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Compact Excavator

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 468)
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The compact hydraulic excavator can be a tracked or

wheeled vehicle with an approximate operating weight

of 13,300 pounds. Normally, it includes a standard

backfill blade and features an independent boom

swing. The compact hydraulic excavator is also

known as a mini excavator.

A compact hydraulic excavator is different from other

types of heavy machinery in the sense that all

movement and functions of the machine are accomplished

through the transfer of hydraulic fluid. The work

group and blade are activated by hydraulic fluid

acting upon hydraulic cylinders. The rotation and

travel functions are also activated by hydraulic

fluid powering hydraulic motors.

Most types of compact hydraulic excavators have

three assemblies - house, undercarriage, and the

work group.


The house structure contains the compartment for

the operator, engine compartment, hydraulic pump

and also the distribution components. The house

structure is attached to the top of the undercarriage

via swing bearing. Along with the work group, the

house is able to rotate upon the undercarriage

without limit due to a hydraulic distribution valve

that supplies oil to the undercarriage components.


The undercarriage of compact excavators consists of

rubber or steel tracks, drive sprockets, rollers,

idlers, and associated components and structures.

The undercarriage is also home to the house

structure and the work group.

Work group

The work group consists of the boom, dipper or

arm, and attachment. It is connected to the front

of the house structure via a swinging frame that

allows the work group to be hydraulically pivoted

left or right in order to achieve offset digging

for trenching parallel with the tracks.

Independent boom swing

The purpose of the boom swing is for offset

digging around obstacles or along foundations,

walls, and forms. Another use is for cycling in

areas that are too narrow for cab rotation. Another

major advantage of the compact excavator is the

independent boom swing.

Backfill blade

The backfill blade on compact excavators are used

for grading, leveling, backfilling, trenching,

and general dozer work. The blade can also be

used to increase the dumping height and digging

depth depending on it's position in relation to

the workgroup.

The most common place you'll find compact excavators

is in residential dwellings. When digging phone

lines or other things, these pieces of equipment

are very common for getting between houses. Due

to their small size, they can fit almost anywhere.

Over the years, the capabilities for compact

excavators have expanded far beyond the tasks of

excavation. With hydraulic powered attachments

such as breakers, clamps, compactors and augers,

the compact excavator is used with many other

applications and serves as an effective attachment

tool as well. Serving many purposes, the compact

excavator is a great addition to any job that

requires the use of machinery.

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Backhoe Loader

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 471)
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Also referred to as a loader backhoe, the backhoe

loader is an engineering and excavation vehicle that

consists of a tractor, front shovel and bucket and

a small backhoe in the rear end. Due to the small

size and versatility, backhoe loaders are common

with small construction projects and excavation type


Originally invented in Burlington Iowa back in 1857,

the backhoe loader is the most common variation of

the classic farm tractor. As the name implies, it

has a loader assembly on the front and a backhoe

attachment on the back.

Anytime the loader and backhoe are attached it is

never referred to as a tractor, as it is not normally

used for towing and doesn't normally have a PTO.

When the backhoe is permanently attached, the

machine will normally have a seat that can swivel

to the rear to face the backhoe controls. Any type

of removable backhoe attachments will normally have

a seperate seat on the attachment itself.

Backhoe loaders are common and can be used for many

tasks, which include construction, light transportation

of materials, powering building equipment, digging

holes and excavating, breaking asphalt, and even

paving roads.

You can often replace the backhoe bucket with

other tools such as a breaker for breaking and

smashing concrete and rock. There are some loader

buckets that offer a retractable bottom, which

enable it to empty the load more quickly and


The retractable bottom loader buckets are often

times used for grading and scratching off sand.

The front assembly on a backhoe may be either

removable or permanently attached. Often times,

the bucket can be replaced with other tools or

devices. In order to mount different attachments

to the loader, it must be equipped with a tool

coupler. The coupler consists of two hydraulic

cylinders on the end of the arm assembly, which

can expand and retract to allow different tools to

be attached to the unit.

