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About Botnet

(category: Communications, Word count: 368)
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BotNet, also called zombie network and network of bots is a group of computers which are used to discreetly send data like spam and viruses to other computers on the internet. These actions are carried out by malicious programs without the knowledge of the users. These malicious programs mainly consist of viruses, Trojans and worms. Infected computers are called bots or zombies. Most computers which are infected are personal home internet PCs which are inadequately protected.

When a PC becomes part of a BotNet, it can be instructed to do almost anything by the creator of botnet. In effect it becomes a drone which cannot resist the commands of its master. In this case, the master is the creator of the malicious software (malware). Most Bots are employed in propagation of spam and viruses. Often malware is used for key-press logging which can result in mass identity theft. Zombie computers can also be used for denial of service attacks in which many bots simultaneously log onto a particular server, thus exceeding the server's bandwidth and crashing it. This technique is particularly effective when the Botnet is large and contains thousands of computers. Many advanced malware can even spread themselves via email while the malware of smaller botnets lack this capability.

BotNets are programmed in such a way that they are difficult to find and analyze. Normally they receive instructions from their creators through IRC (Internet Relay Channels). As of April 2008, the Storm BotNet and the Kraken BotNet are the largest BotNets in the world with an estimated 400,000 bots. Other significant BotNets are Rbot and Bobax with an estimated 20,000 bots each.

So on a day to basis, the best way to protect your computer properly is to frequently scan and update your antivirus and firewall software. Special sensors called 'honeynets' have also been set up on the internet these nets mimic the characteristics of computers with known security flaws in an effort to lure hackers into them and track down malware creators. It has been recently quoted by Kaspersky Labs (creators of Kaspersky anti-virus) that botnets pose more of a threat to the internet community than individual viruses and worms.

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Fax Server

(category: Communications, Word count: 341)
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Fax online enables a person to receive and send faxes with the help of email, the handheld device or the web. into your personal fax machine, you will minimise communication expenses and protect your information.

Through online fax service you can enjoy the following benefits:

Mobility: Receive and send faxes at any place where you work on your existing email account: from your office, home, client's office, or airport or hotel.

Economical: no need for fax charges for far away places , fax machine, , and moreover, no alternate phone connection required!

Technical: Having a fax number on the internet that is toll free (US and Canada), you can provide much useful service to your customers - they fax you free of cost, and it adds nothing to your pocket. Helps to give your business a professional competence.

Privacy: Faxes are received in and sent from your personal inbox of your mail account - they don't have to sit passively on the fax machine paper trash for others to see.

Convenience: Fax is "always switched on" and removes the loss of not received faxes when the line is busy or when you are far from the fax machine

Digital: Faxes are available to all at all times since they're on your system and safe.

Economically, efficiently and easily manage, send and receive faxes right from your desktop or laptop computer. It eliminates many fax-related costly expenditures - like fax machines, extra phone lines, supplies and repairs. You can feel the benefits of internet fax for yourself. By transforming your email

Online faxing is perfect for Real Estate Agents, Mobile Workers, Small Businesses, Home Offices ,Job Hunters, Consultants, Community Groups, Mortgage Brokers.

Email Fax Services


Email Based - Receive your faxes by email over the Internet. All fax communications are easily backed up and stored for future use.

Cost Effective-A fax by email solution will save your business money.

Convenient - No additional hardware or software required

Many ways are available to the user for faxes that are outgoing:

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How Does Ldap Work

(category: Communications, Word count: 308)
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Lightweight Directory Access Protocol or LDAP is a TCP/IP-based Internet protocol used by email programs and a few other applications to search and fetch information from a directory stored on a server. A directory is a data repository storing identical chunks of information in a hierarchical and logical sequence.

For instance, a telephone directory that has various subscriber names indexed alphabetically with associated telephone numbers and addresses is an example of a directory. This kind of a structure can easily be implemented using LDAP. However, this protocol is not limited to accessing just contact information about people. It can locate shared resources on a network like printers and scanners, and allow people to use the resources and other shared services using a single password.

