Below, you'll find several specifications for the
well known Bluetooth:
1. Throughout the United States and even Europe,
the range of frequency is 2,400 - 2,483.5 MHZ, with
79 1-MHz RF (radio frequency) channels. The
frequency range in Japan is 2,472 to 2,497 MHz with
23 1-MHz RF channels.
2. A data channel of Bluetooth randomly hops 1,600
times per second between the 79 RF channels.
3. Each Bluetooth channel is divided into time
slots, with each one being 625 microseconds long.
4. A Bluetooth piconet has one master and up to
seven slaves. The master will transmit in even
time slots, while the slaves will transmit in odd
5. The data in a single packet can be up to 2,745
bits in length.
6. Currently, there are two types of data transfer
between devices - SCO (synchronous connection
oriented) and ACL (asynchronous connectionless).
7. In a Bluetooth piconet, there can be up to
three SCO links containing 64,000 bits per second
with each one. To help avoid collision and timing
problems, the links of the SCO will use reserved
slots set up by the master.
8. A master can support up to three SCO links
with either one, two, or even three slaves.
9. The slots not reserved for the SCO links can
be used for ACL links.
10. A single master and slave can have one ACL
11. ACL is either master to one slave (point to
point) or it broadcasts to all of the slaves.
12. The ACL slaves will only transmit when it has
been requested by the master. If the master doesn't
make the request, the ACL slaves won't transmit
anything at all.
Introduction To Bluetooth
Bluetooth was designed to allow low bandwidth wireless
connections to become easy to use so even those who
are new to wireless can use them. Version 1.1 of
Bluetooth describes a low power, short range wireless
networking technology that uses radio waves to send
data at rates up to 720 kilobits a second.
The specification for Bluetooth provides for different
classes of radio that allow transmission ranges of
up to 100 meters by boosting the radio power. The
technology of Bluetooth isn't limited to line of
sight transmission since it uses directional waves
that are capable of transmitting through many
Bluetooth is an industry standard communication of
wireless, meaning that it enables the connection
of other devices as well, such as cell phones,
computers, digital cameras, and other types of
electronic devices. The specification of Bluetooth
defines a radio system and a "stack" of protocol
layers and profiles. The highest layer is the
application layer, while the lowest layer is the
The wireless technology of Bluetooth is positioned
to revolutionize the personal connectivity market
by providing freedom from inconvenient fixed type
The specification for Bluetooth eliminates the need
for cables by providing a small form factor, low
cost wireless solution that will link computers,
cell phones, and other electronics. Bluetooth
also allows users to connect many ranges of devices
quickly and easily and expands communications
capabilities as well.
The size of the Bluetooth radio is amazing, as a
Bluetooth radio can be built into one or two very
small microchips then integrated into any electronic
device where wireless operations would be an
Bluetooth also offers a robust link, which ensures
that normal operating circumstances are not
interrupted by interference from other signals
that are operating in the same frequency band.
Also known for its worldwide operation, Bluetooth
radio operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band, which
is license free and available to any type of
radio system in the world. No matter where you
are in the world, you count on Bluetooth to work.
Security is also important. Offering advanced
security mechanisms, Bluetooth ensures a high level
of security. Therefore, authentification will
prevent unauthorized acess to important data and
make it very difficult to listen in.
Bluetooth also boasts power optimization. The radio
is power friendly and the software for Bluetooth
is very configurable, limiting the power consumption
of equipment. The radio itself only consumes a
small amount of power from a cellular phone.
The amazing technology of Bluetooth presents a great
way of exchanging data between two wireless devices.
Unlike telephones, there are no wires or messy
leads to worry about. You can enjoy wireless
communications with short distances of up to thirty
Bluetooth also offers interoperability, meaning that
you can use your portable Bluetooth device to connect
with existing Bluetooth points. This way, you won't
have to carry a data lead or CDs of drivers around
with you everywhere you go. You can enjoy the best
of wireless without having to worry about installing
With today's Bluetooth, you can use your PDA and cell
phone to surf the net or check emails as you travel.