There are several types of backhoe loader brands,

including New Holland, John Deere, and Case. Some

will offer you cabs, while others won't. The

newer types of backhoe loaders even offer you air

conditioning, radios, and other accessories that

make you feel like you are working with luxury.

Common with excavating jobs, the backhoe can serve

many purposes. It can haul equipment and supplies

in the loader bucket. Another great use is to cover

up dirt when filling in trench lines or covering

up pipe that was just put in the ground. The

backhoe attachment at the rear is ideal for digging

water pipes and sewer pipes.

The best thing about the backhoe loader is the

fact that they are easy to operate. You don't

need to be a rocket scientist to fully operate this

nifty piece of equipment.

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Comparing Trenchers To Compact Excavators

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 478)
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Both of these machines are affordable, popular,

highly productive, and they both have helped lay a

lot of cable and pipe in the ground. While they

both can do the work, there are differences as

to how they perform when stacked up against each

other in residential utility installations.

Size and price

The average dig depth for utility installations in

residential applications is between 40 and 48

inches. The basic trencher that digs to the above

depth will boast a 20 - 30 horsepower engine and

cost around 40,000 dollars.

The most popular type of compact excavator is the

2.5 metric ton size class, and it uses a 30 HP

engine and costs around the same price. The

biggest difference in the two surfaces when you

need the trencher to dig deeper. The 2.5 metric

ton excavator has no trouble at all digging to 8

feet or more, although a trencher that can dig

that deep will require an engine with around 100

horsepower and cost upwards of 90,000 dollars!

Life costs

Not counting the bucket teeth and the replacement

of the rubber tracks at 2,000 hours, fuel and

routine maintenance are your only daily costs

with a compact excavator. The digging chain, teeth,

and sprockets on the trenchers are considered

wear items and need to be replaced often. Even

with the high consumable costs of trenchers, the

differences will tend to even out when productivity

is taken into effect.


For straight line trenching at an average depth,

trenchers will flat out lead compact excavators.

Under reasonable conditions, a trencher can work

three to four times faster than that of a compact

excavator. Another area where trenchers really

excel is wooded areas, where tree roots and logs

can make for slow and sloppy digging when using a



When it comes down to it, compact excavators can

do a lot of things that trenchers can't, especially

when they have attachments on hand. If you are

digging with a compact excavator, you can't go

anywhere near as fast as you can with a good quality


Keep in mind that a trencher isn't a single minded

machine either. Most styles of trenchers can be

outfitted with a backhoe attachment that attaches

to the front end. Whenever concrete, rocks, or

asphalt stands in the way, the boom and chain can

be replaced with rock teeth and a wheel. In soft

soils, you can set up a trencher with a plow

attachment and plow in cables faster than using

any other available method.

When it comes down to choosing, keep in mind that

it all depends on your needs. There are some

cases where the compact excavator is best to

choose, while there will also be jobs in which

the trencher is going to do the best work.

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(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 612)
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The bulldozer is a very powerful crawler that is

equipped with a blade. The term bulldozer is often

used to mean any type of heavy machinery, although

the term actually refers to a tractor that is fitted

with a dozer blade.

Often times, bulldozers are large and extremely

powerful tracked vehicles. The tracks give them

amazing ground mobility and hold through very rough

terrain. Wide tracks on the other hand, help to

distribute the weight of the dozer over large areas,

therefore preventing it from sinking into sandy or

muddy ground.

Bulldozers have great ground hold and a torque

divider that's designed to convert the power of the

engine into dragging ability, which allows it to

use its own weight to push heavy objects and even

remove things from the ground. Take the Caterpillar

D9 for example, it can easily tow tanks that weight

more than 70 tons. Due to these attributes,

bulldozers are used to clear obstacles, shrubbery,

and remains of structures and buildings.

The blade

The blade on a bulldozer is the heavy piece of

metal plate that is installed on the front. The

blade pushes things around. Normally, the blade

comes in 3 varieties:

1. A straight blade that is short and has

no lateral curve, no side wings, and can be used

only for fine grading.

2. A universal blade, or U blade, which is

tall and very curved, and features large side wings

to carry more material around.