LDAP can be successfully implemented where identical forms of sequentially stored information need to be accessed quickly and where updates are done very rarely. Email clients frequently use LDAP to access directory information from a server. Since LDAP does not support encryption, processes like updating and modifying information on the server from the client needs to be done using a secure SSL connection.

LDAP can also use DNS or Domain Name System to structure the top-level of its hierarchy. This enables the system to have a wide scope at the top end of the hierarchy, but at the same time funnel down to a single specific entity at the lower end of the hierarchy. For instance, the top level may represent countries, states or other large geographical boundaries, whereas the bottom end might point to a single document on a computer, a shared resource on a network or a particular individual's information. This makes the protocol very versatile in dealing with a large variety of applications.

The University of Michigan developed the LDAP protocol and its current version is LDAPv3.

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Hdtv Buying Guide Part Two

(category: Communications, Word count: 998)
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In my first article I wrote how there's never been a better time to buy a high definition (HD) television, and I had just preordered the Samsung HLS-5087W 50 inch rear projection DLP unit. The Samsung was delivered last Thursday and here's a summary of my initial reaction.

First let me give some background on preparing for the new HD television. I'm a satellite TV subscriber and needed to upgrade my DirecTV hardware to be HD-compatible. So last month I logged on to and ordered the HD upgrade package. For $200 DirecTV came out and replaced my old satellite dish with a new 5-LNB oval HD dish. The HD package included the lease of DirecTV's new H20 HD receiver, and also included installing a new UHF antenna on my roof to receive other-the-air (OTA) HD local broadcasts. The new dish and receiver were required for HD reception since DirecTV is transmitting local HD broadcasts in the new MPEG-4 compression format instead of the older MPEG-2 standard. Since HD material requires much more bandwidth than standard definition video, satellite and cable providers will be migrating to the new MPEG-4 standard over time and DirecTV is leading the way for now.

I was now all set to receive HD programming as soon as Samsung HLS-5087W arrived with one exception - an HDMI cable to output the digital video/audio signal from the H20 to the Samsung. I'm a big believer in investing in high quality cables for analog connections between audio/video components. But HDMI is a digital interface that transmits a stream of 0's and 1's. So either it works or it doesn't. I therefore bought a $20 HDMI cable on the Web instead of investing $90 or more for a Monster cable that I thought would yield exactly the same audio and video quality. One great thing about HDMI is that it carries both video and audio signals (in uncompressed, digital form) so you can easily reduce the cable clutter behind your home theater system.

Now everything was all set - I just needed the new Samsung to be delivered. I ordered the television from Crutchfield, which has a great reputation for customer service, is an authorized Samsung online retailer, and offered the television with no tax or shipping charges. The delivery guys brought the television into my living room, took it out of the box and placed it on my home theater stand. I connected the power cable, connected the HDMI cable form the H20 to the Samsung, turned on the power, modified the TV display type on the H20 from 4:3 to 16:9 and amazingly the new television just worked, right out of the box!

I was quickly in HD nirvana - watching local broadcasts in full 1080i and Dolby Digital 5.1, as well as premium services such as HBOHD and the various HD channels that are part of DirecTV's HD package. But how would the 150 DVDs I own (most of which I trade via Peerflix) look on the new HD Samsung? I first had to bring up the menu on my Panasonic DVD recorder/player and activate 480p output over the component cables that I connected to the Samsung. Most DVD players sold in the last three years can output a progressive signal (the "p" in 480p) over component cables instead of the normal interlaced picture transmitted on composite and S-video connections. 480p is a big visible improvement over 480i and you'll want to make sure you are watching all of you DVDs on a HD television using 480p.

