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What Is Forensic Psychology

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In recent years forensic psychology and related topics such as criminal profiling have been the subject of a whole host of books, films and television series. While this has undoubtedly raised the profile of forensic psychology, the subject has often been presented in a distorted, sensationalised and inaccurate way.

With this very much in mind, this article outlines what you need to be aware of in order to provide a satisfactory answer to the question, what is forensic psychology?

When my students arrived for their first lecture, I would always start by giving them 10 minutes to write down an answer to the question what is forensic psychology? Before reading on, why not quickly write down what you think forensic psychology is.

The reason I did this was because despite the fact that every single undergraduate psychology student (about 180 of them) chose to do the forensic psychology course, not one of them came to see me in advance to ask what the course was about. Now bear in mind students chose their optional courses well in advance of the start date, and in order to make an informed choice they were all strongly advised to speak to the lecturer running the courses they were interested in before making a final decision.

So why the no show?

I suspect, actually I know because I discussed it with the students afterwards, that they didn't feel they had to find out what forensic psychology is, because they already had a preconceived idea.

I mentioned that at the start of the first lecture I would give students 10 minutes to write down an answer to the question what is forensic psychology. What I didn't mention, however, is that after about 2 minutes I would ask for their attention and apologise for forgetting to tell them that they weren't allowed to use the words serial killers or silence of the lambs in their answer. It was usually as this point that most of the writing in the lecture theatre stopped.

If you're thinking I would have stopped writing as well, please contain your disappointment and don't rush off just yet. The answer to the question, what is forensic psychology may not quite be what you thought, but that doesn't mean that the subject has to be any less engaging.

The first thing to appreciate when addressing the question is that even psychologists in the field are divided as to what the answer is. The division of criminological and legal psychology within the British Psychological Society argued for twenty years as to whether their members should be entitled to call themselves Chartered Forensic Psychologists. It was finally agreed that they should, however, there still remains a great deal of debate and controversy surrounding the issue.

The central problem is that its members are drawn from a wide range of disciplines, so it is always difficult to state what the boundaries are when you talk of Forensic Psychology.

A fragmented discipline?

Psychologists in the prison/correctional services. Clinical psychologists in special hospitals & the psychiatric services. Educational psychologists. Occupational psychologists. Academics

Now while it is important to acknowledge that this fragmentation of role exists, it is just as important to realise that these different groups are linked to forensic psychology because their work, expert knowledge or research activity is somehow connected with the law.

This legal connection makes perfect sense when you consider that the word forensic comes from the Latin forensis, which literally means appertaining to the forum, specifically the imperial court of Rome. So in essence:

The debate as to what is and what isn't forensic psychology rests primarily on the nature of psychology's relationship with the legal system.

Let me give you an example, imagine 2 clinical psychologists meet at a conference and they begin talking about the work they do. The first psychologist tells the second that she recently gave expert testimony in court arguing that the defendant in a murder case was criminally insane; the judge and jury agreed and having been found guilty on the grounds of diminished responsibility the defendant was going to be sent to a secure psychiatric unit. Now there's a coincidence the second psychologist says I work in the unit where they're sending him, so I'll be dealing and treating this guy when he arrives.

So here you have a situation where two psychologists are linked to the legal system by way of a legal decision and you could argue, therefore, that both deserve to be seen as engaging in Forensic Psychology. However, there's a crucial difference.

The first psychologist actually helped inform the legal decision based on her psychological knowledge and expertise. The second psychologists' involvement on the other hand arose as a consequence of a legal decision that she had no direct influence over.

My preferred forensic psychology definition acknowledges this key distinction, namely:

That branch of applied psychology which is concerned with the collection, examination and presentation of evidence for judicial purposes' (Haward 1981).

If you adopt this definition you are stating categorically that Forensic Psychology relates to:

The provision of psychological information for the purpose of facilitating a legal decision (Blackburn 1996).

So in the case of our two psychologists, strictly speaking only the first can be said to be engaged in Forensic Psychology.

Not everybody would agree with this, because there is a school of thought that would claim that any activity that links psychology to the law deserves to be described as Forensic. I'm not going to try and convince you which is right, although I do have a strong opinion on the mater; the main thing is that you know that this debate exists.


In answering the question, what is forensic psychology we have discovered that:

In essence, forensic psychology refers to the application of psychology within a legal context.