3. A combination blade that is shorter,

offers less curvature, and smaller side wings.


Over time, bulldozers have been modified to evolve

into new machines that are capable of things the

original bulldozers weren't. A good example is

that loader tractors were created by removing the

blade and substituting a large volume bucket

and hydraulic arms which will raise and lower the

bucket, therefore making it useful for scooping

up the earth and loading it into trucks.

Other modifications to the original bulldozer

include making it smaller to where it can operate

in small working areas where movement is very

limited, such as mining caves and tunnels. Very

small bulldozers are known as calfdozers.


The first types of bulldozers were adapted from

farm tractors that were used to plough fields. In

order to dig canals, raise earth dams, and partake

in earthmoving jobs, the tractors were equipped

with a thick metal plate in the front. Later

on, this thick metal plate earned the name blade.

The blade of the bulldozer peels layers of soil

and pushes it forward as the tractor advances.

The blade is the heart and soul of the bulldozer,

as it was the first accessory to make full use

for excavation type jobs.

As the years went by, when engineers needed

equipment to complete larger jobs, companies such

as CAT, Komatsu, John Deere, Case, and JCB started

to manufacture large tracked earthmoving equipment.

They were very loud, very large, and very powerful

and therefore earned the nickname "bulldozer".

Over the years, the bulldozers got bigger, more

powerful, and even more sophisticated. The

important improvements include better engines,

more reliable drive trains, better tracks, and

even hydraulic arms that will enable more precise

manipulation of the blade and automated controls.

As an added option, bulldozers can come equipped

with a rear ripping claw to break up pavement or

loosen rocky soil.

The best known manufacturer of bulldozer is CAT,

which has earned a vast reputation for making

tough and durable, yet reliable machines. Even

though the bulldozer started off a modified farm

tractor, it rapidly became one of the most useful

pieces of equipment with excavating and construction.

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Easy Site Prep

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 624)
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Site prep is the best term that is used to describe

the operations necessary to make raw land ready

to accept improvements such as buildings, parking

lots, roads, and other amenities. Once the project

has been completed, the site prep is invisible.

The term site prep is a broad term that can include

several different tasks, such as clearing and

grubbing, soil erosion, sediment control, storm

drains, water and sewer pipes, topsoil stripping,

rock removal, underground utility, and several

other tasks.

Soil erosion and management

To protect the quality of the water, soil erosion

and sediment control measures are vital. With

most locations, storm water permitting is

required. All erosion and sediment control

measures and devices must be in place and inspected

before the first tree drops or first shovel full

of dirt is removed.

The designs for storm water management systems

are becoming more and more complex. The detension

basins have complex and spiraling side slopes

and bottoms that have almost flat grades.


The limits of clearing can be marked with a GPS

dozer. By following the outline of the display

in the cab, the bulldozer can cut a path through

the wooded area so other equipment will have a

clear line to go by.

The traditional method used to clear debris, such

as burning, is rapidly fading away. The air

pollution standards will prevent any type of

burning of most areas across the United States.

Site prep made easy

Depending on the job site, what you have to do will

vary greatly. With excavation, what is needed to

complete a job is as different as night and day. No

matter what type of work you are doing, it will

almost always require the use of heavy machinery.

Clearing lots for houses, grading roads, laying

pipe, fixing water leaks, and digging foundations

are just some of the most common tasks found with

the art of excavation. To do this type of work,

it takes a special individual as work is outdoors

year round, meaning that you freeze in the winter

and burn up in the summer.

Laying pipe is a task that takes skill. You first

must dig the trench for the pipe, making sure that

the elevation is right, and that the pipe will meet

the specifications listed in the blueprints. There

are several different types of pipe that needs to

be layed, including water, sewer, and storm drains.

When you first begin your job, you'll need to have

the proper permits from the area that you are going

to be disturbing the ground in. Once you have

the proper permits, you can begin your work. With

some jobs, you'll need to document on paper just

how much land you disturb each day.