I chose Shrek as the first DVD to showcase on the Samsung. Dreamworks did an amazing job with the animation quality of Shrek and thought the DVD would be a good test of the picture quality of a standard definition DVD on a HD television. So how did it look? One word sums it up - amazing! I don't expect I'll be going out to the movies much any more - I'll just wait for the DVD to come out.

On Saturday night I watched a broadcast of Steve Winwood in HD and Dolby Digital 5.1 on KQED, the local PBS affiliate. Being a huge Steve Winwood fan, and having seen Winwood on this tour at a local venue in 2005, I was eager to see what kind of audio/video experience the new HD unit could deliver via a local, OTA HD broadcast. Once again, I was just stunned by the picture quality and quickly went to KQED's web site to see what future Soundstage broadcasts are scheduled. I'm now eagerly awaiting Garbage's performance premiering next month.

There was one more thing left to do though before I could experience the maximum picture quality from the new Samsung - I needed to calibrate the picture for maximum video quality. Virtually all televisions sold today ship from the factory with video settings that are far from optimal. Colors are typically oversaturated, with too warm a tone, and sharpness, brightness and contrast controls that are far from optimal as well. So I dug out my copy of "Video Essentials: Optimizing Your Audio/Video System" DVD and spent a half hour adjusting the color, brightness, contrast and sharpness controls. The HLS-5087W has numeric display of each of these settings, which is a nice touch for those of us who go through the trouble of tweaking every setting possible for maximum picture quality. It was hard to believe that I could improve upon the quality of the Samsung's picture out of the box, but fine-tuning the picture settings resulted in a much more "film-like" appearance of movies from both my DVD player and H20 receiver.

I'm looking forward to watching the season premiere of HBO's Entourage series in full HD glory tonight. It's also going to be difficult holding off purchasing a HD DVD source with HD-DVD and Blu-ray players and titles now starting to appear. But I'll talk about that in my next article.

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How To Stream Your Teleseminar Audio Online

(category: Communications, Word count: 614)
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Teleseminars cost money for you and others to attend. One way to help bring more people into a teleseminar is to create streaming audio of your teleseminar over the Internet. Unfortunately, most methods of streaming audio over the Internet can be expensive, difficult to setup for the average user or both.

The good news is, you can now broadcast a streaming audio of your teleseminar very affordably, in a secure and private manner so you won't find any gate crashers if you sold access to the call. Here's how.

First, get a web conference room. Web conference rooms vary a lot from company to company but to broadcast your teleseminar you'd want to look for:

Good streaming audio quality. This is a given. While every technology is not perfect - even telephones have a lot of annoying beeps and static - many web conferencing services today have little problem with streaming audio. Often, issues with audio come from user inexperience or computer settings but this can easily be remedied with a little bit of help documentation and education.

The next biggest consideration is a room that'll give you flexible or good number of number of seats. You'll want this because it's often difficult to anticipate number or attendees. You can ask people to confirm and send reminders but there will always be a certain percentage of no shows.

This will be a little challenging because most web conference rooms sell by number of seats or per minute or both. Look for flat rate options instead.

Don't get distracted with the rest of the services like video if you're only looking for streaming audio. These usually bog down the system because of the huge amounts of bandwidth required to transmit video. Most web conferencing systems will have video conferencing capabilities already built in. Does that mean you shouldn't go with them even if everything else is right? No, because often you can 'turn off' the video or simply not use it and performance won't be affected. The point is it shouldn't be a major factor in your consideration unless you plan to transition to web conferencing and reduce the use of the telephone bridge.

Once you've nailed down the web conferencing service provider of choice, you'll need a key piece of equipment that'll pipe your telephone audio into the computer and vice versa. One of the best we've seen is the Dynametric TMP 636 or TMP 636S. Once you have this, hook it up and you're ready to broadcast streaming audio of your teleseminar online.

