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Bluetooth-Technology Articles


Bluetooth Specifications

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 286)
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Below, you'll find several specifications for the

well known Bluetooth:

1. Throughout the United States and even Europe,

the range of frequency is 2,400 - 2,483.5 MHZ, with

79 1-MHz RF (radio frequency) channels. The

frequency range in Japan is 2,472 to 2,497 MHz with

23 1-MHz RF channels.

2. A data channel of Bluetooth randomly hops 1,600

times per second between the 79 RF channels.

3. Each Bluetooth channel is divided into time

slots, with each one being 625 microseconds long.

4. A Bluetooth piconet has one master and up to

seven slaves. The master will transmit in even

time slots, while the slaves will transmit in odd

time slots.

5. The data in a single packet can be up to 2,745

bits in length.

6. Currently, there are two types of data transfer

between devices - SCO (synchronous connection

oriented) and ACL (asynchronous connectionless).

7. In a Bluetooth piconet, there can be up to

three SCO links containing 64,000 bits per second

with each one. To help avoid collision and timing

problems, the links of the SCO will use reserved

slots set up by the master.

8. A master can support up to three SCO links

with either one, two, or even three slaves.

9. The slots not reserved for the SCO links can

be used for ACL links.

10. A single master and slave can have one ACL

link.

11. ACL is either master to one slave (point to

point) or it broadcasts to all of the slaves.

12. The ACL slaves will only transmit when it has

been requested by the master. If the master doesn't

make the request, the ACL slaves won't transmit

anything at all.

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Introduction To Bluetooth

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 423)
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Bluetooth was designed to allow low bandwidth wireless

connections to become easy to use so even those who

are new to wireless can use them. Version 1.1 of

Bluetooth describes a low power, short range wireless

networking technology that uses radio waves to send

data at rates up to 720 kilobits a second.

The specification for Bluetooth provides for different

classes of radio that allow transmission ranges of

up to 100 meters by boosting the radio power. The

technology of Bluetooth isn't limited to line of

sight transmission since it uses directional waves

that are capable of transmitting through many

obstructions.

Bluetooth is an industry standard communication of

wireless, meaning that it enables the connection

of other devices as well, such as cell phones,

computers, digital cameras, and other types of

electronic devices. The specification of Bluetooth

defines a radio system and a "stack" of protocol

layers and profiles. The highest layer is the

application layer, while the lowest layer is the

radio.

The wireless technology of Bluetooth is positioned

to revolutionize the personal connectivity market

by providing freedom from inconvenient fixed type

lines.

The specification for Bluetooth eliminates the need

for cables by providing a small form factor, low

cost wireless solution that will link computers,

cell phones, and other electronics. Bluetooth

also allows users to connect many ranges of devices

quickly and easily and expands communications

capabilities as well.

The size of the Bluetooth radio is amazing, as a

Bluetooth radio can be built into one or two very

small microchips then integrated into any electronic

device where wireless operations would be an

advantage.

Bluetooth also offers a robust link, which ensures

that normal operating circumstances are not

interrupted by interference from other signals

that are operating in the same frequency band.

Also known for its worldwide operation, Bluetooth

radio operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band, which

is license free and available to any type of

radio system in the world. No matter where you

are in the world, you count on Bluetooth to work.

Security is also important. Offering advanced

security mechanisms, Bluetooth ensures a high level

of security. Therefore, authentification will

prevent unauthorized acess to important data and

make it very difficult to listen in.

Bluetooth also boasts power optimization. The radio

is power friendly and the software for Bluetooth

is very configurable, limiting the power consumption

of equipment. The radio itself only consumes a

small amount of power from a cellular phone.

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Using Bluetooth

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 298)
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The amazing technology of Bluetooth presents a great

way of exchanging data between two wireless devices.

Unlike telephones, there are no wires or messy

leads to worry about. You can enjoy wireless

communications with short distances of up to thirty

feet.

Bluetooth also offers interoperability, meaning that

you can use your portable Bluetooth device to connect

with existing Bluetooth points. This way, you won't

have to carry a data lead or CDs of drivers around

with you everywhere you go. You can enjoy the best

of wireless without having to worry about installing

your software.

With today's Bluetooth, you can use your PDA and cell

phone to surf the net or check emails as you travel.