Sometimes with excavation, the job site and plans

will call for ponds or temporary ponds. This can

be fun to do, although you have to be careful as

well. Very common with sub divisions, ponds are

something that take a lot of skill to dig right.

Manholes are something else that you will encounter

as well. You can use machinery to set them in place,

although they will need to go a certain way. The

easiest way to put them in place is by using an

excavator, as you can lower it down and have a

couple of workers set it in place.

Anytime you are working on an excavation site, you

should always be careful and make sure you do things

by the book. There are always rules and regulations

that you need to follow. Excavation is a very fun

trade, although you'll need to be well versed with

following plans, running machinery, and having fun


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Caterpillar D Series

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 621)
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The CAT (Caterpillar) 420D and 430D backhoe loaders

are the high performance machines in the D series

lineup. The 420D boasts 85 HP and a backhoe digging

depth of 14 feet when equipped with a standard


The 430D offers 94 HP and a backhoe digging depth

of 15 feet when it is equipped with a standard

stick. By using an extendible stick, you can

push the digging depth of the 420D to 18 feet and

the depth of the 430D to 19 feet, which is very

impressive to say the least.

Both D series machines are available in IT

(Integrated Toolcarrier) configurations for

applications that benefit from a parallel lift

loader linkage and the versatility of quick work

tool changes through the use of a versatile

hydraulic quick coupler. Applications include the

use of pallet forks, material handling arms,

brooms, and even buckets.

The new and improved pilot operated hydraulic backhoe

and IT loader controls will help to ensure smooth,

precise operation with reduced effort on behalf of

the operator. These backhoes use excavator type

joystick controls, and an optional pattern change

valve which allows you to select the patern of


The 205 degree rotation that is offered by the

backhoe bucket linkage will make it easier to dig

vertical walls and clamp material when loading

trucks. The rotation with the D series is 40

degrees more than with the C series. Now, the

backhoe buckets feature a single pin position,

with the bucket link featuring an integrated

lifting eye as well.

The optional quick coupler you can get for the

backhoe will allow fast changes of working tools

for increased versatility and flexibility in

almost all applications.

Both of the D series backhoe loaders use the

turbocharged, direct injection, four cylinder diesel

engine, with a displacement of 4.0 liters. This

engine offers superior lug performance which is

mostly due to the responsive fuel injection


The standard power shuttle transmission provides

four forward speeds and four speeds in reverse

as well. Fully synchromesh in all gears will

permit on the go shifting, while the forward and

reverse electric power shuttle will provide

instant direction changes through powered


The auto shifting feature will automatically

shift between second gear and the highest gear

selected for ease of operation. The auto shift

feature has five forward and three reverse gears,

with a transmission kick switch on the lever of

the loader control.

With D series loaders, you'll also have the choice

of standard two wheel drive or all wheel drive,

which you can engage easily on the go, under

heavy load, by pressing a switch that is located

on the front console.

The D series loaders from CAT are very fast and

versatile as well, as they will move faster than

most types of backhoes on the market. The

diesel engines are very fast, while the machine

has enough traction and control to keep you

moving even in wet or muddy conditions.

The variable load sensing hydraulic system will

adjust the flow and pressure of the machine to

meet the demands of work with an increased

pressure of 3,300 PSI. The hydraulic system is

tuned to work efficiently with the engine, and

it provides full hydraulic force to the working

tool on hand at any engine speed you desire.

Unlike other backhoe loaders, the D series will

reduce demands on the operator, cut fuel consumption

in half, reduce wear on the engine, and allow

for quieter operation. To make a long story

short - the D series from CAT are among the best

backhoe loaders that money can buy - bar none.

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Skid Loader

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 657)
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The skid loader is a rigid frame, engine powered

machine with lift arms that are used to attach a

wide variety of labor saving tools or attachments.

Skid loaders are normally four wheel drive with

left side drive wheels that are independent of

right side drive wheels. With each side being

independent to the other, the wheel speed and

direction of rotation of the wheels will determine

which direction the loader turns.

Skid loaders are capable of turning in their own

tracks, which makes them very maneuverable and

valuable for jobs that require the use of compact,

agile loader.