The debate as to what is & what is not forensic psychology relates to the nature of this legal application & the level at which it is applied.

And this debate raises a number of questions that you need to think about. In particular:

The boundaries of forensic psychology?

The role of the forensic psychologist?

The credibility of forensic psychology.

To find out more about the fascinating world of forensic psychology visit

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Mr Mafioso Does Emotional Intelligence

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I love Mr. Mafioso on AskMen. "Look, college boy," he writes, "there are certain lessons that all the books in the world couldn't teach you."

Strikes a chord with me. I came out of college quite the college girl. It was a college in rural Minnesota, very academic, very intellectual. How academic? How intellectual? More students pass the MedCAT from this school than any in the nation, or did at last count. It produces doctors and lawyers, but not necessarily rich ones; more typically labor lawyers and inner-city clinic doctors, or med and law-school professors.

I think it attracts more than its share of NFs - Idealists (only 8-10% of the population). Whatever job the Idealist has, it's a means to an end: saving the world. This is the college boy Mr. M. is talking about, and the college girl who has to learn to put on her Big Girl Panties, because one can never save the world, but one can lose one's job.

When I left that ivory tower and landed my first job, they saw me coming. Determined to be honest, brave and true (and believing that others were), I got all the extra work, my "job description" expanding to match the infinite boundaries of my naivete; I got the worst equipment; I interviewed students in a closet (I was a career counselor); and of course I was ostracized just for good measure. Eating lunch alone, I read a copy of "How to Survive in the Real World." j.k.

What I did was get street smart. You know how someone in the office is doing better than they ought to considering their education and skills, and you can't figure out why? Then you notice - she's got street smarts. She always lands on her feet, she knows the score, she reads between the lines, she gets out when the getting's good, she can add two and two, she can smell a rat, she knows a good thing when she sees it, she knows it takes two to tango ...

It's Emotional Intelligence - what Mr. Mafioso talks about in "Street Lessons."

He begins with the litany that idealistic intellectuals can't accept: "The world isn't fair. It isn't nice. Nobody cares if you get stiffed, if your feelings get bruised or how hungry you are." We're all in the same boat, he alerts us, and it can be a rough ride. "Everybody's trying to get a piece of the action, trying to survive. And the street is equally cruel to everyone."

I've seen clients have to experience this many times before they were willing to let go of how they thought the world should be, or wished it were and started dealing with it the way it is (reality-testing). Eventually, with coaching, they quit telling their co-workers nicely (for instance) that they really don't know what they're doing after getting shot enough times with a gun they had loaded and handed to someone.

Mr. Mafioso then tells us the thing we least want to hear - that it's out-of-control. You can be on top one day, wondering what the big deal is, then get bagged. "By any of a number of things: family, work, health, divorce, tainted spinach

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Sat Vocabulary You Don T Have To Memorize The Dictionary

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My mother explained how students developed their SAT Vocabulary skills in the 1950s. "I sat down with a dictionary one summer," my mother said, "and memorized all of the words I didn't know." Of course, my mother has a stellar vocabulary, but today's student who wants to master SAT vocabulary doesn't have to go so far as reciting passages from Webster's tome.

There are many books, websites and computer programs aimed at building SAT Vocabulary that didn't exist in my mother's time (or even when I was in high school). Although increasing your building SAT Vocabulary skills is not as difficult or as time consuming as it used to be, a student should still make it a long term project rather than a last-minute cram.

There are two main approaches to SAT preparation; long term skill building, and quick study "beat the test" techniques. The ideal way to prepare for the SAT is to master both of these approaches, but the most important of the two is a concentration on developing skills, especially when as it applies to SAT Vocabulary.

You can learn ways to "outwit the testmaker" in a seminar or in a short course, but it is unlikely that you can really get a grasp of the English language in such a short amount of time, and understand, not only SAT Vocabulary definitions, but other aspects of English that are essential, such as word usage, synonyms and antonyms. It is a good idea to develop SAT vocabulary skills over time than in a few afternoons.

A good time to start SAT Vocabulary preparation is when you begin to read. However, if you somehow weren't thinking about the big test while getting through your first Dr. Seuss book all by yourself, it is not too late (unless it is a month before graduation). The best way to develop an SAT Vocabulary, and a good working vocabulary for any purpose, is to read good books, underline unfamiliar words, and keep a notebook filled with new words you have learned.