If you are in the business field, this can be very
beneficial, especially if you like to check your
email throughout the day. Bluetooth will enable you
to check your email no matter where you are - which
is great news for those who like to travel.
Bluetooth will also enable to you to transfer files
as well, such as MP3 and photo to and from your mobile
device. Bluetooth dominates the world of short range
wireless, enabling you to do more than you may
have thought possible.
One of the best things to Bluetooth and something
everyone loves is the wireless headset. Bluetooth
offers wire free headsets for your cell phone or
computer, which is great for those who like to walk
around or talk on the phone in the car, without
having to worry about your hands getting in the way.
To make things even better, you can use a Bluetooth
GPS device for satellite navigation on your PDA,
laptop, or mobile. If you travel - this can be
really great to have.
Below, you'll find a list of the most used terms in
Bluetooth technology. They can serve as a look up,
or to help you learn more about Bluetooth terms in
2 in 1 handset
The situation where a subscriber's handset is acting
as a remote handset to a base unit that provides a
Third generation, referring to the next generation
of digital phone technology.
A wireless LAN specification defined by the IEEE.
Each base band packet will start with an access code,
which can be one of 3 types - CAC, DAC, and IAC.
Asynchronous Connectionless Link. This is one of the
two types of data links that are defined for Bluetooth.
Authenticated Ciphering Offset.
During the active mode, the unit will actively
participate on the channel. The master will schedule
the transmission based on traffic demands from the
The process of verifying who is at the opposite end
of the link.
A device whose identity has been verified during the
lifetime of the current link based on the
This describes the specification of the digital
signal processing aspect of the hardware - the
controller - which carries out the baseband
Abreviation of baseband.
Bit Error Rate.
The above is more of an intro to the terms that are
used with Bluetooth. Bluetooth currently has hundreds
of devices, making it the best wireless solution in
the world. With more coming out every day, you can
bet that Bluetooth will be around for many years to
If you are new to Bluetooth, the terms used can be
very helpful. There are hundreds of glossary terms
that apply to Bluetooth, many of which describe
shortcuts to common terms. You can learn a lot by
reading over the meanings, especially if you have
never used Bluetooth technology before.
Those of you who have experience with Bluetooth,
can look over the glossary of terms to brush up
on your knowledge or just check out what an unfamiliar
term actually means. Nothing is complicated with
the meanings, although they make take some getting
Once you have been around Bluetooth for a while,
you'll find yourself right at home with the terms
and meanings to the technology. All you need to do
is play around with it, and read books or manuals
whenever you get the chance. Before you know it,
you'll be a professional in the vast world of
The networking standards of Bluetooth will transmit
data via low power radio frequency. Bluetooth
communicates on a 2.45 GHz frequency. This very
band of frequency has been set aside by international
agreement for the use of industrial and medical
Many devices that you already known and use take
advantage of this frequency band. Garage door
openers, baby monitors, and the next generation of
mobile phones all use this frequency within the ISM
band. Ensuring that Bluetooth and the other
devices don't interfere with each other is a crucial
part of the design process.
One of the ways Bluetooth will avoid interfering
with other electronic devices is by sending out
weak signals of around 1 mw. In comparison, even
the most powerful of cell phones can transmit a
signal of 3 watts.
The low power signals will limit the range of a
Bluetooth device to around 32 feet, which cut the
chances of interference between your computer and
other electronic devices. Even though it has low
power, Bluetooth doesn't require a line of sight
between the communicating devices. The walls in
your home won't stop the signal, making it great
for rooms throughout the house.
Bluetooth can connect 8 devices at the same time.
With each of those devices on the same radius,
you may think they would interfere with each
other, although it's very unlikely. Bluetooth
utilizes a technique known as low frequency
hopping, which makes it harder for more than
one device to transmit on the same frequency
at the same time.
With this technique, a device will use 79
individual, randomly chosen frequencies within
a designated range, which change from one another
on a regular basis.