Now, you may ask why go through all that trouble when you can simply look for a web conferencing service who has built in telephone and streaming audio capabilities. That's a good question and can only be answered by you. Consider the cost for these integrated phone and streaming audio solutions? They will naturally cost more but beyond dollar amount, are there any limitations? Compare them with the cost of your existing teleconference call line, your (preferably fixed rate) web conferencing plan and the one time telephone patch.

So there you have it. One last pointer, consider how often you conduct teleseminars and the number of people attending as these are the biggest variables affecting cost. As a rule of thumb, if you don't conduct that many teleseminars or you have less people calling in, it'll work out better to have an integrated solution. After all, why buy a piece of equipment for streaming audio that you'll use infrequently. Given this information, you'll be able to easily figure out which is best for you.

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No Audio Device Error

(category: Communications, Word count: 219)
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If you have experienced a Windows "No Audio Device" error, it most likely means that your sound card is not installed properly. Even though other problems can cause this error, an improperly installed sound card is the most common reason. If the audio card isn't properly connected in the motherboard or you do not have an audio controller connected, you will get this error. Also, it is possible that the device you are trying to use is not compatible to the motherboard you are using.

Troubleshooting the most common error

Here are a few steps to take to solve the most common error, an improperly installed card:

You will first need to find your audio controlling device or controller. This controller is what gives you the ability to adjust the sound for everything. From your start menu, go to your control panel. Then, go to add hardware and search for the hardware yourself. Don't let the computer search for it automatically, because if it is improperly installed it may not be seen. Then, scroll down to sound devices and search for your audio controller. Check the properties of the device, and see if it is installed properly. If it isn't installed properly you will see a yellow highlighted question mark beside the device's name

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Buying A Cell Phone And Mobile Battery Problems

(category: Communications, Word count: 543)
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Buying a Cell Phone:

An Overview

Everyday different manufacturers around the world are introducing the models with the new features. This is what needs to be taken into consideration when you go for buying a cell phone. You need to be sure about the features you want that suit your lifestyle well.

The Money Matter

Nowadays there is so much choice for an individual to buy a cell phone. Every company is producing the models with state of the art technology and features everyday. Price is the main thing that makes a difference in these different models. An expensive phone is likely to have more features, reliability and a better technology than a cheap one. Everyone wants a best phone in the market for him but high price of the cell phones comes in the way therefore price is a big thing that needs to be kept in mind while buying a cellular phone. But expensive and sophisticated phones are not everyone's choice; there are people who just want a simple cell phone which is not much expensive but does its job well only as a cell phone. Also the extra features provided in the expensive phones are not everyone's need.Therefore the price is a main thing to keep in mind whenever you to buy a cell phone. Do not buy a cell phone just because it is expensive; buy the one that suits your needs.

Choices in Different Vendors and their Models

Lucky for the customers that nowadays there are a huge number of cell phone manufacturers who have a vast number of models for customers to choose from. Every vendor holds certain advantages that the other lacks in. This creates a great competition which is very healthy for the cell phone industry. Also this competition results in the reduction of the price which is beneficial for the end user. Some people have liking for a certain brand but they still have a lot of choice in the models offered by the same brand. Every other day a new model is launched by a company, this is a strategy of companies to keep a customer stick to their brand and attract more.

Research is Always Better

It is always better to research about the phone you are going to buy before you set out to actually buy it. There are number of ways to know about that phone, the best one is internet. You can read the product reviews on the internet for that phone and know if there are any issues with it. You can also know the people's view about the certain features offered by that particular device on internet. Also try to read the review by some critic about that phone; it will further clarify its view in your mind.

Miobile Battery Problems

Your Mobile Battery is Very Low, you are expecting an important call and you don't have a c harger". Nokia instrument comes with a reserve battery. To activate the battery, the key-in *3370# your cell will restart with this reserve and your instrument will show a 50% increase in battery. This reserve will get charged when you charge your mobile next time.

