Cisco Ccnp Bsci Tutorial The Role Of The Ospf Asbr
To pass the BSCI exam and earn your CCNP certification, you've got to master the (many) details of OSPF. You might have thought there were quite a few OSPF details in your CCNA studies, but you'll now build on that foundation on the way to earning your CCNP.
One such detail is the role of the Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR) in OSPF. The name itself raises some eyebrows, since you learned in your CCNA studies that OSPF doesn't use autonomous systems! Just as an OSPF Area Border Router borders multiple OSPF areas, the ASBR borders the entire OSPF domain and another source of routes. This can be another dynamic routing protocol, or directly connected networks that are not being advertised into OSPF by the network command.
Let's say we have a router running both OSPF and RIP version 2. By default, the RIP process will not contain any OSPF-discovered routes, and vice versa. The two separate routing processes are just that - separate. If we want the other OSPF routers to know about the RIP routes, route redistribution must be configured. When the RIP routes are redistributed into OSPF, that router is then an ASBR.
In the below example, RIP subnets have been redistributed into OSPF. A seed metric is not necessary when redistributing routes into OSPF. The command "show ip ospf" confirms that this router is now an ASBR.
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets
R1#show ip ospf
Routing Process "ospf 1? with ID 18.104.22.168
Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
Supports opaque LSA
It is an autonomous system boundary router
The ASBR can also perform route summarization on the routes being injected into OSPF with the summary-address command. (To configure OSPF inter-area summarization, use the area range command.) By mastering route summarization and route redistribution, you're well on your way to passing the BSCI exam and earning your CCNP certification!
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The Hidden Benefit Of Computer Certifications
The web is covered with stories regarding the benefits of professional computer certification, and most of them are backed up with salary surveys and the like. While there's certainly nothing wrong with making more money and having better job prospects, there's one benefit of certification that many candidates forget about.
You can't pay your rent with confidence you can't pay for gas with confidence you can't pay for ANYTHING with confidence, right? So who cares, right?
Wrong. The confidence you build from truly earning a certification, whether it's an MCSE, CCNA, or CCIE, cannot be purchased, borrowed, or stolen. It has to be earned.
What do I mean by "truly earned"? First, I'm referring to those little documents out there generally referred to as "braindumps". If you buy one of these things and happen to skate by a certification exam, did you learn anything? No. Did you learn anything? No. Are you going to be effective on the job? No. As I tell my students, when you're standing in front of a server or router that isn't working, and all eyes are on you to troubleshoot the problem, the correct answer is not "B". There is no multiple choice.
Secondly, I'm referring to the hope that the certification you earn was earned by taking a demanding exam.
Now, you're probably thinking "okay, Chris has lost his mind. I should HOPE the test is demanding?"
Yes, you should. There's nothing more useless than earning a certification that's easy to get. There's no feeling of pride, of achievement furthermore, if everyone else has that certification, what value does it have?
I can speak from experience on this one. Those of you relatively new to the field may never have used NT 4.0, but the MCSE NT 4.0 was the certification that ended up causing a lot of damage to the value of professional certifications. EVERYBODY had one. The tests were repetitive and far too simple, there were no simulation questions, and the exams required no real hands-on experience.
As a result, my MCSE NT 4.0 had little value. I also felt no sense of pride in achieving it.
Thankfully, exam vendors and authors seem to have learned their lesson. Cisco exams are not easy to pass, and the initial Cisco certification, the CCNA, demands hands-on knowledge and experience. Microsoft is (finally) adding simulator questions to their certification exams as well, and the MCSE exams have gotten tougher as well.
So if you should happen to fail an exam along the way to the top - and almost all of us do - just keep in mind that if the exams were not demanding, they would have no value.
After all, if it were easy, everyone would be doing it!
Cisco Ccna Certification Exam Five Frame Relay Details You Must Know
When you're studying for your CCNA exam on the way to earning this coveted Cisco certification, the details can seem overwhelming! In this article, I'll point out five Frame Relay details that you must keep in mind when you're on your way to the CCNA exam!
Inverse ARP starts working as soon as you open the serial interface. This protocol performs dynamic Frame Relay mapping, but you don't have to enable it - it's already enabled as soon as you enter the command "encapsulation frame-relay".
When you're configuring Frame Relay map statements manually, remember that you're mapping the local DLCI to the remote IP address.
When you run "show frame map", the word "dynamic" indicates mappings created by Inverse ARP, and "static" indicates it was manually created.
To spot possible LMI type mismatches, run "show frame lmi". A large number of Status Timeouts indicates that there may be an LMI problem between your router and the frame relay switch.