If you are in the business field, this can be very

beneficial, especially if you like to check your

email throughout the day. Bluetooth will enable you

to check your email no matter where you are - which

is great news for those who like to travel.

Bluetooth will also enable to you to transfer files

as well, such as MP3 and photo to and from your mobile

device. Bluetooth dominates the world of short range

wireless, enabling you to do more than you may

have thought possible.

One of the best things to Bluetooth and something

everyone loves is the wireless headset. Bluetooth

offers wire free headsets for your cell phone or

computer, which is great for those who like to walk

around or talk on the phone in the car, without

having to worry about your hands getting in the way.

To make things even better, you can use a Bluetooth

GPS device for satellite navigation on your PDA,

laptop, or mobile. If you travel - this can be

really great to have.

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Bluetooth Glossary

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 443)
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Below, you'll find a list of the most used terms in

Bluetooth technology. They can serve as a look up,

or to help you learn more about Bluetooth terms in

general.

2 in 1 handset

The situation where a subscriber's handset is acting

as a remote handset to a base unit that provides a

network connection.

3G

Third generation, referring to the next generation

of digital phone technology.

802.11 WLAN

A wireless LAN specification defined by the IEEE.

Access code

Each base band packet will start with an access code,

which can be one of 3 types - CAC, DAC, and IAC.

ACK

Acknowledge.

ACL

Asynchronous Connectionless Link. This is one of the

two types of data links that are defined for Bluetooth.

ACO

Authenticated Ciphering Offset.

Active mode

During the active mode, the unit will actively

participate on the channel. The master will schedule

the transmission based on traffic demands from the

different slaves.

AP

Access point.

Authentification

The process of verifying who is at the opposite end

of the link.

Authentification device

A device whose identity has been verified during the

lifetime of the current link based on the

authentification procedure.

Baseband

This describes the specification of the digital

signal processing aspect of the hardware - the

controller - which carries out the baseband

protocols.

BB

Abreviation of baseband.

BD

Bluetooth device.

BER

Bit Error Rate.

The above is more of an intro to the terms that are

used with Bluetooth. Bluetooth currently has hundreds

of devices, making it the best wireless solution in

the world. With more coming out every day, you can

bet that Bluetooth will be around for many years to

come.

If you are new to Bluetooth, the terms used can be

very helpful. There are hundreds of glossary terms

that apply to Bluetooth, many of which describe

shortcuts to common terms. You can learn a lot by

reading over the meanings, especially if you have

never used Bluetooth technology before.

Those of you who have experience with Bluetooth,

can look over the glossary of terms to brush up

on your knowledge or just check out what an unfamiliar

term actually means. Nothing is complicated with

the meanings, although they make take some getting

used to.

Once you have been around Bluetooth for a while,

you'll find yourself right at home with the terms

and meanings to the technology. All you need to do

is play around with it, and read books or manuals

whenever you get the chance. Before you know it,

you'll be a professional in the vast world of

Bluetooth wireless.

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Bluetooth Operation

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 438)
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The networking standards of Bluetooth will transmit

data via low power radio frequency. Bluetooth

communicates on a 2.45 GHz frequency. This very

band of frequency has been set aside by international

agreement for the use of industrial and medical

devices.

Many devices that you already known and use take

advantage of this frequency band. Garage door

openers, baby monitors, and the next generation of

mobile phones all use this frequency within the ISM

band. Ensuring that Bluetooth and the other

devices don't interfere with each other is a crucial

part of the design process.

One of the ways Bluetooth will avoid interfering

with other electronic devices is by sending out

weak signals of around 1 mw. In comparison, even

the most powerful of cell phones can transmit a

signal of 3 watts.

The low power signals will limit the range of a

Bluetooth device to around 32 feet, which cut the

chances of interference between your computer and

other electronic devices. Even though it has low

power, Bluetooth doesn't require a line of sight

between the communicating devices. The walls in

your home won't stop the signal, making it great

for rooms throughout the house.

Bluetooth can connect 8 devices at the same time.

With each of those devices on the same radius,

you may think they would interfere with each

other, although it's very unlikely. Bluetooth

utilizes a technique known as low frequency

hopping, which makes it harder for more than

one device to transmit on the same frequency

at the same time.

With this technique, a device will use 79

individual, randomly chosen frequencies within

a designated range, which change from one another

on a regular basis.