Unlike conventional front loaders, the lift arms

lay beside the driver with the major pivot points

located behind the shoulders of the operator. Due

to the operator being in close proximity to moving

booms and buckets, earlier models of skid loaders

weren't as safe as conventional front loaders,

particularly during entering and exiting.

Skid loaders today have fully enclosed cabs and

other safety features that will protect the operator

from injury. Just like other front loaders,

the skid steer can scrape material from one

location to another, carry material in a bucket,

or load material on a truck or a trailer.


A skid loader can sometimes take the place of a

large excavator by digging a hole out from the

inside. The skid loader will first dig a ramp

that leads to the edge of the hole. Then, the

loader will use the ramp to carry material out

of the hole.

The skid loader will then reshape the ramp by

making it steeper and longer as the excavation

gets deeper. This method is very useful for

digging under an overhead structure where the

overhead clearance doesn't allow for the boom of

a large excavator, such as those situations where

you are digging a basement under a house.

The bucket of most types of skid loaders can be

replaced with several specialized buckets or

attachments, many of which are powered by the

hydraulic system of the loader.


The first 3 wheeled front end loader was invented

by two brothers, Cyril and Louis Keller in their

machinist shop in Minnesota back in 1957. The

Kellers built the loader to help a nearby farmer

clean turkey manure from his two story barn. The

light and compact loader, with the rear caster

wheel, was able to turn around within the length

of itself, while performing the very same tasks as

conventional front end loaders.

Down the road, the Melroe manufacturing company

in Gwinner ND, purchased the rights to the Keller

loader in 1958 and hired the brothers to continue

their loader invention. Resulting from the

partnership, the M-200 self propelled loader was

introduced at the end of 1958.

The loader featured two independent front drive

wheels and a rear caster wheel, a 12.9 engine and

a 750 lb lift capacity. Two years later, they

ended up replacing the caster wheel with a rear

axle and introduced the M-400 loader, which was

the first four wheel skid steer loader in the


In 1962, the Bobcat name was added to describe

the key features of the machine - touch, agile, and

quick. The M-440 was powered by a 15.5 HP engine

and offered a 1100 lb rated operating capacity.

In the mid 1960s, the skid steer loader progressed

with the introduction of the M600 loader.

Years later, the Bobcat skid steer loader experienced

quite a few changes, including the development of

a hydrostatic drive system, enforced cab structures,

radius and vertical lift arm configurations,

deluxe instrumentation, and even heating and air


In addition to the rubber tire skid loaders of today,

there are now all-wheel steer loaders and even

compact track loaders. Compact track loads offer

less ground disturbance and feature better traction

and control in soft, muddy, wet, and even sandy

ground conditions.

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Hydraulic Machinery

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 602)
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Hydraulic machinery are machines and tools that use

fluid power to do the work. Almost all types of

heavy equipment is a common example. With this type

of equipment, hydraulic fluid is pumped to a high

pressure then transmitted through the machine to

various actuators.

The hydraulic pumps are powered by engines or electric

motors. The pressurized fluid is controlled by the

operator with control valves and then distributed

through hoses and tubes.

The increasing popularity of hydraulic machinery is

due to the large amount of power that is transferred

through small tubes and flexible hoses. The high

power density and wide array of actuators can make

use of this power.

Hydraulic power

The theory that lies behind hydraulic equipment is

fluid pressure.

1. A force that acts on a small area can

create a bigger force by acting on a larger area

by hydrostatic pressure.

2. A large amount of energy can be carried

by a small flow of highly pressurized fluid.


A hydraulic pump will supply the fluid to the

components in the system. Pressure in the system

will develop in reaction to the load. Pumps have

a power density of around ten times greater than

an electric motor. The pumps are powered by an

electric motor or engine, which is connected through

gears, belts, or a flexible elastomeric coupling

to reduce the heavy vibration.

The common types of hydraulic pumps for hydraulic

machinery applications include:

1. Gear pump - the gear pump is cheap,

durable, and simple. It is less efficient, simply

because it is constant displacement and suitable

for pressures that are below 3,000 psi.