This last one is for the many of you building CCNA home labs. A frame relay switch is a great addition to your lab! While you're busy putting the configuration together, don't forget the global command "frame-relay switching" - it's this command that allows a Cisco router to act as a frame relay switch!
Cisco Ccna Ccnp Exam Tutorial Five Debugs You Must Know
To pass the BSCI exam and move one step closer to CCNP certification success, you've got to know how and when to use debug commands to troubleshoot and verify network operations. While you should never practice debug commands on a production network, it's important to get some hands-on experience with them and not rely on "router simulators" and books to learn about them.
When it comes to RIP, "debug ip rip" is the primary debug to use. This debug will show you the contents of the routing update packets, and is vital in diagnosing RIP version mismatches and routing update authentication issues.
You know how to use the variance command to configure unequal-cost load-sharing with IGRP, but IGRP has no topology table that will give you the feasible successor metrics you need. With IGRP, you need to use the "debug ip igrp transactions" command to get these vital metrics.
Several factors are considered by OSPF-enabled routers when it comes to forming adjacencies, including hello and dead timer settings. If an adjacency doesn't form when you think it should, run "debug ip ospf adj". The reason the adjacency isn't forming is usually seen quickly with this command's output.
Let's not ignore Layer Two! If frame relay mappings are not forming according to your configuration, run "debug frame lmi". This debug will allow you to quickly diagnose and correct any LMI mismatches.
When it comes to PPP, it can be very frustrating to try to spot a problem with a password or username. Instead of staring at the configuration for 10 minutes, run "debug ppp negotiation" and send a ping over the link. This command will help you spot the router with the misconfigured username or password, not to mention saving you a lot of time!
Effectively using debugs during your CCNA and CCNP exam study will help you truly understand what's going on "behind the command" - and it will really come in handy on that day when your production network just isn't doing what you (think) you told it to do!
Cisco Ccna Certification Broadcasts Unicasts And Multicasts
When you begin your CCNA studies, you get hit with a lot of different networking terms right away that you might not be familiar with. What makes it a little more confusing is that a lot of these terms sound a lot alike. Here, we're going to discuss the differences between broadcasts, multicasts, and unicasts at both the Data Link (Layer 2) and Network (Layer 3) layers of the OSI model.
A broadcast is simply a unit of information that every other device on the segment will receive. A broadcast is indicated by having every bit of the address set to its highest possible value. Since a hexadecimal bit's highest value is "f", a hexadecimal broadcast is ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff (or FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF, as the upper case does not affect hex value). The CCNA exam will demand you be very familiar with hex conversions, so if you're not comfortable with these conversions, get comfortable with them before taking the exam!
At layer 3, a broadcast is indicated by setting every bit in the 32-bit binary string to "1", making the dotted decimal value 255.255.255.255. Every host on a segment will receive such a broadcast. (Keep in mind that switches will forward a broadcast, but routers do not.) In contrast to a broadcast, a unicast is a packet or frame with only one destination.
There is a middle ground between broadcasts and unicasts, and that is a multicast. Where a broadcast will be received by all, and a unicast is received by only one host, a multicast will be received by multiple hosts, all belonging to a "multicast group". As you climb the Cisco certification pyramid, you'll be introduced to creating multicast groups and controlling multicast traffic, but for your CCNA studies you need only keep certain multicast groups in mind.
Class D addresses are reserved for multicasting this range is 22.214.171.124 - 126.96.36.199. The addresses 188.8.131.52 - 184.108.40.206 are reserved for use by network protocols on a local network segment, and like broadcasts, routers will not forward these multicast packets. (Packets with these addresses are sent with a Time To Live of 1.)
As a CCNA candidate, you should know that OSPF routers use the address 220.127.116.11 to send hellos, EIGRP routers use 18.104.22.168 to send updates, and RIP version 2 uses 22.214.171.124 to send routing updates. RIP version 1 and IGRP both broadcast their updates.
Multicasting gets a bit more complicated as you go from your CCNA to the CCNP and CCIE, but by simply understanding what multicasting is, you go a long way toward securing the CCNA.
Cisco Ccna Exam Tutorial Ccna Recertification Requirements
Passing the CCNA exam and earning this coveted Cisco certification is an important step in your career, but it's not the end of your responsibilities as a CCNA! When you work with computer networks, you've got to be continually learning and staying up on the latest technologies and changes in the field. Part of this responsibility is keeping your CCNA current by meeting Cisco's recertification requirements.
Cisco requires CCNAs to recertify once every three years. While most CCNAs will move on to the CCNP in that time, if you choose not to you must meet certain requirements in order to keep your CCNA valid. Cisco does this to ensure that CCNAs keep their networking knowledge current, which in turn helps the CCNA certification valuable. And that's exactly what you want, since you worked so hard to earn your certification in the first place!