In the case of Bluetooth, the transmitters will

change frequency 1,600 times or more every

second, meaning that more devices can make full

use of the radio spectrum. Since every

transmitter of Bluetooth will use spread spectrum

automatically, it's very unlikely that two

transmitters will be on the same frequency at the

exact same time.

When the Bluetooth devices come within close range

of each other, an electronic conversation will

occur to determine whether or not they have

data to share or whether one needs to take total

control. The user doesn't have any buttons to

press or commands to give - as the conversation

will occur automatically.

Once the conversation has occured, the devices

will form a network. Bluetooth devices will

create a PAN (Personal Area Network) or piconet

that may fill a room. Once the piconet has been

established, the devices will randomly hop in

frequencies.

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Choosing A Bluetooth Headset

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 416)
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Creating a good wireless headset for Bluetooth is

actually difficult to do. The regular wired headsets

are easy to design - with ranging styles.

Bluetooth headsets can never be as small or as light

as wired headsets, simply because it needs to include

the battery and extra functions. This extra size

will impact how the headset mounts on or around

your ears.

Comfort

There seems to be two main styles of headsets for

Bluetooth. Some are held into place with a loop

around the ear. These styles are normally more

comfortable, although they may be less secure. The

others are held in place by being jammed into

your ear - and usually prove to be less comfortable.

Factors to consider

Cost

The cost is an obvious issue, something that you

really need to think about.

Ergonomics

1. Check to see if the device is easy to

quickly and conveniently put on your ear then take

it off again.

2. Are the control buttons on the headset

easy to use?

3. The headset should be comfortable to

wear for long phone calls.

4. Can you use it with a pair of glasses?

5. Check to see if you can wear it with

either ear.

6. When you aren't wearing it, you'll

need to se how you would carry it with you.

7. The weight is important as well, as you

don't want something that has the risk of falling

off.

Ease of use.

1. The commands and controls should be

easy to remember.

2. The volume level should be easy to

adjust.

3. The unit should turn on quickly.

4. The manual should be very well written

and easy for you to understand.

5. There should be a support number for

you to call if you should experience any types of

problems.

Features

1. You'll need to know about the battery,

the talk time, type, and how to tell when it is

going dead or fully charged.

2. How many devices can the unit be paired

with?

3. Compatability is also important, as

well as the warranty period.

4. Check the sound quality for both

sending and receiving audio.

5. What type of range does the headset offer

you?

Other important capabilities include voice tags,

last number redial, tranfer calls, 3 way calling,

link to other phones, call reject, and mute. You'll

also want to note if it looks attractive, and if

it's too big or too small.

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Bluetooth Basics

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 299)
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The technology of Bluetooth wireless is a short

range communications method intended to replace

the cables that connect portable or fixed devices

while maintaining the highest levels of security.

The key features offered by Bluetooth include

low power and low cost. The specification in

Bluetooth defines a uniform structure for a wide

range of devices to communicate and connect with

one another.

The technology behind Bluetooth has achieved

global satisfaction such as enabled devices, almost

everywhere in the world. Bluetooth devices will

connect and communicate without wires through

short range and networks known as piconets.

Each device will simultaneously communicate with

up to seven other devices within a single piconet,

meaning that each device can also belong to

several piconets simultaneously. The piconets

are dynamically established as Bluetooth enabled

devices enter and leave the proximity of radio.

A fundamental to Bluetooth strength is the

ability to handle both data and voice transmissions

simultaneously. This will enable users to enjoy

varieties of innovative solutions such as hands

free talking, printing and fax capabilities,

and other applications.

Specifications

Unlike other standards of wireless, the Bluetooth

specification gives product developers both a

link layer and application layer definitions,

which will help support data and voice applications.

Spectrum

The Bluetooth technology operates in the industrial

and scientific band at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, using a

spread spectrum, frequency hopping signal.

Interference

The adaptive frequency hopping of Bluetooth

technology was designed to reduce interference

between wireless technologies that share the 2.4

GHz spectrum. Adaptive frequency hopping (AFH)

works well within the spectrum to take full

advantage of the frequency available.

AFH hopping allows for more efficient transmission

within the spectrum, which provides users with

greater performance even if they are using other

technologies along with Bluetooth.

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Bluetooth And Apple

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 412)
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The new Apple powerbook G4 are among the first

computers to offer Bluetooth technology 2.0+EDR.