In the case of Bluetooth, the transmitters will
change frequency 1,600 times or more every
second, meaning that more devices can make full
use of the radio spectrum. Since every
transmitter of Bluetooth will use spread spectrum
automatically, it's very unlikely that two
transmitters will be on the same frequency at the
exact same time.
When the Bluetooth devices come within close range
of each other, an electronic conversation will
occur to determine whether or not they have
data to share or whether one needs to take total
control. The user doesn't have any buttons to
press or commands to give - as the conversation
will occur automatically.
Once the conversation has occured, the devices
will form a network. Bluetooth devices will
create a PAN (Personal Area Network) or piconet
that may fill a room. Once the piconet has been
established, the devices will randomly hop in
Choosing A Bluetooth Headset
Creating a good wireless headset for Bluetooth is
actually difficult to do. The regular wired headsets
are easy to design - with ranging styles.
Bluetooth headsets can never be as small or as light
as wired headsets, simply because it needs to include
the battery and extra functions. This extra size
will impact how the headset mounts on or around
There seems to be two main styles of headsets for
Bluetooth. Some are held into place with a loop
around the ear. These styles are normally more
comfortable, although they may be less secure. The
others are held in place by being jammed into
your ear - and usually prove to be less comfortable.
Factors to consider
The cost is an obvious issue, something that you
really need to think about.
1. Check to see if the device is easy to
quickly and conveniently put on your ear then take
it off again.
2. Are the control buttons on the headset
easy to use?
3. The headset should be comfortable to
wear for long phone calls.
4. Can you use it with a pair of glasses?
5. Check to see if you can wear it with
6. When you aren't wearing it, you'll
need to se how you would carry it with you.
7. The weight is important as well, as you
don't want something that has the risk of falling
Ease of use.
1. The commands and controls should be
easy to remember.
2. The volume level should be easy to
3. The unit should turn on quickly.
4. The manual should be very well written
and easy for you to understand.
5. There should be a support number for
you to call if you should experience any types of
1. You'll need to know about the battery,
the talk time, type, and how to tell when it is
going dead or fully charged.
2. How many devices can the unit be paired
3. Compatability is also important, as
well as the warranty period.
4. Check the sound quality for both
sending and receiving audio.
5. What type of range does the headset offer
Other important capabilities include voice tags,
last number redial, tranfer calls, 3 way calling,
link to other phones, call reject, and mute. You'll
also want to note if it looks attractive, and if
it's too big or too small.
The technology of Bluetooth wireless is a short
range communications method intended to replace
the cables that connect portable or fixed devices
while maintaining the highest levels of security.
The key features offered by Bluetooth include
low power and low cost. The specification in
Bluetooth defines a uniform structure for a wide
range of devices to communicate and connect with
The technology behind Bluetooth has achieved
global satisfaction such as enabled devices, almost
everywhere in the world. Bluetooth devices will
connect and communicate without wires through
short range and networks known as piconets.
Each device will simultaneously communicate with
up to seven other devices within a single piconet,
meaning that each device can also belong to
several piconets simultaneously. The piconets
are dynamically established as Bluetooth enabled
devices enter and leave the proximity of radio.
A fundamental to Bluetooth strength is the
ability to handle both data and voice transmissions
simultaneously. This will enable users to enjoy
varieties of innovative solutions such as hands
free talking, printing and fax capabilities,
and other applications.
Unlike other standards of wireless, the Bluetooth
specification gives product developers both a
link layer and application layer definitions,
which will help support data and voice applications.
The Bluetooth technology operates in the industrial
and scientific band at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, using a
spread spectrum, frequency hopping signal.
The adaptive frequency hopping of Bluetooth
technology was designed to reduce interference
between wireless technologies that share the 2.4
GHz spectrum. Adaptive frequency hopping (AFH)
works well within the spectrum to take full
advantage of the frequency available.
AFH hopping allows for more efficient transmission
within the spectrum, which provides users with
greater performance even if they are using other
technologies along with Bluetooth.
Bluetooth And Apple
The new Apple powerbook G4 are among the first
computers to offer Bluetooth technology 2.0+EDR.