Latest Mobile Phone News

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Video Projector Tv Technology

(category: Communications, Word count: 440)
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For the ultimate home theater experience, serious viewers need a video projector and screen combination. Nothing compares to the image quality and screen size that this type of set-up can afford. A variety of video projectors are now on the market, giving consumers many good options for purchase. Today's video projectors use different kinds of technology, including cutting-edge liquid crystal display (LCD) and digital light processing (DLP) methods, and each kind has its pros and cons. Most projectors are compact and easy to assemble, requiring replacement of a light bulb every thousand hours or so. For maximum effect, projectors are best used in a darkened room, just like a movie theater. Before making the purchase of a video projector, be sure to consider the factors covered below. The usual issues that apply to video devices also apply to projectors: Things like resolution, brightness, contrast, pixel ratio, color quality, number of inputs for external devices, aspect ratio and overall size are important. Of course, price counts also.

Because there's only so much room in your home, think about how much space you're willing to devote to the video projector set-up before buying. It's wise to invest in a projector that's compact and easy to move. Portability can make all the difference. A compact projector can be easily positioned in a room or completely dismantled. You can try out different arrangements at home and find out the most ideal location for viewing.

Before buying, look for what's known as the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Lumens rating. This rating indicates the brightness produced by the video projector. If the model has a rating of 1,000 or more, it will work well in your home. Keep in mind that the size of your screen and the distance you'll be sitting from it have an influence on brightness.

Contrast ratio is another important factor to think about before buying. Contrast ratio works in conjunction with brightness to deliver a strong image. With a high contrast ratio, viewers will get images with bright whites and deep blacks. Decent contrast ratios start at 1500:1 and go up. 2,000:1 is ideal for home theater.

Pixel density is also critical to the quality of your projector. Generally speaking, a high pixel density equals a good picture. Viewers of high definition programming should be especially aware of pixel density when shopping for a video projector and find a model with a very high pixel count. A count of about 1024 x 728 is fine for regular DVD viewing. HDTV requires a count of 1280 X 720 or 1920 X 1080, depending on the signal.

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Dish Network The Way To See The World

(category: Communications, Word count: 376)
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Owned by EchoStar Communications Corporation, the Dish network was launched in March, 1996. Dish network is the fastest-growing digital satellite television service provider in the United States, with a subscriber base of 12 million. They provide various types programming packages, delivering 250 channels with free equipment and installation parts.

Dish network offers 110 foreign-language channels covering 25 different languages, thus connecting people. The best part of a Dish network is its interactive channel. There are over 22 virtual interactive channels that allow viewers at home to shop, play games, and much more. Dish network service allows viewers to restrict inappropriate channels by removing it from the list.

Dish network has a 24 hour customer service, as they care a lot about their customer relationships. Almost all the dish network dealers offer life time warranty for the basic satellite equipments and require no maintenance. A minimal monthly subscription cost is required for enjoying 24 hours a day entertainment. There are special names assigned to the Dish network packages depending on the number of channels that a subscriber can view. Some of the names of the packages are America's Top 60, America's Top 120, America's Top 180, and more.

Some of the channels that you can view with the help of a Dish network are Animal Planet, BBC America, Bravo, Cinemax, CNN, Comedy Central, CNBC, The Discovery Channel, Disney Channel, ESPN, The Fox Channels, HBO, Hallmark, Sci-Fi Channel, Soapnet, Style, Toon Disney, TV Guide Channel, and much more. You can also view some local channels with the help of a free second dish.

Dish network provides satellite transmitted, high quality audio and video data to various places all over the United States. Almost all the dealers of Dish network provide free DVR and HD receivers. Dish network, catering 24 hours to customer needs, was ranked No. 1 in customer satisfaction by J.D Power and Associates Cable/Satellite TV Customer Satisfaction Study. Dish network was also ranked No. 1 in customer satisfaction by University of Michigan Business School. Dish network offers 100% digital picture, with theatre quality sound and highly acclaimed customer service. It is economical and provides you with the latest equipments like the DVR and HD.

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