Make it a modest goal to learn two or three new words every day. Ask your English teacher to recommend books that will help build your vocabulary, and many of these titles are already part of your English curriculum. Learning not only the definition of word, but how to use them in a sentence or in your ordinary life, will not only help you get into college, but will make your course work and reading easier once you are in college.

You can find lists in books and websites which claim to have the top 1,000 or so SAT Vocabulary words. Test prep gurus claim that the testmakers have "favorite" words that are used again and again. Although learning these lists will certainly not hurt you, it is a good idea to avoid spending a lot of time and money thinking that you can outwit the testmakers.

The staff who create the English sections are English teachers and professors who know how to spot redundancy when they see it. Common sense should tell you that, if a certain word is used all of the time on a test, those making the test would spot this and avoid these common words.

Also, it is reasonable to imagine that the testmakers read these SAT Vocabulary lists and avoid using many of these words so students can be rewarded for having a good working vocabulary and not for merely memorizing a list.

If you find that your vocabulary keeps you back, you need to invest time to develop a good SAT Vocabulary. It isn't a skill that can be mastered simply by learning a formula or a technique. Fortunately, there are many flashcards and books which help develop SAT Vocabulary, and many students find that these methods increase their scores.

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How To Master Your Online Business Degree Program

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Opting for an online business degree program is often a great choice. If you have an entrepreneurial spirit and a real desire to succeed, this course of study can prepare you for a business career that offers many options and opportunities for advancement. Studying business can be very rewarding in and of itself. Of course, doing your degree online also allows you to study in the most convenient, cost-effective way possible. By pursuing your studies online, you don't have to disrupt your schedule, move to a far-away campus, or pay plenty of extra fees. While you can study in the comfort of your own home, however, you can still get personalized attention from professors and a quality education.

Deciding to complete an online business degree program is a big step, but once you are enrolled, you will still need to complete your studies successfully in order to get your dream job. Doing well in your online classes requires some work and preparation. Successful students who have pursued this course of study, though, have found that a few basic tips are all it takes to succeed in school.

Most successful students find that selecting the right online business degree program is essential. Finding a program that offers support and good professor interaction ensures that help is available when you need it. Well-organized and clearly developed courses and programs of study make studying easier, as well. When applying for programs, then, be sure to compare courses of study and get opinions from past students as well. Look for programs that set you up to win and provide you with the support you will need to be at your best.

Successful students often make use of the resources their schools make available to them. If you have enrolled in a distance degree, your business school or program will likely have some online materials and resources for you to use. Be sure to find out what these are before beginning your studies and practice using these resources. Contacting professors for help, downloading multimedia materials that clarify your lectures and being able to find the materials and books you need online will make your study time much more effective, improving your chances of success. Don't be shy about using your school's resources, these resources are created for your use.

If you have signed up for an online business degree program, you can study on your own time. This gives you a powerful advantage, since you can shape your study schedule to suit your own needs. At the same time, working from home can create its own distractions. Make sure that you use the flexibility of distance education to your advantage. Successful students find that setting aside specific time to study each day is essential. Set aside a period of time each day or each week when you can work on your education uninterrupted. Gather your information, resources, and materials and dive in. Get extra help as needed and be sure to interact virtually with professors and other students. This not only helps you absorb the material better, but it also helps you network and build contacts that can be a crucial part of a business degree.

Steady work and a good ethic can mean that you can succeed at your online business degree program. Use the tools that other successful students have used and get your degree in order to land a better job. Planning your time, using your school's resources, and choosing your program wisely can make you an outstanding student and can help you get the full value from your education.

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Important Considerations For Home Schooling

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The decision on whether or not to home school your child can be a very difficult one to make. Most two income families may not be willing to make a financial sacrifice when one of them will have to give up work to take on the reigns as a teacher in a home school set-up. Many are even thinking on whether or not their children will still obtain the same level of education in a home school set-up.

There are many more concerns about home schooling but despite certain apprehensions home schooling is on the rise. There are various reasons why many parents are considering home schooling education. If you are thinking about home schooling your child, it is important for you to consider several factors.

Your commitment to time is one important factor to consider. Home schooling will have the tendency to take up a lot of your time most of the day. Home schooling is not merely sitting down for several hours with books. There is more to it as it involves experiments, activities and projects plus lesson plan preparation, grading of papers, music lessons, field trips and so much more. To get an idea of a typical day, you can always research online for a sample schedule.