The 2.0+EDR technology, which still backwards
compatible with 1.0, is up to three times faster
than previous versions, offering maximum data rate
transfers of up to 3 MBps. Being the first company
to certify a system with 2.0+EDR, Apple continues
to make great use of the Bluetooth technology.
In addition to the powerbook G4 portables, there
are other Bluetooth enabled computers available
from Apple, including the iBook, iMac G5, eMac,
and the Power Mac G5.
Making life easier
When you turn the Bluetooth feature on, your Mac
can easily perform a file transfer or even a
synchronization. From the Bluetooth selection
menu, you can choose to either send a file or
browse devices, quickly and easily. Or, you can
click the sync button in iSync to update your
cell phone or Palm OS handheld.
The Mac and GSM/GPRS mobile phone with Bluetooth
work to make each other more useful. By using
iSync, you can keep your phone updated without
having to type any info, as you can keep the
information in the more manageable address book
on your Mac instead.
You can also use your Bluetooth enabled Mac to
print documents and digital images to select a
printer that also supports the technology of
Bluetooth. Or, you can also use a headset to
talk to your friends during an iChat session.
Your Mac also has the ability to use Bluetooth
technology to communicate with your Palm OS
handheld. This way, you can perform a HotSync
operation without using any cables. You can also
send your business card or calendar events directly
to someone else's handheld usingthe technology of
The implementation of Bluetooth by Apple is the
latest in a series of moves that have caused
great shift in the computer industry. Apple
established USB as the standard interface with
the launching of the first Mac back in 1998.
Since then, Apple established the 802.11 wireless
standard of networking with the launch of the
iBook and AirPort in 1999. During 2003, Apple
launched AirPort Extreme, which was based on
the new 802.11g high speed technology of wireless.
Now, Bluetooth helps to further strengthen the
dominant position of the Mac in wireless
communications, helping to preserve Apple's
reputation for being the first to market with
innovative technology that integrates right into
the operating system.
The Future Of Bluetooth
Because it meets the basic needs of connectivity in
close range, Bluetooth has a very bright future
ahead of it. Bluetooth is actually the result of
initiatives from nine leading communications and
computer industry giants, including 3-COM, Sony,
Lucent, IBM, Nokia, Microsoft, etc.
Since the forming of the original group, more than
1,800 manufacturers around the world have joined
the initiative. According to reports, the Bluetooth
technology is expected to be built into more than
100 million devices, with over 670 million enabled
Resulting from the amazing success of WAP (Wireless
Application Protocol), the adoption of smart phones
and hand held devices, Bluetooth can easily have
an amazing impact on your day to day life. Bluetooth
is one of the key technologies that can help to
make the mobile information society happen, by
blurring the possibilities between home, the office,
and the outside world.
The seamless integration and connectivity that
Bluetooth promises will make it possible to explore
a wide range of interactive and highly transparent
personalized services which were actually quite
difficult to dream of simply because of the
complexity involved with making such devices
communicate with each other.
Many Bluetooth pilot products have already been
rolled into the market and backed by big vendors,
which is a healthy sign for the overall acceptance
of the technology. The support for Bluetooth isn't
limited to companies that develop only Bluetooth
The applications for Bluetooth can have great
impacts on other industries as well. The adoption
of Bluetooth technology is expected to spread
throughout the industry of computers.
Unlike infrared technology, Bluetooth is used by
many different wireless devices. Bluetooth offers
exceptional quality for short range wireless, even
going through walls and obstructions. While
infrared is the biggest competitor at this time,
Bluetooth far surpasses it, proving to millions that
it is the wireless communication technology of the
present day and age.
In the beginning, Bluetooth started with version 1.0,
then gradually moved from there. The current
version is 2.0+EDR, with another version currently
in development. The technology behind the Bluetooth
specification always getting better and better,
which is why it's so popular.
In the future, you can expect the technology
behind Bluetooth to get better. Bluetooth has
proven to be the wireless standard of the future,
offering you wireless connectability for hundreds
of different devices. For cell phones or other forms
of wireless connections, Bluetooth is the one
technology that you don't want to find yourself
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