As of March 2006, there are five different options for recertifying as a CCNA. You can take and pass any of the following exams to renew your CCNA - the CCNA exam itself, the ICND exam, any 642 series exam, any Cisco Qualiied Specialist exam (except the Sales Specialist exams - those don't count!), or any CCIE Written Qualification exam.
With all these options, there's an option that's just right for you. Whether you just want to renew your CCNA or pursue a Specialist, CCNP, or CCIE certification, you can easily renew your CCNA along the way. Just don't forget that keeping up with Cisco's latest recertification requirements is your responsibility, and that's easy to do - just visit Cisco's "Learning And Events" section on their website. Cisco will tell you what you need to do to keep your certification, but it's up to you to keep up with certification program changes! Once your certification expires, it's gone, so get in the habit of visiting Cisco's website to make sure you're up to date on important recertification requirements.
Ccna Mcse Ccnp Certification Making Failure Work For You
Whether you're on the road to the CCNA, CCNP, MCSE, or you're on any other computer certification track, the odds are that sooner or later, you're going to fail an exam. It's happened to almost all of us, yours truly included. What you have to keep in mind in these times is that success is not a straight line. You've probably seen charts showing the growth of an industry or a business - you know, the ones that go from left to right, and look kind of jagged. The line goes up for a while, then down a bit, then up some more, then down a little.
The key? While every business has its setbacks, the net result is that the line goes up and progress is made. That's how you want your certification pursuit and your career to go as well - upward!
I'm not asking you to be happy about failing an exam. You're allowed to get mad for a few minutes, vow to never take another exam again, and be disappointed. What you're not allowed to do is stay that way.
If you put your books away in a fit of anger, get them out. If you took some time off, it's time to get back to work. Again, there's nothing wrong with being unhappy about failing an exam. It's how you handle that failure that counts. No inventor, executive, or entrepreneur has ever been right 100% of the time. Learn something from your failure. Was your study time quality study time? Did you get some hands-on practice with the technology you're studying? Asking yourself these questions can be tough, but it can be highly valuable in making sure you don't fail the next time. And there must be a next time - because the one thing you cannot do is quit.
Besides, take it from someone who's been there - your temporary failure makes your eventual success that much sweeter.
Cisco Ccnp Bsci Exam Tutorial Rip Update Packet Authentication
When you earned your CCNA, you thought you learned everything there is to know about RIP. Close, but not quite! There are some additional details you need to know to pass the BSCI exam and get one step closer to the CCNP exam, and one of those involves RIP update packet authentication.
You're familiar with some advantages of using RIPv2 over RIPv1, support for VLSM chief among them. But one advantage that you're not introduced to in your CCNA studies is the ability to configure routing update packet authentication.
You have two options, clear text and MD5. Clear text is just that - a clear text password that is visible by anyone who can pick a packet off the wire. If you're going to go to the trouble of configuring update authentication, you should use MD5. The MD stands for "Message Digest", and this is the algorithm that produces the hash value for the password that will be contained in the update packets.
Not only must the routers agree on the password, they must agree on the authentication method. If one router sends an MD5-hashed password to another router that is configured for clear-text authentication, the update will not be accepted. debug ip rip is a great command for troubleshooting authenticated updates.
R1, R2, and R3 are running RIP over a frame relay cloud. Here is how RIP authentication would be configured on these three routers.
R1(config)#key chain RIP
R1(config-if)#ip rip authentication mode text
R1(config-if)#ip rip authentication key-chain RIP
R2(config)#key chain RIP
R2(config-subif)#ip rip authentication mode text
R2(config-subif)#ip rip authentication key-chain RIP
R3(config)#key chain RIP
R3(config-subif)#ip rip authentication mode text
R3(config-subif)#ip rip authentication key-chain RIP
To use MD5 authentication rather than clear-text, simply replace the word "text" in the ip rip authentication mode command with md5.
Here's what a successfully authentication RIPv2 packet looks like, courtesy of debug ip rip. Clear-text authentication is in effect and the password is "cisco".
3d04h: RIP: received packet with text authentication cisco
3d04h: RIP: received v2 update from 126.96.36.199 on Ethernet0
3d04h: 188.8.131.52/8 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops
3d04h: 184.108.40.206/24 via 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops
Here's what it looks like when the remote device is set for MD5 authentication and the local router is set for clear-text. You'll also see this message if the password itself is incorrect.
3d04h: RIP: ignored v2 packet from 220.127.116.11 (invalid authentication)
"Debug ip rip" may be a simple command as compared to the debugs for other protocols. but it's also a very powerful debug. Start using debugs as early as possible in your Cisco studies to learn how router commands really work!
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