Home schooling entails personal sacrifice. As a home schooling parent, you may not have that much personal time for yourself as you will be spending a great deal of time with your child. The parent can feel overwhelmed if he or she will not allot personal time for himself or herself.

Home schooling will require one parent to stop working and sacrifices will have to be made if the family is used to having two sources of income. The gravity of the problem increases when you are a single parent.

It is of utmost importance in any home school set-up that the child be given enough time for socialization. It is essential to get your child together with his or her friends. With home schooling though, you get control over your child's social encounters. One drawback of home schooling is that it can isolate your child so you must prepare him or her with the necessary social skills to be able to socialize with other children.

Both of the parents must agree to home schooling. Chances for its success are slimmer if one is not in favor of it. It is also very important that the child is willing to be home schooled. Critical to the success of home schooling is a willing student. You might have a hard time teaching your unwilling child. The decision though rests ultimately on the parents.

Every parent knows that education is very important to ensure any child's future. There is more to home schooling and your time, commitment and involvement is very much important. If you are considering home schooling, associate with other parents in the area who are into home schooling their children for some helpful tips and advice. A good network will help in the planning process and sharing of ideas is very much possible.

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Sacramento Schools Lose Charter Over Controversy

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The role of charter schools in education at Sacramento Schools is constantly emerging and evolving. Sacramento Schools have been involved in the on-going battle between privately run charters and the public systems that fund them for years. The enormous impact of this inability to form a cohesive working relationship will come to a head on June 14th when the Sacramento Visual and Performing Arts Charter (VAPAC) closes its doors.

VAPAC was originally a part of the Sacramento Schools system. It began as a program within the Sacramento High School. When Sacramento Schools decided to make that a charter in 2003, VAPAC leased separate space and established its own charter. Part of what makes the Sacramento Schools' charter programs difficult is determining who is in charge. Charter programs like VAPAC are fully funded by public funds, yet have their own governing boards. This is what landed VAPAC and the Sacramento Schools in court this past year.

Sacramento Schools demanded the authority to fire administrators governing the charter school, citing budget and student safety concerns. VAPAC leaders disagreed. The lawsuit was finally settled in September of 2006. However, when VAPAC tried to get a new charter from Sacramento Schools, they were denied. Officials in the Sacramento Schools district office said that the charter was not able to produce the necessary curriculum and budgets requested.

So where does this leave VAPAC students, the charter, and Sacramento Schools? VAPAC Director Arbatel de la Cuesta and some others are opening a new private school, the Sacramento Art Conservatory. About two dozen students are currently enrolled. But for many the $7,000 annual tuition eliminates private school as a possibility. This leaves many of Sacramento Schools' students scrambling to locate a new school. It also leaves Sacramento Schools without an arts school.

In an error of mandatory testing and higher standards, many Sacramento Schools' educators and parents are already concerned about the lack of balance as time for art, music and physical education give way to academic test preparations. Tom Barentson, Deputy Superintendent for Sacramento Schools, has stated that Sacramento City Unified will have another arts program. He just can't say when it will be, or whether it will be another charter or part of an existing program.

That eliminates one option of school choice for many Sacramento Schools' students. And this is not a controversy likely to fade away soon. Sacramento Schools are trying to look at all the options it can to use a public school budget to meet rising standards for its many students. But until local school boards, like the Sacramento Schools, find a better way to govern charter schools, the controversy will continue.

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Homeschooling Getting Started

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There are more and more parents every year who have reached the conclusion that educating their children at home has become a much better option than what the public schools today have to offer. The advantage is to homeschooling are many among the top that homeschooling has to offer is the flexibility of the scheduling and knowing that your child is be presented with and learning the values and morals that are important to your family.

When it comes to homeschooling there are many different types of homeschooling approaches that you will no doubt come across in your research. Probably the most common type of approach taken today would be best described as an eclectic approach. This is where the parents over time have come to use various components of several different approaches and combined them into an overall educational process that works best for their child and their family.

Many parents when they just start out seem overwhelmed by all of the information available. And believe me, there is a vast amount of information available. Don't panic, you'll sort through it in time and find what works best for you and your family. Don't grind to a halt and suffer from paralysis by analysis just because you try to gather more information than anyone could possibly process.

For this reason, many families choose to go with a packaged curriculum. Although initially you might feel as though a packaged curriculum is not within your budget, if you are just starting out this may be the best and most organized way for you to begin. You can always take what you learn from a packaged curriculum and develop your own model.