The 2.0+EDR technology, which still backwards

compatible with 1.0, is up to three times faster

than previous versions, offering maximum data rate

transfers of up to 3 MBps. Being the first company

to certify a system with 2.0+EDR, Apple continues

to make great use of the Bluetooth technology.

Full support

In addition to the powerbook G4 portables, there

are other Bluetooth enabled computers available

from Apple, including the iBook, iMac G5, eMac,

and the Power Mac G5.

Making life easier

When you turn the Bluetooth feature on, your Mac

can easily perform a file transfer or even a

synchronization. From the Bluetooth selection

menu, you can choose to either send a file or

browse devices, quickly and easily. Or, you can

click the sync button in iSync to update your

cell phone or Palm OS handheld.

The Mac and GSM/GPRS mobile phone with Bluetooth

work to make each other more useful. By using

iSync, you can keep your phone updated without

having to type any info, as you can keep the

information in the more manageable address book

on your Mac instead.

You can also use your Bluetooth enabled Mac to

print documents and digital images to select a

printer that also supports the technology of

Bluetooth. Or, you can also use a headset to

talk to your friends during an iChat session.

Your Mac also has the ability to use Bluetooth

technology to communicate with your Palm OS

handheld. This way, you can perform a HotSync

operation without using any cables. You can also

send your business card or calendar events directly

to someone else's handheld usingthe technology of

Bluetooth.

The implementation of Bluetooth by Apple is the

latest in a series of moves that have caused

great shift in the computer industry. Apple

established USB as the standard interface with

the launching of the first Mac back in 1998.

Since then, Apple established the 802.11 wireless

standard of networking with the launch of the

iBook and AirPort in 1999. During 2003, Apple

launched AirPort Extreme, which was based on

the new 802.11g high speed technology of wireless.

Now, Bluetooth helps to further strengthen the

dominant position of the Mac in wireless

communications, helping to preserve Apple's

reputation for being the first to market with

innovative technology that integrates right into

the operating system.

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The Future Of Bluetooth

(category: Bluetooth-Technology, Word count: 428)
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Because it meets the basic needs of connectivity in

close range, Bluetooth has a very bright future

ahead of it. Bluetooth is actually the result of

initiatives from nine leading communications and

computer industry giants, including 3-COM, Sony,

Lucent, IBM, Nokia, Microsoft, etc.

Since the forming of the original group, more than

1,800 manufacturers around the world have joined

the initiative. According to reports, the Bluetooth

technology is expected to be built into more than

100 million devices, with over 670 million enabled

Bluetooth devices.

Resulting from the amazing success of WAP (Wireless

Application Protocol), the adoption of smart phones

and hand held devices, Bluetooth can easily have

an amazing impact on your day to day life. Bluetooth

is one of the key technologies that can help to

make the mobile information society happen, by

blurring the possibilities between home, the office,

and the outside world.

The seamless integration and connectivity that

Bluetooth promises will make it possible to explore

a wide range of interactive and highly transparent

personalized services which were actually quite

difficult to dream of simply because of the

complexity involved with making such devices

communicate with each other.

Many Bluetooth pilot products have already been

rolled into the market and backed by big vendors,

which is a healthy sign for the overall acceptance

of the technology. The support for Bluetooth isn't

limited to companies that develop only Bluetooth

enabled products.

The applications for Bluetooth can have great

impacts on other industries as well. The adoption

of Bluetooth technology is expected to spread

throughout the industry of computers.

Unlike infrared technology, Bluetooth is used by

many different wireless devices. Bluetooth offers

exceptional quality for short range wireless, even

going through walls and obstructions. While

infrared is the biggest competitor at this time,

Bluetooth far surpasses it, proving to millions that

it is the wireless communication technology of the

present day and age.

In the beginning, Bluetooth started with version 1.0,

then gradually moved from there. The current

version is 2.0+EDR, with another version currently

in development. The technology behind the Bluetooth

specification always getting better and better,

which is why it's so popular.

In the future, you can expect the technology

behind Bluetooth to get better. Bluetooth has

proven to be the wireless standard of the future,

offering you wireless connectability for hundreds

of different devices. For cell phones or other forms

of wireless connections, Bluetooth is the one

technology that you don't want to find yourself

without.

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