultimate reason for the existence of Saturn's E ring.

1)Enceladus Erupting - A Nasa Report - 12-7-05

2)Enceladus Plume - Jet Propulsion Laboratory - 12-6-05

3)Possible Source of E Ring - Bill Arnett - 2-17-05

4)Saturn: Moons: Enceladus - Nasa: Solar Systems Exploration - 10-6-03

5)Enceladus's Tiger Stripes are Really Cubs - Nasa Release

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