As you look through all the possibilities for homeschooling your child and all of the programs out there, keep in mind that any homeschooling program under its packaged for your own needs to follow the natural growth pattern of your child. In other words, you'll want to find or develop a package that contains not only a natural progression in the subject matter, but you'll also want to be mindful of any documentation that is required by your state and local regulations.

I would think that it would be safe to say that for the majority of homeschooling parents their curriculum has developed over time. Don't worry if you feel like you don't have everything perfectly aligned in the beginning. This is one of the great advantages to homeschooling... you don't have to be perfect and you don't have to follow a perfect schedule.

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Committing To College Courses Online

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You have never been much of a person for school, and went through high school with mediocre grades. You did not like to study, and you certainly were not a fan of homework. However, when you think about all of the opportunities you are missing for making more money with a better, college-educated career, you have decided that it might be a good idea to take college courses online.

There are several things that you will need in order to successfully take college courses online. First of all, you need an area of your home that allows you to work and study without any distractions. In high school you used to do your homework to music or the television, but if you want to get a successful career, you are going to need good grades in the online college courses that you take. So, if you decide that your room would be the best place to take your college courses online, be sure that you have a desk to accommodate all of your supplies. They might be college courses online, but you are still going to need textbooks, and you might also need notebooks and pens so that you can take notes on what you read.

Turn of the music and the television, and just focus on your work. Also, refrain from instant messaging and checking e-mails while you are doing your coursework. If you have a job, make sure that you schedule your studying time along with the hours that you work in manners that do not result in you becoming too tired. It really all comes down to your interest in a particular subject. The more interested you are in a subject, the more you want to study it. Thus, you will need to take college courses online that are of interest to you, but yet result in you getting a college degree. For this to happen, you are going to need to do some research.

Preparing for college courses online is not that much different from preparing for regular real world college courses. You want to make sure that you choose a program that you can afford, but will give you a degree from a reputable school. So, begin by going to the education section of your local bookstore, and consult books that will refer you to reputable programs. Thus, you are sure to find the right college courses online for you with diligence and the proper research.

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3 Important Truths About Adult Education

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As an instructor at a state college I know that today's college student is just as likely to be middle-aged (or older) as a teenager. Yet, I frequently find myself counseling adults who are thinking about returning to school to further their education. Actually, it is not so much a counseling session as it is a bit of a pep talk. One of the major reasons many adults hesitate before going back to school is the simple fear that they will not be able to keep up intellectually with their younger classmates. Well stop worrying about that. Here are three reasons that the majority of older students actually out perform their younger counterparts in the college classroom.

First, the simple truth is that in most cases the older student is more motivated than the younger student. It is more likely that the older student is footing the bill so values their education for that reason and wants to make sure they get the most out of their investment. Also, older students have also experienced the working world without a degree and so are very motivated to gain the financial and professional advantages of an education. This motivation is what gets older students through the challenges that college throws at them - challenges that might derail a younger, less experienced, student. In addition, nontraditional students have usually learned the hard life lesson that having the right attitude is half the battle.

Second, nontraditional students usually know much more about time management than traditional students. Most nontraditional students are balancing work, school, and family so they are very efficient and effective managers of their time. Older students are also more effective at prioritizing their various commitments based on their greater life experience. I see so many more younger, more traditional students getting themselves into trouble with their classes and assignments and observe in many cases the problem is one of simple time management and priorities.

Finally, the greater and more diverse your life experience then the more you know. It is really quite simple. If you have worked, raised a family, and served your community then you know more than most teenagers about a number of things. It just stands to reason. While the younger student might have the advantage of knowledge of certain scientific principles or mathematical rules as well as more recent practice in writing and studying. The older student knows more about people and interpersonal dynamics, their own personal strengths and weaknesses, and historical events as well as current events.

These are not universal truths. Obviously there are younger, more traditional students, who are mature enough to be properly motivated as well as good time managers. Equally there are older students who are not properly motivated and no little about time management. Similarly some older students have lead sheltered lives and some younger students have lead lives of variety and challenge. As a rule, however, I can pretty confidently state that many nontraditional students can find these three strengths - motivation, time management, and life experience - can help them outperform their more traditional counterparts in the college classroom. If your age is all that is holding you back from pursuing your degree then remember that age offers advantages as well as disadvantages.

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