2. Vane pump - vane pumps are cheap, simple,

and reliable. They are good pumps for higher flow

low pressure output.

Hoses and tubes

A hydraulic hose is graded by pressure, temperature,

and compatibility of fluid. A rubber interior is

surrounded by multiple layers of woven wire and

rubber. The exterior of the hose is designed for

resistance against abrasion.

The bending radius of the hydraulic hose is

designed very carefully into the machine, since

a hose failure can be deadly, and violating the

minimum bend radius of the hose can also cause


A hydraulic pipe is thick enough to have threads

cut into it for connections. It's rarely used

for high pressure systems though, which prefer to

have tubes or hoses. The pipe itself lends to

weldings and can also be used to fabricate the


Hydraulic pipes on the other hand are preferred

over hoses whenever possible, as they are simply

more durable. Tubes are also preferred over pipes,

as they weigh a lot less. Hydraulic tubes will

normally have flared ends and captive nuts to

make connections. They can also be steel welded

with floating nuts and face seal fittings on the


Both tubes and pipes for hydraulic applications

traditionally haven't been plated or painted,

since the temperature and oil they operate under

drive away moisture and reduce the risk of rust.


The fittings with hydraulic machinery serve

several purposes:

1. To bride different standards, such

as the O-ring boss to JIC or pipe threads to the

face seal.

2. Allows proper orientation of

components, as a 45 or 90 degree, straight, or

even swivel fitting will be chosen as it is

needed. They are designed to be positioned in

the correct orientation and then tightened as


3. To incorporate bulkhead hardware.

4. A quick disconnect fitting may be

added to a machine without having to modify hoses

or valves.

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Case Cx700 And Cx330

(category: Excavation-Equipment, Word count: 472)
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The company of Case has done it again, by introducing

yet another spectacular excavator, the CX700, which

weighs in at 70 metric tons and represents a new

size for Case, fitting perfectly between the CX460

and CX800 models. Case has also taken advantage of

Tier 3 technologies and upgraded the CX330, increasing

the power and improving fuel economy, all while adding

features that will enhance comfort for the operator

and simplify maintenance.


The CX700 is a powered by a high performance, fuel

efficient Isuzu engine that is completely Tier 3

certified. With an operating weight of 153,400 lbs.

and over 400 HP, the CX700 is capable of digging to

31 feet 11 inches with reaches up to 46 feet 11 inches.

The frame for the CX700 is based on the larger CX800

to ensure optimum durability and reliability,

especially given the powerful performance specs the

machine calls for.

New to the Case CX700 is a switch that will allow

you to give priority to either the boom or the swing

functions. The CX700 also offers retractable side

frames and an optional counterweight removal device,

which makes transporting easier than ever before.

More durable

The Isuzu engine that powers the CX700 is fully

electronic and uses a high pressure rail system that

provides a 5% increase in HP and also gives the

excavator 10% better fuel economy.

Several enhancements have been made to the CX330

upon releasing the CX700, including the overall

reliabilty and durability of the machine, which

includes the strength of the front idlers by beefing

up the thickness and design of the center hub and

improving the track seal design for increased life.


Several of the features that come standard with the

CX700 are upgrades for the CX330 that will also be

applied to other large Case excavator models that

move forward. The key upgrades include ease of

maintenance and servicing. Both the CX330 and CX700

models feature an easy maintenance system, lubricated

bushings throughout the boom and arm, which provides

extended lube periods of up to 1,000 hours. The

engine oil filters are now mounted vertically in

the pump house access area, which allows for easier

access and servicing.

The addition of a modified oil drain plug with a

check valve will make it easier than ever to change

oil. Both the CX330 and CX700 both offer finer

fuel filtration, up to four microns, which provides

increased uptime and improved fuel performance.

The upgraded cooling system features a design that

reduces the stacking of coolers for better cooling

efficiency and also improves access to ease the

removal of debris. In addition to this, the Case

CX700 also features a hydraulically driven,

thermostat controlled reversible fan for improving

the cooling of the engine and easy cleanout of the


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